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  • 1.
    Cea, B.
    et al.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Fraboulet, I.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Feuger, O.
    Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques, France.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Migliavacca, G.
    Innovhub Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria S.r.l, Italy.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Development and Evaluation of an Innovative Method Based on Dilution to Sample Solid and Condensable Fractions of Particles Emitted by Residential Wood Combustion2021In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 35, no 23, p. 19705-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative and simple method based on dilution, named as the dilution chamber (DC), allowing the measurement of solid and condensable fractions of particulate matter emitted by residential wood combustion appliances has been developed, and its performances have been evaluated. The DC method was then tested by five European institutes (Ineris, ISSI/ENEA, DTI, and RISE) on advanced residential wood log/pellet stoves, under nominal output and low output combustion conditions and using different fuel types. The aim of the study was to evaluate the capability of the DC method to collect the condensable fraction. The DC method was compared with another manual method used to collect the solid and condensable fractions at the same time, the dilution tunnel (DT), on four sampling platforms. A third method, a combining heated filter and impinger filled in with isopropanol collection (SPC-IPA), was also used by Ineris only for comparison with the DC method. PM measurements based on the DC method globally showed a linear correlation with PM measurements based on DT (R2 ranged between 0.81 and 0.99, p < 0.05) specifically for the residential wood stoves under low output conditions when the condensable fraction contributes the most. An analysis and quantification of PAHs related to the total mass of PM of samples taken by the DC method and performed by ENEA/ISSI showed that it produces a condensation effect of semivolatile species comparable or even greater than the DT method. PM emission factors calculated from PM measurements based on the DC method were (i) about 2- to 20-fold higher for the residential wood stoves (EF ranged between 201 to 2420 g GJ-1) compared to those obtained for the residential pellet stoves (EF ranged between 108 to 556 g GJ-1) and (ii) of the same magnitude of PM emission factors from the literature or the EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook.

  • 2.
    Dahlin, Sandra
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Marita
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Liljegren Bergman, Susanna
    Princeton University, US.
    Bengtsson, Emelie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bernasek, Steven L.
    Princeton University, US.
    Pettersson, Lars J.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Multivariate analysis of the effect of biodiesel-derived contaminants on V2O5-WO3/TiO2 SCR catalysts2016In: Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, ISSN 0926-3373, E-ISSN 1873-3883, Vol. 183, p. 377-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of biodiesel-derived contaminants on vanadia-based NH3-SCR catalysts in heavy-duty exhaust aftertreatment. The aim was to study, not only the effect of single contaminants on the catalyst performance, but also of possible interaction effects between poisons.The effect of six potential catalyst poisons (Na, K, Mg, P, S and Zn) was evaluated using an experimental design and multivariate data analysis. Monolithic V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts were subjected to accelerated laboratory-scale aging, where the six contaminants were fed simultaneously using a wet impregnation method. In addition to NOx conversion tests, the catalysts were characterized by means of ICP-OES, SEM-EDX, XPS, N2 physisorption and NH3-TPD. The lab-aged samples were compared to fresh and vehicle-aged catalysts.The accelerated aging method showed good reproducibility and gave rise to surface compounds similar to those found in vehicle-aged catalysts. Despite plausible differences regarding penetration depth of the contaminants into the walls of the catalyst, the aging method appears to be an efficient way to point out significant chemical poisons.The model obtained from the experimental design was found to correlate well with the experimental data and can therefore be used to predict effects of the various poisons and poison interactions. Significant effects on the NO. x conversion were found for P, S, Na, Mg and K as well as for the interactions P. ×. Na, P. ×. K and S. ×. Na. A poisoning effect was found for Mg, Na, K, P. ×. K, and P. ×. Na, where Na and K exhibited the strongest poisoning effect. The deactivating effect of alkali was lowered in the presence of phosphorus and sulfur, which is explained by the formation of phosphates and sulfates, preventing the interaction of the alkali metals with the vanadia active sites.

