Change search
Refine search result
1 - 36 of 36
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Simplified determination of Klason lignin in black liquor and lignin samples2010In: 11th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: EWLP 2010, 2010, p. 45-48Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Törngren, Per
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Simplified determination of total lignin content in kraft lignin samples and black liquors2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 4, p. 601-604Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Chedid, Fadia
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin molecular mass determined using size-exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Application of MALDI-TOF-MS to characterization of lignocellulosics2001In: 11th International Symposium on wood and pulping chemistry: Post symposium, 2001, p. 31-34Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Liljenberg, Annika
    STFI.
    Ismail Olsson, Asha
    STFI.
    Analysis of carbohydrates in wood and pulps employing enzymatic hydrolysis and subsequent capillary zone electrophoresis2000In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 891, no 1, p. 157-174Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Nordström, Maria
    STFI.
    Characterisation of hemicelluloses from wood employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry2003In: Hemicelluloses: Science and technology, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2003, chapter 6, p. 80-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Dahlman, Olof
    et al.
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Sjöberg, John
    STFI.
    Molecular properties of hemicelluloses located in the surface and inner layers of hardwood and softwood pulps2003In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 325-334Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8. Gebremeskel, G G
    et al.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Determination of lignin content in kraft black liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    How accurately can we determine the pulp carbohydrate composition?: comparison of results and reproducibility of different methods for carbohydrate analysis2005In: Chromatography in pulping and papermaking: Cost Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    MALDI mass spectrometry as a tool for hemicellulose characterisation2005In: Spectrometric techniques used for the analysis of carbohydrates, lignin and extractives: COST Action E41 : analytical tools with applications for wood and pulping chemistry., 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia. RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin and hemicellulose characterization for the biorefinery2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Lignin properties for the biorefinery, and their analytical challenges2015In: NWBC 2015: The 6th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference, Espoo: VTT , 2015, p. 203-204Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of official standardised methods for lignin has meant that the results from analysis of lignin properties are largely dependent on which method or laboratory that is used. Therefore, relevant and harmonised analytical methods are essential to allow producers of biorefinery products to prepare specifications for their products and to improve the possibilities for systematic development of process and product. The current status of the most important methods for lignin characterisation has been evaluated together with method development or method adaption in order to meet the requirements for high-value lignin products.

  • 13.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Chedid, Fadia
    RISE, Innventia.
    Molecular mass distribution of lignin from black liquor: methods comparison2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Gagne, Alain
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Kouisni, Lamfeddal
    FPInnovations, Canada; University Mohammed VI Polytechnic, Morocco.
    Liitia, Tiina
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Mikkelson, Atte
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Paleologou, Michael
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Regnell Andersson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Tamminen, Tanja
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd, Finland.
    Mitigating trade barriers by standardized determination of lignin molar mass2017In: The 7th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference held in Stockholm, Sweden, 28-30 Mar. 2017: NWBC 2017, Stockholm: RISE Bioekonomi , 2017, p. 98-103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE Bioeconomy, FPInnovations and VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd are working on a draft for an official ISO method for the determination of lignin molar mass. The draft will include two methods that can be used by different laboratories as reference methods, which are based on organic and aqueous size exclusion chromatography (SEC). Four samples of kraft lignin of different origin were analysed by three laboratories using the current in-house methods as well as a harmonised analytical setup. It was clear that the results differed largely between the different methods, for example, the weight average molar mass (Mw) for the LignoForce softwood lignin (LF-SW) ranged from 3,300 t0 11,100g/mol using the different methods. Harmonisation of aqueous SEC was successful. The method comprises SEC using 0l.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, a mobile phase flow rate of 0.5mL/min, Waters columns MCX 1,000A and 100,000A in series and calibration/calculation using polystyrene sulphonate standards using a linear fit. However, organic SEC was more complex and would require further investigations. Although the aqueous SEC analysis was repeatable, it was concluded that a strategy for data evaluation should be developed in order to achieve a method applicable for quality assessments.

