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  • 1.
    Bengtsson, Hoai Hoang
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Interaction Protocol for Highway Platoon Merge2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, p. 1971-1976, article id 7313411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interaction protocol for cooperative platoon merge on highways is proposed. The interaction protocol facilitates a challenge scenario for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016, where two platoons running on separate lanes merge into one platoon due to a roadwork in one of the lanes. Detailed interaction procedures, described with state machines of each vehicle are presented. A communication message set is designed to support platoon controllers to perform safe and efficient manoeuvres.

  • 2.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Walter, Anders
    Swedish Road Administration, Sweden.
    Coordinating Dangerous Goods Vehicles: C-ITS Applications for Safe Road Tunnels2015In: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015, p. 156-161, article id 7225679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existing regulation efforts and measures, vehicles with dangerous goods still pose significant risks on public safety, especially in road tunnels. Solutions based on cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) are promising measures, however, they have received limited attention. We propose C-ITS applications that coordinate dangerous goods vehicles to minimize the risk by maintaining safe distances between them in road tunnels. Different mechanisms, including global centralized coordination, global distributed coordination, and local coordination, are proposed and investigated. A preliminary simulation is performed and demonstrates their effectiveness.

  • 3.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    et al.
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Englund, Christofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Statistical Data for Free-floating Car Sharing versusPublic Transport2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars canbe picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating carsharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data for alternative trips using cycling, walking andpublic transport for the cities of Amsterdam, Berlin, Denver, Madrid, San Diego and Seattle. From this data,free-floating car sharing seems to be a compliment to other type of transports, including public transports,bicycling and walking, and not a competitor.

  • 4.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hoang Bengtsson, Hoai
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Didoff, Jonas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016: boosting the introduction of Cooperative Automated Vehicles2016In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 146-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), with the aim to boost the introduction of cooperative automated vehicles by means of wireless communication, is presented. Experiences from the previous edition of GCDC, which was held in Helmond in the Netherlands in 2011, are summarized, and an overview and expectations of the challenges in the 2016 edition are discussed. Two challenge scenarios, cooperative platoon merge and cooperative intersection passing, are specified and presented. One demonstration scenario for emergency vehicles is designed to showcase the benefits of cooperative driving. Communications closely follow the newly published cooperative intelligent transport system standards, while interaction protocols are designed for each of the scenarios. For the purpose of interoperability testing, an interactive testing tool is designed and presented. A general summary of the requirements on teams for participating in the challenge is also presented.

  • 5.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    Voronov, Alexey
    Cooperative speed harmonization for efficient road utilization2014In: Nets4Cars, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Method for prediction of Utilization Rate of Electric Vehicle Free-Floating Car Sharing Services using Data Mining2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars can be picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating car sharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data regarding e.g. size of the city, number of cars in the service, etc. The utilization rates of the free-floating car sharing services vary much between the cities, greatly influencing the success of the services. This paper presents the most important factors influencing the utilization rate, and also a methodology to predict the utilization rate for new cities, using data mining based on Random Forests.

  • 7.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    The application of data mining techniques to model visual distraction of bicyclists2016In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 52, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to modelling visual distraction of bicyclists. A unique bicycle simulator equipped with sensors capable of capturing the behaviour of the bicyclist is presented. While cycling two similar scenario routes, once while simultaneously interacting with an electronic device and once without any electronic device, statistics of the measured speed, head movements, steering angle and bicycle road position along with questionnaire data are captured. These variables are used to model the self-assessed distraction level of the bicyclist. Data mining techniques based on random forests, support vector machines and neural networks are evaluated for the modelling task. Out of the total 71 measured variables a variable selection procedure based on random forests is able to select a fraction of those and consequently improving the modelling performance. By combining the random forest-based variable selection and support vector machine-based modelling technique the best overall performance is achieved. The method shows that with a few observable variables it is possible to use machine learning to model, and thus predict, the distraction level of a bicyclist.