  • 3.
    Fraboulet, I.
    et al.
    INERIS, France.
    Del-Gratta, F.
    INERIS, France.
    Andersen, J. S.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Warming-Jespersen, M. G.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Hugony, F.
    ENEA National Agency for New Technologies, Italy.
    Morreale, C.
    eINNOVHUB Stazioni Sperimentali per l'Industria s.r.l, Italy.
    European inter-comparison campaigns on pm and OGCS atmospheric emissions test methods from residential wood combustion using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases2020In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2020, p. 812-816Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 20/20/20 target for Europe, will lead to an increased use of biomass combustion, e.g. using wood logs and wood pellets. On the other hand, the Air Quality Directive (2008/50/EC) lies down stringent requirements on maximum levels of particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air. Domestic wood combustion emits particulate matter (PM) which are of concern to authorities and the public. Several different methods of PM measurements have historically been used to perform type testing of solid fuelled residential appliances and boilers. This method shall give repeatable results that are of a guaranteed traceable accuracy, and by this means give the consumer reliable information on the suitability of a particular appliance or boiler. One of the main methods used in Europe consists of sampling the solid fraction of aerosols using a heated filter, this method does not include the collection of the condensable fraction, OGC measurements are performed using FID method.The aim of this work carried out within the EMPIR IMPRESS2 Project was to evaluate the performances of this method by performing intercomparisons using a stack simulator generating real biomass combustion gases.

  • 4.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Gustavsson, Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Emissions of particles and organic compounds from small and medium scaled biomass combustion2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass for domestic heating is common in some parts of the world. Biomass is a Renewable Energy Source (RES) and it is considered as a climate friendly fuel since it is a CO

    2 neutral energy source. However, combustion of wood biomass in the residential sector is a main contributor to pollution of the ambient air, mainly in terms of fine particles. This is a severe health problem and needs to be addressed to improve the air quality. There is also a gap between calculated air quality particle concentrations using the available emission data, measured at the stack, that needs to be addressed. The concentrations of organic particles in the atmosphere are higher than expected from reported emission factors, but there is also a gap between emission factors registered in different countries, emphasising the need of similar standards for individual countries, or at least more information around the emission data.

    The residential combustion of wood biomasses is characterized by incomplete processes leading to high concentrations of gases and particles containing both organic and inorganic substances. The formation of organic particles is a temperature dependent process where Semi Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC) condense on solid particles or form particles after nucleation. Thus, the temperature where particle emissions are measured is crucial to the result. There are many different standard methods for the measurement of combustion generated particle emission, some differ between different combustion sources. Most standards focus on the most straight forward measurement methods, collecting particles directly from the hot fumes, while in other standards the particles collection is after a dilution of the exhaust gases, taking into account the condensation of organic gases.

    In particularly for residential biomass heating appliances there is no European harmonized standard for measuring particles and a few Member States provided with own method (to be performed during laboratory type testing). The methods are different each other: one method is adapted from the standard used to measure particles produced by big plant fed with fossil fuels (just collecting solid particles at high temperatures), the other method is based on the dilution of sampled gases to collect solid and condensed particles.

    The aim of the present work is to provide background information both on different emission standards used in combustion appliances and on the development of the particles from the combustion zone to the ambient air at a larger distance from the source. The development of the particles change the amount of particles originating form biomass combustion by both number and mass. Input data for this study is taken from the literature and from a survey sent to laboratories engaged in emission measurement from small to medium scaled biomass combustion facilities.