  • 15.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Absolute molar mass of lignins by size exclusion chromatography and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy2000In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 120-127Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of the Molar Masses of Hemicelluloses from Wood and Pulps Employing Size Exclusion Chromatography and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry2001In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 894-905Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Enhancement of the Quality of MALDI Mass Spectra of Highly Acidic Oligosaccharides by Using a Nafion-Coated Probe2001In: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 73, no 3, p. 405-410Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Persson, E.
    Simultaneous determination or uronic acid and neutral monosaccharide structural elements in wood and pulp2001In: 11th International Symposium on Wood and Pulping Chemistry, 2001, Vol. 1, p. 207-210Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Klockare, Lisa
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Björklund Jansson, Marianne
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Quantification of different fibres in recycled pulp using NIR analysis2006In: Paper recycling technology, 2006Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Distribution of Uronic Acids in Xylans from Various Species of Soft- and Hardwood As Determined by MALDI Mass Spectrometry2001In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 979-990Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Lundqvist, Jon
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Tjerneld, Folke
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of water-soluble hemicelluloses from spruce and aspen employing SEC/MALDI mass spectroscopy2002In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 337, no 8, p. 711-717Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Jacobs, Anna
    et al.
    STFI.
    Palm, Magnus
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Isolation and characterization of water-soluble hemicelluloses from flax shive2003In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 338, no 18, p. 1869-1876Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Lundqvist, Jon
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Palm, Magnus
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Zacchi, Guido
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Characterization of galactoglucomannan extracted from spruce (Picea abies) by heat-fractionation at different conditions2003In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 51, no 2, p. 203-211Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Nordström, Maria
    et al.
    STFI.
    Teleman, Anita
    STFI.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of acetylated glucomannans from Aspen and Birch2002In: Towards molecular-level understanding of wood, pulp and paper: Seventh European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp (EWLP 2002), 2002, p. 39-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    O-acetylated glucomannans were isolated from aspen and birch wood. The isolation procedure involved a sequential extraction of acetone-extracted wood meal with DMSO and hot water, after which the glucomannan was purified using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). The isolated glucomannans were characterized using capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), SEC/MALDI-MS and NMR spectroscopy.

  • 25.
    Regnell Andersson, Sofia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Lignin Bimodality: Fact or Artefact?2018In: 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: Proceedings for oral presentations, 2018, p. 97-100Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) of lignin poses many challenges. In numerous studies chromatograms of lignin show a bimodal molar mass distribution. Is this a true characteristic of lignin, is it caused by molecular associations or aggregations, or could it could be an artefact from using column combinations with porosities that do not match properly? To improve resolution and enable separation over a larger molar mass range, multiple columns with different porosities are often connected in series. If the porosities do not match properly, the result appears as a shoulder or bimodality in the chromatogram. To understand whether the bimodal distribution is a sample characteristic or an analyze artefact, we have used different columns, column combination and samples to see when the results is a bimodal distribution and when only one peak is formed. Results show that the bimodality of lignin can be an artifact originating from column mismatch. Using single porosity columns with a low molar mass cut-off should be avoided since it can cause false bimodality.

  • 26.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Freichels, Helene
    Magritek, Germany.
    Danieli, Ernesto
    Magritek, Germany.
    Benchtop NMR measurements on kraft lignin2017In: 19th International symposium on wood, fibre and pulping chemistry, August 28 - September 1, 2017, Porto Seguro, Brazil, 2017, p. 434-438Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic fields is a common tool in the analysis of lignin samples. In the presented study, NMR measurements on a group of softwood and hardwood kraft lignins at low field (1.0 T) with a benchtop NMR spectrometer, containing a permanent magnet, are investigated and evaluated. NMR based diffusion measurements were performed, for which the results were found to be fast, repeatable, and in good agreement numbers to measurements at high field. Measurements were also performed on a sample in alkaline solution, as a model for black liquor analysis, with promising initial results.

  • 27.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Consecutive determination of softwood kraft lignin structure and molar mass from NMR measurements2017In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, no 7-8, p. 563-570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general molecular properties and in particular, the molar mass of lignin are of central importance for industrial applications, as these data govern important thermal and mechanical characteristics. The focus of the present paper is pulsed field gradient-nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR), which is suitable for determination of lignins’ weight-Average molar mass, based on diffusion constants. The method is calibrated by lignin fractions characterized by matrix-Assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). It could be demonstrated on a set of softwood kraft lignins that the PFG-NMR approach gives results in very good agreement with those obtained using conventional size exclusion chromatography (SEC).

