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  • 1.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergman, Sixten
    Consultant, Rönnvägen 1 A, 507 71 Gånghester, Sweden.
    Hoffmann, Christian
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Paulus, Eberhard
    Baur Gmbh, Austria.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Traceable measurement of dielectric dissipation factor at Very Low Frequency2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Very Low Frequency (VLF) tests are often used for after-laying tests of power cables since the reactive power demand is much lower at VLF than at 50 Hz. In order to augment the usefulness of the test, it is often complemented by a measurement of dielectric dissipation factor (tan ), where the acceptance of the tested object is based on this measurement. A traceability chain for dissipation factor at high voltage and very low frequency has as yet not been recognized by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM), which results in difficulties to prove the quality of the measurement. The measurement is complicated by the limited range of the current in the test object that can be resolved by available high voltage test equipment, thus limiting the possible choices of reference systems. A novel reference measuring system that can fulfil these needs has been developed at SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden in the capacity as National Measurement Institute. The traceability of the system to National Standards of Measurement is ensured by careful scientific work and analyses. This measuring system has the ability to measure dissipation factor at 0.1 Hz in the voltage range from 0.5 kV up to 50 kV with an uncertainty better than 0.004 %.

  • 2.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Hällström, J
    Dedeoglu, S
    Houtzager, E
    lucas, W
    Merev, A
    Weber, C
    Design of a wideband HVDC reference divider2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 207-208p. 207-208Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hällström, Jari
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Evaluation of step response of transient recorders for lightning impulse2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High voltage equipment will be subjected to several types of electrical stress during operation. A battery of factory tests is defined to ensure that the equipment will perform satisfactorily in service. One of the crucial tests is to apply a simulated lighting impulse as standardised to a double-exponential impulse with at front time of 1.2 µs (± 30 %) and a time to half value of 50 µs (± 20 %). Although this wave-shape only approximates natural lightning, there is a solid body of experience within industry, proving that reliability of equipment in service is adequately proven by the standard waveform. It is however crucial for consistency of results that the both voltage level and wave-shape are correctly measured. This paper discusses the requirements and performance of the recording instruments used, leaving the properties of high voltage impulse dividers outside the discussion. The requirements for the recording instrument – transient recorder – are given in IEC 61083-1. The standard provides requirements for, and/or tests to verify, that the recorder has moderately fast response, fast settling time, high resolution, linearity under dynamic conditions, high accuracy and reasonably low internal noise. This is partly in contrast to major trends in transient recorder development, where fast sampling and fast step response are prioritized ahead of high accuracy and fast settling without creeping response. We have therefore evaluated several commercially available recorders in order to find one with respectively flat and reasonably fast step response. In this campaign, a proprietary step generator based on the use of a mercury reed relay has been used. Evaluation of this device is submitted to ISH 2017. It has been found that the measured flatness of the step response directly after the step is a good first indicator of the performance of the transient recorder. This is identified in IEC 61083-1 clauses 1.5.2 and 1.5.3, as a requirement on stability of the recorded step from 0.5 T1min to T2max. For lightning impulse this means from 0.42 µs to 60 µs. For approved transient recorders the requirement is to be within 1 %. For reference transient recorders, a limit of not more than 0.5 % should be applied. Further proof of the accuracy of the transient recorder can be achieved by convolution of an ideal waveform with the recorded step response and analysing the resulting curve with lightning impulse parameter software. A third possibility is to make direct calibration of the transient recorder, using a calculable impulse calibrator. Several state-of-art transient recorders have been evaluated and the results show that only a few are suited for measurement of lightning impulse. Also, the variation of the performance between the ranges and channels of one instruments are significantly large. Both direct assessment of step response as well as result of convolution with a theoretical 0.84/50 µs impulse will be reported. The agreement with results obtained with a calculable impulse calibrator will be illustrated.