  • 8.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered by many organizations as a moreflexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywherewithin a specified area of a city. FFCS can provide a high degree of utilization of vehicles and less usage ofinfrastructure in the form of parking lots and roads and thus has the potential to increase the efficiency of thetransport sector. However, there is also a concern that these compete with other efficient modes of transport suchas biking and public transport. The aim of this paper is to better understand how, when and where the vehiclesare utilized through logged data of the vehicles movements. We have access to data collected on FFCS servicesin 22 cities in Europe and North America which allows us to compare the usage pattern in different cities andexamine whether or not there are similar trends. In this paper, we use the collected data to compare the differentcities based on utilization rate, length of trip and time of day that the trip is made. We find that the vehicleutilization rates differ between cities with Madrid and Hamburg having some of the highest utilization levels forthe FFCS vehicles. The result form a first step of a better understanding on how these services are being usedand can provide valuable input to local policy makers as well as future studies such as simulation models.

  • 9.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling, Sweden.
    Success and Usage Pattern of Free-Floating Carsharing Services in Cities2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered as a more flexible mobility solution than other car sharing services. FFCS users can pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area in a city.The objective of this paper is to identify similar usage patterns of FFCS in different cities as well as city characteristics that make these services a viable option. The authors have access to real booking data for 32 cities in Europe and North America. Their study shows the share of daily car trips is negatively correlated to the utilization rate of these services. Also, the higher the congestion and the harder finding a parking lot, the lower the utilization rate of these services is in the cities. Moreover, our results suggest that FFCS services do not compete with public transport but are rather used in combination to it. These services are mainly used during midday and evening peak and the trips taken by these services are mainly chained trips.The clustering analysis shows that the trips are grouped into two or three clusters in different cities. The majority of clusters are the inner city clusters which contain a significantly higher number of trips than the clusters around other points of interest such as airports.

  • 10.
    Holmberg, P
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    Englund, Cristofer
    Påverkan av broöppningar på kollektivtrafik över Götaälvbron2014Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nijmeijer, Henk
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Shladover, Steven E
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1208-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving is based on wireless communications between vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure, aiming for increased traffic flow and traffic safety, while decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. To support and accelerate the introduction of cooperative vehicles in everyday traffic, in 2011, nine international teams joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC). The challenge was to perform platooning, in which vehicles drive in road trains with short intervehicle distances. The results were reported in a Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, published in September 2012 [item 1 in the Appendix].

  • 12.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Morales Medina, Alejandro
    Eindhoven University of Technology,The Netherlands.
    de Jongh, Jan F C M
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Bril, Reindner
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Salunkhe, Hrishikesh
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, The Netherlands.
    Arrue, Alvaro
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Ruano, Aitor
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Garcia-Sol, Lorena
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    van Nunen, Ellen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Cooperative Automated Maneuvering at the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1213-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control and platooning are well- known applications in the field of cooperative automated driving. However, extension toward maneuvering is desired to accommodate common highway maneuvers, such as merging, and to enable urban applications. To this end, a layered control architecture is adopted. In this architecture, the tactical layer hosts the interaction protocols, describing the wireless information exchange to initiate the vehicle maneuvers, supported by a novel wireless message set, whereas the operational layer involves the vehicle controllers to realize the desired maneuvers. This hierarchical approach was the basis for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), which was held in May 2016 in The Netherlands. The GCDC provided the opportunity for participating teams to cooperatively execute a highway lane-reduction scenario and an urban intersection-crossing scenario. The GCDC was set up as a competition and, hence, also involving assessment of the teams' individual performance in a cooperative setting. As a result, the hierarchical architecture proved to be a viable approach, whereas the GCDC appeared to be an effective instrument to advance the field of cooperative automated driving.

  • 13.
    Sprei, Frances
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden..
    Comparing electric vehicles and fossil driven vehicles in free-floating car sharing services2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing (FFCS) services have been offered as a more flexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area of a city. These can be either electric or fossil driven vehicles. We analyze the difference in usage of these two types of vehicles. The analysis is based on a dataset consisting of vehicle availability data sampled between 2014 and 2016 for 9 cities with EVs in the FFCS fleet. We find that there is no statistical difference in how EVs and fossil driven FFCS vehicles are used. When it comes to charging of EVs two main strategies are identified: widespread “slow charging” versus tailored fast-charging.