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  • 5.
    Johansson, Inge
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Jensen, Carl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    VIDAREUTVECKLING AV MODELL FÖR BERÄKNING AV REFERENSVÄRDE PMC I AVFALL2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets syfte är att bidra till en mer rättvisande bild av de direkta utsläppen från fossilt innehåll i avfall som eldas i avfallsenergianläggningar. Detta genom att vidareutveckla modellen från det tidigare projektet Modellering av referensvärde pMC i avfall som går till energiåtervinning (förbränning). Målen i projektet har varit att: 1. Tydligare definiera de avfallstyper som ingår i de underkategorier som används i befintlig modell 2. Fastställa hur stora andelar av underkategorierna som eldas i de 15 största avfallsenergianläggningarna som ingår i EU:s handelssystem för CO2 (ETS, eg. de anläggningar som enligt ETS har utsläpp på minst 50 000 ton CO2 under 2019) samt för tre anläggningar som ligger relativt nära brytpunkten 50 000 ton CO2. 3. Fastställa hur stora variationer det finns inom olika underkategorier mellan anläggningarna samt mellan åren (2017–2019). Undersöka skillnader i referensvärde för 100 procent biogent avfall beroende på variationerna över tid och mellan anläggningarna. 4. Ta fram uppdaterade fördelningar mellan biogent/fossilt på olika avfallskategorier samt undersökt hur stor inverkan dessa har på referensvärdet. 5. Uppdatera modellen enligt slutsatserna från målen 1–4 ovan. Utifrån resultatet från ovanstående genomförandemål rekommenderar projektet att ett nationellt referensvärde (pMCref) används vid beräkning av fossila koldioxidutsläpp från svenska avfallsenergianläggningar. Projektet rekommenderar också att anläggningar som eldar huvudsakligen olika blandade avfallsströmmar (som exempelvis hushållsavfall, RDF mm) ligger till grund för den nationella schablonen. Av denna anledning har projektet exkluderat en anläggning eftersom den i huvudsak eldar träavfall och därmed kraftigt skiljer sig ifrån övriga 12 anläggningar vad gäller mottaget avfall. Det nationella referensvärdet för 2020 respektive 2021 hamnar baserat på ovanstående rekommendation på 107,2 respektive 107,0. Eftersom det redan är överenskommet ett referensvärde för 2020 rekommenderas att det nya referensvärdet används från 2021. Ett möjligt undantag från användning av ett nationellt referensvärde är anläggningar som huvudsakligen eldar träavfall eller exempelvis en blandning av träavfall och gummi. För det förstnämnda fallet skulle då en kombination av den nationella schablonen och en för träavfall bli aktuell. Över de tre åren data samlades in utgjorde Träavfall och träfraktionen i Stödbränsle totalt sett omkring 3 procent av totalt förbrända mängder. Projektet har finansierats av Naturvårdsverket och Avfall Sverige.

  • 6.
    Paulrud, Susanne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hamon, Camille
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Nasri, Amin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Dahl, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    VALUE-OPTIMISED USE OF BIOMASS IN A FLEXIBLE ENERGYINFRASTRUCTURE2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the VABISYS project was to develop new technologies and concepts that improve the value of bioenergy resources in an energy system dominated by variable renewable energy (VRE) such as wind and solar. When an energy system becomes dominated by VRE generation, completely new types of flexible resources are needed to maintain a stable and reliable supply of energy.

    The objective of the Swedish work was to extend the flexibility of known bioenergy technologies and accelerate the deployment of flexible bioenergy technologies via market assessments and business plans. The specific objectives were:1. To assess the operational limitations of liquid biofuel-based energy production in low load and load changing conditions bio-oil boilers.2. To find the operation limits of an Organic Ranking Cycle (ORC). 3. To produce data to support energy system modelling and technology assessment of biofuel-based energy production in WP2 and WP6. 4. To create scenarios for the design of future energy markets. 5. To generate adequate production portfolios for bio-based flexible electricity production addressing future system needs and demands. 6. To estimate potential revenues for electricity production from bio-based production. 7. To analyse the replication potential for flexible bio-based electricity production in a European context and from a market design and policy perspective. 

    The objectives were addressed in the following way:- Objective 1 and 2: A measurement campaign was performed to investigate the performance of the energy system at Falbygdens Energi with respect to emissions, ramp rates and flexibility limits for a bio-oil boiler (8,8 MW) and an ORC (2,4 MW electricity and 10 MW heat). The results will improve the possibilities of manufacturers to offer technologically and economically attractive bioenergy solutions to a market based on strengthening the robustness of VRE dominated energy system.- Objective 3: This was done by VTT and is not in the scope of this report, which only documents RISE work.- Objective 4: Scenarios for future electricity prices and fuel prices have been collected from (Svenska kraftnät, 2018) to serve as inputs to investment studies for the plants identified as interesting in the created portfolio (see objective 4 below).- Objective 5: A portfolio of current and future CHP plants was designed. The aim of this was to identify data sources that provide both economic and technical parameters for investments in new CHP plants.- Objective 6: An operational planning model has been developed to simulate operational planning of all units in district heating systems. It gives the optimal hourly schedules of all units for the coming week so as to maximize profits on the day-ahead electricity market and minimize fuel, start-up and shut-down costs.- Objective 6: continued: An investment model has been developed to study the profitability of investments in new plants in existing district heating systems. It uses scenarios covering the full lifetime of the new plants to be studied. It takes the results from the operational planning model to compute financial profitability indicators.- Objective 7: The developed models have been applied to case studies in Sweden. However, they are flexible enough to be used in other contexts. Moreover, the day-ahead electricity market has a common design in most European countries, which makes the model valid without any changes in countries included in the same coupling region as Sweden.

