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  • 1.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Assessing seafood nutritional diversity together with climate impacts informs more comprehensive dietary advice2022In: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood holds promise for helping meet nutritional needs at a low climate impact. Here, we assess the nutrient density and greenhouse gas emissions, weighted by production method, that result from fishing and farming of globally important species. The highest nutrient benefit at the lowest emissions is achieved by consuming wild-caught small pelagic and salmonid species, and farmed bivalves like mussels and oysters. Many but not all seafood species provide more nutrition at lower emissions than land animal proteins, especially red meat, but large differences exist, even within species groups and species, depending on production method. Which nutrients contribute to nutrient density differs between seafoods, as do the nutrient needs of population groups within and between countries or regions. Based on the patterns found in nutritional attributes and climate impact, we recommend refocusing and tailoring production and consumption patterns towards species and production methods with improved nutrition and climate performance, taking into account specific nutritional needs and emission reduction goals. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 2.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna-Karin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish Food Agency, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Systematic evaluation of nutrition indicators for use within food LCA studies2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 8992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Expressing the environmental impact of foods in relation to the nutritional quality is a promising approach in the search for methods integrating interdisciplinary sustainability perspectives. However, the lack of standardized methods regarding how to include nutrient metrics can lead to unharmonized results difficult to interpret. We evaluated nutrient density indexes by systematically assessing the role of methodological variables with the purpose of identifying the index able to rank foods with the highest coherence with the Swedish dietary guidelines. Among 45 variants of the nutrient density index NRF (Nutrient Rich Food), a Sweden-tailored NRF11.3 index, including 11 desirable nutrients and 3 undesirable nutrients, calculated per portion size or 100 kcal with the application of weighting, ranked foods most coherently with the guidelines. This index is suggested to be suitable as complementary functional unit (FU) in comparative life cycle assessment (LCA) studies across food categories. The results clarify implications of methodological choices when calculating nutrient density of foods and offer guidance to LCA researchers on which nutrition metric to use when integrating nutritional aspects in food LCA. © 2020 by the authors.

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  • 3.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Moshtaghian, Hanieh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nutritional assessment of plant-based meat analogues on the Swedish market2022In: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, ISSN 0963-7486, E-ISSN 1465-3478, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 889-901Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nutritional quality of 142 plant-based meat analogues (PBMAs) on the Swedish market were assessed by nutritional contribution (NC) to recommended nutrient intake, three labelling systems (Keyhole, Nutri-Score, nutrition claims) and comparisons to meat references. Based on median (min-max) NC for macronutrients, PBMAs in general appeared as healthy options to meat due to higher NC per 100 g for fibre [PBMAs: 15% (1-33%) vs meat: 0% (0-2%)] and lower NC for saturated fat [PBMAs: 4% (0-59%) vs meat: 15% (1-51%)]. The NC per 100 g for salt was substantial for both PBMAs [25% (5-52%)] and meat [24% (2-55%)]. Limited data for micronutrients indicated that PBMAs are higher in iron compared to meat. Nutrition quality varied both between and within product categories. Mince, bite/fillet and nugget analogues were the main healthier categories, according to labelling systems. Bioavailability of iron, protein quality and effects of processing are important future aspects to consider. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 4.
    Guo, Annie
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Strid, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Choice of health metrics for combined health and environmental assessment of foods and diets: A systematic review of methods2022In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 365, article id 132622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence-based scientific methods combining health and environmental perspectives are urgently required to support policy decisions and recommendations for more sustainable food systems. This review provides a systematic overview of health metrics and methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets. Key methodological considerations of importance for best practices are highlighted as well as trends over the past decade, and future research needs. A systematic literature review was performed in the databases Scopus, Dimensions and Pub Med. Eligible articles combined health impact and environmental assessment of food and were published in peer-reviewed scientific journals between 2010 and 2020. Differences in method choices were highlighted based on study approach, dietary baseline data, dietary exposure, dietary-related health outcome, method for health assessment, choice of health metric, environmental outcome and method for combined health and environmental assessment. A total of 33 articles using nine different health metrics in combination with environmental assessment of foods were identified. Avoided, averted, delayed or preventable deaths or cases, followed by disability- or quality-adjusted life years, and hazard ratio were the health metrics most commonly used. Three principal methods to combine health and environmental assessment of foods and diets were identified; parallel assessment (n = 26), scaled assessment (n = 7) and integrated assessment (n = 1). Method choices affecting reliability and uncertainty, as well as suitability for different purposes were described. Over the past decade, a strong acceleration in the research field of combined health and environmental assessment of food was noted, both regarding number of published studies and method development for more holistic sustainability assessments. Transition towards more sustainable food choices offers great potential to improve public health and reduce environmental impact from the food system. This review identified several health metrics that are suitable for use in methods combining health and environmental dimensions when studying the sustainability of food systems. For best practices, improved knowledge on how multi-criteria sustainability indicators can be assessed, communicated and implemented by different actors along the food supply chain is required. © 2022 The Authors