  • 4.
    Bergman, Anders
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nordlund, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Meisner, Johann
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Germany.
    Passon, Stephan
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt PTB, Germany.
    Hällström, Jari
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Lehtonen, Tapio
    VTT-MIKES, Finland.
    Characterization of a fast step generator2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lighting impulse measurements are made as a matter of routine in high voltage testing of high-voltage electrical equipment. The test is often decisive for acceptance of the equipment under test, and consequently proper and precise calibration of the measuring system is needed. The present work centres on the need to quantify the errors of reference measuring systems for lightning impulse. Scale factor determination at low frequency (or DC) is the starting point for this determination. The extrapolation from this frequency domain to the domain where microsecond pulses must be faithfully captured requires application either of methods in the frequency domain or in the time domain. Radio frequency measurements are only well defined for coaxial structures and at impedances in the range of 50 O or thereabouts, making them difficult to apply to the large structures of high-voltage measuring systems. The converse method in the time domain is to apply a Dirac impulse to the system and calculate the response to an assumed input signal by convolution. A true Dirac pulse is not readily available and in practice the applied pulse is a step voltage, which is then derived with respect to time and convolved with the applied signal to obtain the response of the measuring system. The step generator used for this purpose should have very fast front without oscillations. The intent is to achieve a close approximation of an ideal step function, which when derived with respect to time, yields the impulse response of a tested system. A necessary prerequisite is that the step is much steeper than the lightning impulse, and is flat after the step on times much longer than the impulse. The ideal switch element in such a step generator should have infinite resistance and zero capacitance in the off-state, very fast switching to on-state and very low resistance in on-state. The mercury wetted reed switch has often been used for this purpose since it has good characteristics in all these respects. Few, if any, electronic components exhibit competitive advantages compared to the reed switch. The relative lack of parasitic effects means that it is close to being an ideal device. Based on earlier experiences by the authors, a new design has been developed with focus on electrical screening and coaxial design in order to realise a step generator that works into a high impedance instrument. Considerable work has been performed to characterise the new device with regard to steepness of step and most importantly, to voltage stability after the step. The most demanding part of this work has been to separate the performance of the switch from that of the oscilloscope. Findings indicate that the step rise-time is less than 0.5 ns, and settling to within 0.5 % within 10 ns.

  • 5.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Qualifying a Transient Recorder for Traceable Measurements of Very Fast Transients2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the qualification of a transient recorder used in a system for traceable measurements of Very Fast Transients. The system is designed for traceable measurements of VFT up to 100 kV, having a target settling time < 10 ns, a peak voltage error < 1\%, and a front time error < 5\%. The rise time of the digitizer is 1.6 ns at 50Ω and 1.2 ns at 1 MΩ. Step responses show settling times of 4.5 ns. A convolution method gives a peak voltage error of 0.12% and a front time error of 4.1% for 4.5ns front times. © 2018 IEEE.

  • 6.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Selection and characterization of resistors for a HVDC reference divider2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 197-198Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hallstrom, J.
    Kharezy, M.
    Nieminen, T.
    Traceability and characterization of a 1000 kV HVDC reference divider2014In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2014, p. 780-781Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characterization of a resistive HVDC reference divider and methods to establish a traceability. The divider is designed for use as a laboratory reference for calibration of HVDC measuring systems up to 1000 kV. Targeting a measurement uncertainty of 20 ppm at full voltage has put a focus on the temperature coefficients of the resistors, elimination of humidity dependence and control of leakage currents in the high voltage arm. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 8.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hällström, Jari
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Kharezy, Mohammad
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nieminen, Tatu
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Traceability and Characterization of a 1000 kV HVDC Reference Divider2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 1709-1715, article id 7100891Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the characterization of a resistive high-voltage dc (HVDC) reference divider and methods to establish traceability. The divider is designed for use as a laboratory reference for calibration of HVDC measuring systems up to 1000 kV. Targeting a measurement uncertainty of 20 μV/V at full voltage has put a focus on the temperature coefficients of the resistors, elimination of humidity dependence, and control of leakage currents in the high-voltage arm. A scale factor calibration against a 50 kV divider at 10 kV leads to an expanded uncertainty of 15 μV/V.

  • 9.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Kharezy, M.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hällström, J.
    Characterization of dielectric properties of insulating materials for use in an HVDC reference divider2012In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2012, p. 80-81Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dielectric properties of polyethylene (PE), polyoxymethylene (POM) and ceramic glass (MACOR) are compared. Their suitability to act as a support for a resistor chain in a wideband HVDC reference divider is characterized. The support material forms a parallel capacitance to the resistive resistor chain, and a bandwidth of more than 100 kHz is needed. The frequency dependence of dielectric constant has been measured in the range 20 - 100 kHz. The depolarization current of these materials was measured to be at least 6 orders of magnitude lower than the current through the resistive chain. Neither MACOR nor PE does build up space charge which POM does. Possessing the highest dielectric constant makes MACOR well suited for the application. © 2012 IEEE.