  • 14.
    Sprei, Frances
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Free-floating car-sharing electrification and mode displacement: Travel time and usage patterns from 12 cities in Europe and the United States2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 71, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car-sharing (FFCS) allows users to book a vehicle through their phone, use it and return it anywhere within a designated area in the city. FFCS has the potential to contribute to a transition to low-carbon mobility if the vehicles are electric, and if the usage does not displace active travel or public transport use. The aim of this paper is to study what travel time and usage patterns of the vehicles among the early adopters of the service reveal about these two issues. We base our analysis on a dataset containing rentals from 2014 to 2017, for 12 cities in Europe and the United States. For seven of these cities, we have collected travel times for equivalent trips with walking, biking, public transport and private car. FFCS services are mainly used for shorter trips with a median rental time of 27 min and actual driving time closer to 15 min. When comparing FFCS with other transport modes, we find that rental times are generally shorter than the equivalent walking time but longer than cycling. For public transport, the picture is mixed: for some trips there is no major time gain from taking FFCS, for others it could be up to 30 min. For electric FFCS vehicles rental time is shorter and the number of rentals per car and day are slightly fewer compared to conventional vehicles. Still, evidence from cities with an only electric fleet show that these services can be electrified and reach high levels of utilization.

  • 15.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Hoai Hoang
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    de Jonhg, Jan
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    Interactive Test Tool for Interoperable C-ITS Development2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, p. 1713-1718, article id 7313370Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of an Interactive Test Tool (ITT) for interoperability testing of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). Cooperative systems are developed by different manufacturers at different locations, which makes interoperability testing a tedious task. Up until now, interoperability testing is performed during physical meetings where the C-ITS devices are placed within range of wireless communication, and messages are exchanged. The ITT allows distributed (e.g. over the Internet) interoperability testing starting from the network Transport Layer and all the way up to the Application Layer, e.g. to platooning. ITT clients can be implemented as Hardware-in-the-Loop, thus allowing to combine physical and virtual vehicles. Since the ITT considers each client as a black box, manufacturers can test together without revealing internal implementations to each other.

    The architecture of the ITT allows users to easily switch between physical wireless networking and virtual ITT networking. Therefore, only one implementation of the ITS communication stack is required for both development and testing. This reduces the work overhead and ensures that the stack that is used during the testing is the one deployed in the real world. 

  • 16.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Hoang Bengtsson, Hoai
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    de Jongh, Jan
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Interactive Test Tool for Interoperable C-ITS Development2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, p. 1713-1718Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the architecture of an Interactive Test Tool (ITT) for interoperability testing of Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS). Cooperative systems are developed by different manufacturers at different locations, which makes interoperability testing a tedious task. Up until now, interoperability testing is performed during physical meetings where the C-ITS devices are placed within range of wireless communication, and messages are exchanged. The ITT allows distributed (e.g. over Internet) interoperability testing starting from the network Transport Layer and all the way up to the Application Layer, e.g. to platooning. ITT clients can be implemented as Hardware-in-the-Loop, thus allowing to combine physical and virtual vehicles. Since the ITT considers each client as a black box, manufacturers can test together without revealing internal implementations to each other. The architecture of the ITT allows users to easily switch between physical wireless networking and virtual ITT networking. Therefore, only one implementation of the ITS communication stack is required for both development and testing, which reduces the work overhead and ensures that the stack that is used during the testing is the one deployed in the real world.

  • 17.
    Voronov, Alexey
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hultén, Johan
    Sentient+, Sweden.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Radar reflecting pavement markers for vehicle automation2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dependable and fail-safe control of autonomous vehicles requires multiple independent sensors for lane detection and positioning. From analysis of modern sensing technologies, we conclude that radars are underutilized for positioning, and that they might be an enabling technology for achieving safety requirements posed by the standard ISO 26262. To fully utilize the radar potential, we have conducted a pre-study of equipping infrastructure with radar reflectors. We estimate that such reflectors should be installed in the lane markings, about 20-25 meters apart and with some kind of identification. We propose to design and evaluate a combi-reflector based on the traditional cat’s eye design, which will be detectable both by human drivers, radars and lidars. Furthermore, the combi-reflector can be equipped with a magnet for in-vehicle electromagnetic field sensor. From the redundancy evaluation performed, we conclude that the proposed solution increases the level of redundancy significantly. Therefore, the proposed solution could be an enabler for autonomous driving. 

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