  • 5.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sanders, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Trigo, João P
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Environmental and nutritional perspectives of algae2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae have gained increasing attention as promising food from both an environmental and nutritional perspective. However, current understanding is still limited. This report summarizes the status of knowledge for this emerging sector, focusing on micro- and macroalgae species most relevant for Europe (particularly Sweden). Environmental impacts, with focus on climate, are evaluated through literature reviews and analysis of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs), and nutritional potential in the form of data compilation and calculation of nutrient density scores. Overall, findings reveal that current data is incomplete and of poor representativeness. Most LCAs are not performed on commercial production, but at pilot or experimental scale, why often only indicative drivers for greenhouse gas emissions may be identified. For microalgae, there is a wide diversity of production systems in different conditions across the globe. Based on the data at hand, energy use is a key hotspot across most studies for this production, driven by the requirements of different types of systems and species, and to location. For macroalgae production, despite poor representativeness of especially green and red macroalgae, key aspects for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions are associated with energy consumption and use of materials for farming such as ropes. No LCA exists on wild harvested macroalgae, representing the largest production volume in Europe (>95%); large-scale wild harvest may also be associated with risks to ecosystems unless suitable management is enforced. Significant data gaps also exist in food composition databases regarding nutrient and heavy metal content in algae (e.g., vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids). When available, nutrient content was found to be highly variable within and across species, but overall, the evaluation of nutritional quality indicated that algae may be a considerable source of minerals and vitamin B12. The contribution of fiber and protein is generally minimal in a 5 g dry weight portion of macroalgae; microalgae may have higher protein content, and also fat. However, excessive amounts of iodine and several heavy metals may be represented even in very small amounts of unprocessed macroalgae. In summary, the suggested potential of farmed algae as a sustainable food resource is overall strengthened by its generally low carbon footprint during production compared to other food raw materials. However, more input data are needed to fill data gaps regarding both environmental impacts and nutrient quality, and effects from different processing, as well as improved understanding of nutrient and contaminant bioavailability. Pending further research, careful considerations of risks and benefits associated with algae production and consumption should be applied.

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  • 6.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Trigo, João P.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nutritional and toxicological characteristics of Saccharina latissima, Ulva fenestrata, Ulva intestinalis, and Ulva rigida: a review2023In: International journal of food properties, ISSN 1094-2912, E-ISSN 1532-2386, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 2349-2378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Nutrient and toxicant levels as well as their bioavailability in S. latissima and Ulva species (fenestrata, intestinalis, rigida) were reviewed. Nutritional quality was assessed by nutrient contribution to daily reference intake (DRI) per portion (5 g dry weight), nutrient density score NRF21.3, and comparisons to reference foods. Toxicological assessments comprised tolerable daily intake (TDI)-levels. Based on mean %DRI per portion, S. latissima and Ulva species were good sources (%DRI >15) of calcium, magnesium, iron, selenium, and vitamin B12. Mean %DRI was <10% for fiber, sodium, and protein. Toxicological concerns were mainly due to iodine (mean %TDI per portion: 3160% for S. latissima and 41–91% for Ulva species). Mean %TDIs for inorganic arsenic, cadmium, and lead were <20% for S. latissima and 9–97%, 6–15%, and 21–46%, for the selected Ulva species, respectively. Bioavailability data were scarce and is, together with nutritional impact of processing, an important aspect to address in future studies.

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  • 7.
    Landquist, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Scenarier för minskad klimatpåverkan från livsmedel i Västra Götaland 20302019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Västra Götaland har ambitiösa mål att minska klimatavtrycket från västsvenskarnas konsumtion av olika varor och tjänster. Matkonsumtionens klimatavtryck per person ökade med 20 procent mellan 1980 och 2010. Denna studie har utforskat möjligheterna att minska matkonsumtionens klimatpåverkan i Västra Götaland med 30 procent från år 2010 till år 2030.