  • 10. Hallstrom, J.
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Dedeoglu, S.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Houtzager, E.
    Lehtonen, T.
    Kluss, J.
    Lucas, W.
    Merev, A.
    Nieminen, T.
    Meisner, J.
    Suomalainen, E. -P
    Schmidt, M.
    Weber, C.
    Performance of a modular wideband 1000 kV HVDC reference divider2014In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2014, p. 782-783Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the performance of a wideband HVDC reference divider. The divider concept is a shielded modular divider and it is intended for traceable calibration of HVDC measuring systems up to 1000 kV in customers' laboratories. The first priority in the design was the accuracy of HVDC measurements. In addition, the divider was designed to have wide bandwidth, both to enable measurement of ripple voltages and to prevent damage during possible flashovers. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 11. Hammarqvist, M.
    et al.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wolbert, J.
    Blennow, J.
    Gubanski, S. M.
    Improvement of frequency response for a zero-flux current measuring system2014In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), 2014, p. 618-619Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Magnetic zero-flux current transformers are widely utilized to measure AC and DC electrical currents. To improve the AC characteristics between 10 Hz and 100 kHz, a method is proposed to evaluate adjustments in the circuitry; increase of the amplification in the AC feed-back circuit and introduction of an external coaxial read-out shunt resistor. The method is generally applicable and includes a coaxial current path within the entire reference system and traceability to national standards. The AC working range is extended from about 1 kHz to about 3 kHz. Outside the nominal AC working range, the scale factor variation is reduced from 45 % to 3.5% and the phase angle error offset changes from ca 5.8 μs to below 0.3 μs. © 2014 IEEE.

  • 12. Hällström, J.
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Dedeoǧlu, S.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Houtzager, E.
    Lucas, W.
    Merev, A.
    Meisner, J.
    Schmidt, M.
    Suomalainen, E. -P
    Weber, C.
    Performance of a wideband 200-kV HVDC reference divider module2014In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 63, no 9, p. 2264-2270, article id 6754159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and performance of a wideband high-voltage dc (HVDC) reference divider module. The module has a nominal voltage of 200 kV, and it has been designed so that a number of modules can be stacked to extend voltages up to 1000 kV. The module, or a stack of modules, will be used for traceable calibration of HVDC measuring systems in customers' laboratories. The first priority in the design was the accuracy of HVDC measurements. In addition, the divider was designed to have wide bandwidth, both to enable measurement of ripple voltages and to prevent damage during possible flashovers. 0018-9456 © 2014 IEEE.

  • 13.
    Hällström, Jari
    et al.
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Dedeoğlu, Serkan
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Houtzager, Ernest
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Klüss, Joni
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lehtonen, Tapio
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Lucas, Wolfgang
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Meisner, Johann
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Merev, Ahmet
    TÜBİTAK UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Nieminen, Tatu
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Schmidt, Matthias
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Suomalainen, Esa-Pekka
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Finland.
    Weber, Christian
    Trench Switzerland and France, France.
    Performance of a Modular Wideband HVDC Reference Divider for Voltages up to 1000 kV2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 1390-1397, article id 7063966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the design and performance of a modular wideband high-voltage dc (HVDC) reference divider with a ratio uncertainty of less than 0.005% at 1000 kV. The divider has a maximum nominal voltage of 1000 kV when five 200-kV modules are stacked on top of each other. The divider is used for traceable calibration of HVDC measuring systems in customers' laboratories. The first priority in the design was the accuracy of HVDC measurements. In addition, the divider was designed to have wide bandwidth, both to enable measurement of ripple voltages and to prevent damage during possible flashovers.

  • 14.
    Klüss, Joni
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Hällström, Jari
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Optimization of field grading for a 1000 KV wide-band voltage divider2015In: Journal of Electrostatics, ISSN 0304-3886, E-ISSN 1873-5738, Vol. 73, p. 140-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An HVDC reference voltage divider has been designed for high accuracy and wide-band measurements up to 1000 kV. To maintain wide-band characteristics, field distribution must be optimized in order to minimize the response time of the divider. To compensate the stray capacitance, a capacitive path that surrounds the resistive reference divider is added to function as a shield. Optimal capacitance values producing a matched distribution are obtained using 3D FEM simulations. Factors affecting the performance of the divider are assessed by simulating multiple scenarios representing different practical considerations in real-life applications.