    Some conclusions from the projects are:A biopower plant needs to have a stored resource that can produce electricity when it is needed and to be a flexible resource in the energy system. Bio-oils can be used for these purposes since they have high starting availability and are a fuel that can be stored for several years. The results showed that it is possible to obtain a fast start from 80 seconds to 13 minutes depending on operational mode and the emissions from the bio-oil boiler is not significantly affected during start-up or when changing load.

    Flexibility and storage solutions will be important to meet the needs, and despite rapid development in terms of such solutions, in the longer term, a powerful expansion of Swedish electricity production and the electricity grid will also be needed. For smaller district heating plants, the ORC technology can be a good option. One of the most interesting features with the ORC is that it can operate at low load with maintained efficiency. The maximum decrease in electricity production for the studied ORC plant when running the wood chip boiler at constant load and when bypassing oil in the three-way valve was approximately 85 kW/min and when increasing the load in the ORC the ramp rate was approximately 172 kW/min. The emissions from the ORC-solid fuel boiler system was overall low and was not affected by changes in electricity production or load.

    District heating can play key roles in meeting the challenges associated with the energy transition by coupling the electricity and the heat sector. District heating can provide local electricity production, decrease the share of electric heating and could be able to participate in ancillary services. To fulfil these roles, the profitability of investments in for example combined heat-and-power units needs to be evaluated, which the operational planning and investment models developed in this project can do. Future electricity price scenarios for Sweden show that higher electricity demand leads to both higher average electricity prices and larger variance in the electricity prices, the latter being due to the largest variation in available capacity from VRE from hour to hour. The results of the investment models on these scenarios indicate larger potential revenues from electricity markets in the future compared to today, which increases the profitability of investments in CHP units.

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  • 7.
    Priestley, Michael
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Kong, Xiangrui
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pei, Xiangyu
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hammes, Julia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bäckström, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pathak, Ravi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan BC
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pros and cons of wood and pellet stoves for residential heating from an emissions perspective2023In: Environmental Science: Atmospheres, E-ISSN 2634-3606, Vol. 3, p. 717-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass burning is a growing alternative to fossil fuels for power generation. Small-scale residential wood combustion introduces air pollutants to local populated areas compared to remote, large-scale facilities. Pellet fuel appliances are an alternative to log burning as they are considered more efficient; however, as emissions are not as well characterized, comparative studies to establish the potential benefits of increased pellet stove usage is required. Here we describe a distinction in optical and chemical properties of emissions from a residential pellet and a log-burning stove using state-of-the-art online measurements. Specifically, we report the first online simultaneously phase-resolved semi-volatile organic measurements from such appliances, using a Time of Flight Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer with a Filter Inlet for Gas and AEROsols (FIGAERO-ToF-CIMS). Pellet particle emissions were 90% brown carbon-containing substituted mono-aromatic compounds (SMAs) whereas wood emissions contained equal black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC) and contained 3-55 times more poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Lowering pellet fuel loadings increased OC and SMA emission factors (EFOC and EFSMA), therefore increasing particle mass as well as optical absorption, i.e. “brownness”. The consequence of these EF differences is illustrated for a hypothetical national burden assuming a base case 10 : 1 log to pellet stove energy demand usage and a ‘swapped’ demand to simulate increased pellet stove usage. This results in net decreases of PM and BC burdens by 12% and 42% respectively but is somewhat offset by a 57% increase in OC burden. Changes in phase resolved speciated organic EFs suggest the reduction in particle burdens is somewhat offset by increases in gas burdens for some organic species, which could contribute to delayed particle burdens through secondary aerosol formation.

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