    Studien har gjorts med scenariometodik, där tre olika scenarier som var för sig innebär minskad klimatpåverkan från produktionen och/eller konsumtionen av livsmedel stude-rats var för sig, samt kombinerats i ett fjärde scenario.

    Följande scenarier har studerats:

    1. Mer klimatsmart livsmedelsproduktion 2030

    2. Halverat livsmedelssvinn 2030

    3. Mer klimatsmart livsmedelskonsumtion 2030

    4. Kombination av scenario 1, 2 och 3

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  • 8.
    Mehlig, Kirsten
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Irene
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hunsberger, Monica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lissner, Lauren
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Secular trends in diet-related greenhouse gas emission estimates since 2000 - a shift towards sustainable diets in Sweden2021In: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, E-ISSN 1475-2727, Vol. 24, no 12, p. 3916-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: This study examines secular changes in diet-related greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) in younger and older Swedish adults, since the turn of this century. Setting: The municipality of Gothenburg, in western Sweden. Design: Two cross-sectional health examination surveys were conducted in 2001-04 (T1) and 2014-18 (T2). At both times, an 86-item food frequency questionnaire was embedded in the survey. From the food frequencies and age-standardized portion sizes, GHGE estimates (kg CO2e/year) were calculated. GHGE was modeled as a function of time period and covariates, for five distinct age groups. Participants: Women and men aged 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64 and 65-75 were randomly selected from the population registry and recruited for examinations. After exclusion of participants with incomplete dietary data, the analytic sample consisted of 2569 individuals at T1 and 2119 at T2. Results: Lower dietary GHGE scores were observed at T2 compared to T1, in each age group, adjusting for sex, body mass index, and education. The largest differences in GHGE were observed in the youngest age group (circa 30% reduction). Decreasing trends in GHGE from animal-based foods were observed at all ages and were accompanied by smaller increases from plant-based sources in younger groups only. At all ages, GHGE from discretionary foods decreased, and prevalence of overweight remained stable. Conclusions: Optimal dietary trends should support both human health and planetary health. Our results suggest that Swedish adults have moved in this direction, e.g. through less intake of red meat products and stable weight status.

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  • 9.
    Moshtaghian, Hanieh
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Nutritional profile of plant-based dairy alternatives in the Swedish market2024In: Current Research in Food Science, ISSN 2665-9271, Vol. 8, article id 100712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for plant-based dairy alternatives is growing; therefore, focusing on the nutritional quality of these products is important. This study evaluates the nutritional profile of plant-based alternatives to milk, yoghurt, cheese, cream, ice cream and fat spread in the Swedish market and compares them to corresponding dairy products. The nutritional quality of organic vs non-organic and plain vs flavoured plant-based milk and yoghurt alternatives was also assessed. Nutritional data for 222 plant-based dairy alternatives were collected from the manufacturers’ websites, and data for corresponding dairy products were obtained from the Swedish Food Composition Database. Plant-based dairy alternatives had higher fibre content than dairy products, while their protein content was lower, except for soy-based products. The saturated fat content of plant-based dairy alternatives was similar to or lower than dairy products, except for coconut-based yoghurt and plant-fat-based cheese. Their energy content was also similar to or lower than dairy products, except for coconut-based yoghurt, plant-based fat spread and plant-based ice cream, which contained higher energy than yoghurt, blended margarine, and ice cream, respectively. The micronutrient fortification was mainly in plant-based milk, yoghurt, and cheese alternatives; thus, compared to dairy, they had similar or higher vitamins D, B2, and B12 (except in plant-based milk alternatives), calcium and iodine content. Furthermore, organic plant-based milk and yoghurt alternatives had a lower micronutrient content (e.g., vitamins B2 and B12, iodine and calcium) except for vitamin D than non-organic varieties. Flavoured plant-based milk and yoghurt alternatives were higher in energy and total sugar than plain varieties. In summary, plant-based dairy alternatives have nutritional strengths and weaknesses compared to dairy products that should be considered when replacing dairy. 