  • 15.
    Larzelere, W
    et al.
    Evergreen HV, USA.
    Hällström, J
    VTT, Finland.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Kluss, J
    Mississippi State University, USA.
    Li, Y
    National Measurement Institute, Australia.
    Zhou, L
    Hua Gao, China.
    MEASUREMENT OF THE INTERNAL INDUCTANCE OF IMPULSEVOLTAGE GENERATORS AND THE LIMITS OF LI FRONT TIMES2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent push to higher testing voltages for research and production tests onUHV system components rated above 800kV class has led to difficulties in achieving thestandard waveshapes as required by IEC60060 Parts 1 and 2 and other existing IEC,IEEE/ANSI and other standards. One of the limiting components in achieving themaximum capacitive loading on an impulse generator for standard lightning impulse fronttimes is the inductance of the circuit. The total inductance of the circuit is comprised ofthe internal inductance of the impulse generator and the inductance of the loop toconnect to the load. The higher the voltage class of test objects, the larger the loop,yielding more inductance that in turn, reduces the test capacitance that can be connectedand still remain inside the overshoot requirements of the standards. The internalinductance of the impulse generator is comprised of the wiring of the stages and thestage capacitor inductance and/or the inductance of the waveshaping resistors. Thispaper shows the results of methods to measure and calculate the internal inductance ofseveral impulse generators and we review the formulas for calculating the maximum loadof an impulse generator with a given internal inductance. We believe these methods givemore realistic values than adding up nameplate inductance values from an impulsegenerator. The paper also reviews the pros and cons of higher stage capacitances inimpulse generators to test larger loads that are ultimately limited by the circuit inductancevalue. The intent of this paper is to assist in the revision of future IEC and IEEE standardsfor impulse testing apparatus in the UHV range

  • 16. Li, Yi
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Larzelere, Bill
    Rickmann, Johannes
    Hauschild, Wolfgang
    Diaz, Ricardo
    Garnacho, Fernando
    McComb, Terry
    Zhang, Y
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Past, present and future of IEC and IEEE high-voltage and high current testing standards2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, IEC and IEEE have published a number of revised and new standards for high-voltage and high-current testing. Significant changes and additions have been introduced to these revised and new standards. CIGRE WG D1.35 has developed a guide to give high-voltage test engineers a broader knowledge of how to apply the latest high-voltage and high-current testing standards. The guide presents a brief account of the history of these standards with the aim to allow readers to gain a better appreciation of the technical background followed by sections summarize the major changes made to the standards in their latest revisions to provide a general picture of the revisions. Finally, some discussion is given on the practical implications of these changes. Practical examples are provided to illustrate some of the new techniques and new procedures. The guide also lists areas of possible improvements to the standards for future revisions.

  • 17.
    Meisner, J.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Hallstrom, J.
    VTT, Finland.
    Passon, S.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Havunen, J.
    VTT, Finland.
    Bergman, Allan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Nordlund, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Intercomparison of reference measuring systems for lightning impulses between three National Metrology Institutes2018In: ICHVE 2018 - 2018 IEEE International Conference on High Voltage Engineering and Application, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In one of the largest and most extensive measurement campaigns to date, the measuring systems for lightning impulses (LI) of the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Germany (PTB), Sweden (RISE) and Finland (VTT MIKES) have been compared. In the high-voltage laboratory of PTB, lightning impulse comparisons were carried out at voltages up to 1500 kV. The test voltage, front time, time to half-value and the relative overshoot magnitude of seven systems have been compared. The results confirm the capabilities and uncertainties of the participating metrology institutes and even enable an improvement of those. Finally, the question, whether an uncertainty of less than 0.5 % for peak values and 1 % for time parameters for NMI reference measuring systems for a lightning impulse up to at least 800 kV is achievable, will be addressed.

  • 18. Wright, P
    et al.
    Bergman, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Elg, Alf Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Flood, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Clarkson, P.
    Herzberg, K.
    Onsite Measurements for Power-Quality Estimation at the Sweden - Poland HVDC Link2014In: IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery, ISSN 0885-8977, E-ISSN 1937-4208, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 472-479Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A discussion of the power-quality (PQ) aspects of HVDC systems is given, in particular, harmonic aspects. This is followed by a description of the apparatus and their installation as part of an onsite measurement campaign at the Sternö;, classical HVDC station on the SwePol HVDC link. PQ results are presented, including the current and voltage characteristics of the station, converter harmonics, filtered harmonics, noncharacteristic harmonics, switch-on current, and system unbalance.

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