  • 28.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Recent advances in NMR spectroscopy of lignin and black liquor2018In: 15th European workshop on lignocellulosics and pulp: proceedings for oral presentations, 2018, p. 57-60Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes improvements in the methodology for NMR spectroscopic analysis of dissolved kraft lignins and black liquors, for structural analysis as well as for reaction monitoring. The described methodologies are variations and applications of non-uniform sampling (NUS) in 2D spectra and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY), with reduced experiment time and/or increased resolution and novel ways to track reactions through monitoring of diffusion of a reactant mixture.

  • 29.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Larsson, Tomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Digging in the structure and functionality of lignocellulosic raw material: from academic knowledge towards industrial applications2018In: The 8th Nordic Wood Biorefinery Conference: NWBC 2018 : proceedings / [ed] Hytönen Eemeli, Vepsäläinen Jessica, Espoo: VTT , 2018, p. 205-205Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, Karolina
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Absolute determination of softwood kraft lignin molar mass using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and pulsed field gradient NMR2016In: 14th European Workshop on Lignocellulosics and Pulp: EWLP 2016, 2016, p. 143-146Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of the molecular properties, e.g. the molar mass, of lignin are of central importance for industrial applications, since thermal and mechanical characteristics are governed by these. Here, a method for absolute determination of weight-average molar mass of kraft lignin, based on diffusion constants gained from PFG-NMR calibrated with lignin fractions characterized by MALDI-TOF-MS, is presented. The NMR method is compared to polystyrene calibration, and size exclusion chromatography with tetrahydrofuran as mobile phase.

  • 31.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Structural changes in softwood kraft lignin during nonoxidative thermal treatment2015In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 550-561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Heat treatment is a promising pre-processing method in the conversion of kraft lignins to carbon fibers. In this study, a kraft lignin was subjected to heat treatment at different lengths of time and at different temperatures. The molecular structure of the untreated and four heat treated lignins were investigated mainly by a variety of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) methods. The results were compared to structural information obtained by pyrolysis-gas chromatography-/mass spectrometry (py-GC/MS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was observed that during the thermal treatment, the amount of β-O-4 ether moieties decreased, and an intramolecular conversion of secoisolariciresinol residues to cyclic ethers occurred. The effects on shape and size of the lignins were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and NMR-diffusion measurements, by which the hydrodynamic radii were found to increase as a result of thermal treatment. It is discussed whether this depends on reduced flexibility and/or increased molar mass. In addition, the trends from the SEC and NMR analyses were compared to changes in glass transition temperature as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC).

  • 32.
    Rönnols, Jerk
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Schweinebarth, Hannah
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Stevanic Srndovic, Jasna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Olsson, Anne-Mari
    RISE, Innventia.
    Reimann, Anders
    RISE, Innventia.
    Aldaeus, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Structural changes in softwood kraft lignin during thermal treatment2015In: 18th International Symposium on Wood, Fiber and Pulping Chemistry: 18th ISWFPC, 2015, Vol. 2, p. 366-369Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sjöström, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Jacobs, Anna
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Rådeström, Rune
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Nordlund, Maria
    RISE, STFI-Packforsk.
    Effects of released organic substances on sizing efficiency: Influence of origin, composition and molecular properties of the organic material2006In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 575-585Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    et al.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Lundqvist, Jon
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Andersson, Alexandra
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Hägglund, Per
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Anderson, Lars
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Tjerneld, Folke
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Teleman, Anita
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Palm, M.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Zacchi, G.
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Isolation, Characterization, and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Acetyl-Galactoglucomannan from Spruce (Picea abies)2004In: Hemicelluloses: Science and Technology, American Chemical Society (ACS), 2004, chapter 5, p. 66-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Teleman, Anita
    et al.
    STFI.
    Nordström, Maria
    STFI.
    Tenkanen, Maija
    VTT, Finland.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Isolation and characterization of O-acetylated glucomannans from aspen and birch wood2003In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 338, no 6, p. 525-534Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Teleman, Anita
    et al.
    STFI.
    Tenkanen, Maija
    VTT, Finland.
    Jacobs, Anna
    STFI.
    Dahlman, Olof
    STFI.
    Characterization of O-acetyl-(4-O-methylglucurono)xylan isolated from birch and beech2002In: Carbohydrate Research, ISSN 0008-6215, E-ISSN 1873-426X, Vol. 337, no 4, p. 373-377Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 36 of 36
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.7