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  • 10.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sjons, Josefin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sustainability indicators for foods benefiting climate and health2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 3621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New methods for combined evaluation of nutritional and environmental aspects of food products are needed to enable a transformation of dietary guidelines integrating both health and environmental perspectives. We evaluated two sustainability aspects; nutrition and climate im-pact, of foods commonly consumed in Sweden and the implications of using parallel or integrated assessments of these two aspects, also discussing the usability and suitability of these food sustain-ability indicators in relation to Swedish dietary guidelines, industry food product development, and consumer communication. There were large differences in both nutrient density and climate impact among the different foods. The parallel assessment easily visualized synergies and trade-offs between these two sustainability aspects for the different foods. Coherence with dietary guidelines was good, and suitability and usability deemed satisfying. The integrated indicator showed better coherence with dietary guidelines than indicators based solely on nutrient density or climate impact; however, the difficulty to interpret the score limits its usability in product development and consumer communication. With both methods, advantageous as well as less advantageous plant-based and animal-based food alternatives were suggested. The two alternative methods evaluated could serve as useful tools to drive individual and societal development towards more sustainable food production and consumption. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 11.
    Strid, Anna
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Winkvist, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Umeå University, Sweden.
    Diets benefiting health and climate relate to longevity in northern Sweden.2021In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0002-9165, E-ISSN 1938-3207, Vol. 114, no 2, p. 515-529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Diets combining adequate nutritional quality and low climate impact are highly needed for human and planet health. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to 1) evaluate nutrient density indexes' ability to predict mortality, and 2) assess the effects of diets varying in nutrient density and climate impact on total mortality. METHODS: Dietary data from 49,124 women and 47,651 men aged 35-65 y in the population-based prospective study Västerbotten Intervention Programme (Sweden) were used. Greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) were estimated using data from life cycle assessments. Fifteen variants of nutrient density indexes were evaluated and the index that best predicted mortality was used to estimate participants' nutrient density. GHGEs and nutrient density were adjusted for energy intakes. Total mortality risk was estimated by Cox proportional hazards models for 4 groups of women and men, respectively, i.e., higher nutrient density, lower climate impact (HNutr/LClim); higher nutrient density, higher climate impact (HNutr/HClim); lower nutrient density, lower climate impact (LNutr/LClim); and lower nutrient density, higher climate impact (LNutr/HClim-reference group). RESULTS: NRF11.3, a Sweden-adapted variant of the Nutrient Rich Foods index, was identified to have the best ability to predict mortality in the study population. Median follow-up times for women and men were 16.0 and 14.7 y, respectively. For women a significantly lower mortality risk was found for HNutr/LClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.96; P = 0.008) and HNutr/HClim (HR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.78, 0.97; P = 0.011) than for LNutr/HClim. Among men LNutr/LClim had a significantly higher mortality risk (HR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.21; P = 0.033) than LNutr/HClim. CONCLUSIONS: Diets beneficial for both health and climate are feasible and associated with lower mortality risk in women. Further studies are needed to understand how men may transition into diets that are more sustainable from a combined health and climate perspective.

  • 12.
    Sundin, Niina
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Rosell, Magdalena
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Mattias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    The climate impact of excess food intake - An avoidable environmental burden2021In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 174, article id 105777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental impacts of food systems and the health consequences of excess food intake are well-acknowledged global issues. However, the climate impact of excess food intake, or metabolic food waste, has received less attention. This study estimated the amount of metabolic food waste and its climate impact in Sweden. Excess food intake was estimated based on the adult overweight and obesity prevalence in Sweden, by applying two alternative calculation methods, one based on the energy content of excess body fat, and the other based on the excess energy intake due to excess body fat. These caloric values were translated to food consumption patterns according to three dietary scenarios and their climate impact estimated based on carbon footprint data. The results showed that the annual amount of metabolic food waste represented 480–710 kt of food in Sweden and, regardless of dietary scenario, exceeded the annual amount of avoidable household food waste. The estimated greenhouse gas emissions from the metabolic food waste amounted up to 1.2 Mt CO2e annually, accounting for approximately 2% of the total and 10% of the food-related climate impact in Sweden. This study confirms the magnitude of the hidden climate cost of excess food intake on a national level and emphasizes the importance of taking this aspect into consideration in actions to improve both planetary and human health. Although applied to the Swedish context, the methodology used in the present study could also be used to assess the environmental impact of excess food intake in other countries globally.

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