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  • 1.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tang, Luping
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abbas, Zareen
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Zack, Thomas
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Per
    Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, Sweden.
    Development of an electro-chemical accelerated ageing method for leaching of calcium from cementitious materials2015In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 49, no 1-2, p. 705-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To facilitate the long term durability predictions of nuclear waste repositories, acceleration methods enhancing calcium leaching process from cementitious materials are needed, even though mechanisms not necessarily comparable to those predominant in a natural leaching process may be developed. In the previously published acceleration methods the samples are very small, which limits further physical or mechanical tests. In this paper, a new acceleration method based on electro-chemical migration is presented. The method although not driven with the same kinetics as in natural leaching, was designed in such a way that unnecessarily destructive by-effects could be minimized while promoting a higher leaching rate for a sample size suitable for further testing the mechanical and physical properties. It is shown that approximately 1 × 106C of electrical charge per paste specimen of size Ø50 × 75 mm (approximately 230 g) is required to leach out the total amount of Portlandite. The chemical and mineralogical properties of leached samples are characterized by various techniques. It is concluded that aged samples are comparable to those leached in a natural leaching process as both are characterized by a layered system comprising an unaltered core delineated by total dissolution of Portlandite followed by a progressive decalcification of the calcium silicate hydrate gel.

  • 2.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Exposure experiments in sulfate containing solution, including exposure at low temperature2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes results of an investigation on the sulfate resistance of dual blended binder of mortar and concrete specimens over a period of 1 year. The focus is on showing the importance of the chemistry of the components when discussing sulfate resistance and the relation of that to the hydrate phase assemblage. Moreover the importance of the test method for evaluations is pointed out.

  • 3.
    Lundgren, Monica
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    State-of-the-Art Report on: Material Type, Requirements and Durability aspects of Sprayed Concrete in Tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report summarizes a state-of-the-art for sprayed concrete applied for ground support in tunnel environments, in Sweden and several European countries, with focus on the components, the mix design and the guidelines and specifications. It focuses also on the addition of supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), where the use, the common practice and the long-term experience vary from country to country. The report presents numerous examples of applications in Sweden and seven other European countries. It also gives an overview about the possible exposure risks and summarizes the relevant durability issues. Along with specifications in international standards and guidelines it also reviews the national requirements in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Austria, France, Germany and Switzerland.

  • 4.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Babaahmadi, Arezou
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hydration of concrete binders blended with ground granulated blast furnace slag, fly ash and metakaolin2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes a study on the effects of ground granulated blast furnace slag, low calcium fly ash and metakaolin on the hydration behavior of different binder pastes blended with these SCM. The study investigated early heat development, phase assemblages at different ages, strength gain, changes in porosity and pore sizes, pore water OH-concentration, development of the microstructure and the micro chemistry of the binder pastes.It was shown that all SCM impact the pore size distribution of pastes of different ages. Compared to a reference paste without SCM, SCM containing pastes shift their pore size range to smaller sizes, the more SCM the pastes contain. The total porosity depends on the type of SCM. With slag, there was a tendency to decrease the total porosity with increasing SCM content. With fly ash, total porosity was increased with increasing fly ash content. The strength development of slag and fly ash containing mortars is under that of a Portland cement reference mortar within the first 28 days. However, after 28 d strength gain, in particular with fly ash is considerable compared to the reference. With metakaolin already at early ages a strong increase in strength was observed. After that, the strength development was parallel the one of the reference mortar. Aluminum containing SCM contribute to the formation of AFm phases. AFm phases increase the chloride binding in seawater or deicing salt exposed concretes. In particular metakaolin and fly ash contribute, due to their high alumina content, to the formation of AFm phases but also increase the aluminum content in the C-S-H phases.

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