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  • 1.
    Abrahamsen, Rune
    et al.
    Moelven Limtre, Norway.
    Bjertnaes, Magne A.
    Sweco, Norway.
    Bouillot, Jacques
    Eiffage, France.
    Brank, Bostjan
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Cabaton, Lionel
    Arbonis, France.
    Crocetti, Roberto
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Flamand, Olivier
    CSTB, France.
    Garains, Fabien
    Eiffage, France.
    Gavric, Igor
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Germain, Olivier
    Galeo, France.
    Hahusseau, Ludwig
    Eiffage, France.
    Hameury, Stephane
    CSTB, France.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Johansson, Thomas
    Moelven, Sweden.
    Ao, Wai Kei
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Kurent, Blaz
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Malo, Kjell
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Manthey, Manuel
    CSTB, France.
    Nåvik, Petter
    Sweco, Norway.
    Pavic, Alex
    University of Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Perez, Fernando
    Smith and Wallwork, United Kingdom.
    Rönnquist, Anders
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Stamatopoulos, Haris
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sustersic, Iztok
    InnoRenew, Slovenia.
    Tulebekova, Salue
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dynamic Response of Tall Timber Buildings Under Service Load: The DynaTTB Research Program2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is becoming a governing design action determin-ing size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway – i.e. vibration serviceability failure. Although some TTBs have been instrumented and meas-ured to estimate their key dynamic properties (natural frequencies and damping), no systematic evaluation of dynamic performance pertinent to wind loading has been performed for the new and evolving construction technology used in TTBs. The DynaTTB project, funded by the Forest Value research program, mixes on site measurements on existing buildings excited by heavy shakers, for identification of the structural system, with laboratory identification of building elements mechanical features coupled with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal is to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and pro-vide key elements to FE modelers.

    The first building, from a list of 8, was modelled and tested at full scale in December 2019. Some results are presented in this paper. Four other buildings will be modelled and tested in spring 2020.

  • 2.
    Atashipour, S. R.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Al-Emrani, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Accuracy evaluation of gamma-method for deflection prediction of partial composite beams2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a precise model is established for deflection prediction of mechanically jointed beams with partial composite action. High accuracy of the proposed method is demonstrated through comparison with a comprehensive finite element (FE) modelling for a timber-concrete partial composite beam. Next, the obtained numerical results are compared with gamma-method, a well-known simplified solution for timber engineers according to the Eurocode 5. Validity and accuracy level of the gamma-method are investigated for various boundary conditions as well as different values of beam length-to-depth ratio, and discussed in details.

  • 3.
    Axelson, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Nagy, Agnes
    Förstärkning av massivträelement – en experimentell studie2014In: Bygg & teknik, Vol. 106, no 2, p. 65-70Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 5.
    Jockwer, Robert
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Norbäck, Viktor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Dölerud, Erik
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    Naveda, Leo Anderson
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    Åkerström, Carl-Johan
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    FATIGUE RESISTANCE OF ADHESIVE BONDED CONNECTIONS WITH AND WITHOUT INTERNAL STEEL PLATES IN LARGE TIMBER STRUCTURES2023In: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, p. 2118-2124Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A modular wooden wind turbine tower has been developed by the Swedish company Modvion AB, where the prefabricated modular elements are connected by glued timber-timber edge joints and by hybrid timber joints with bonded-in perforated steel plates. The application of wood-based products in such a demanding application and highperformance structure is challenging and a variety of questions had to be solved to ensure a reliable performance. The fatigue performance of the adhesive bonded connections has been evaluated in a research project and is presented in this paper. Test specimens of the fatigue resistance of the adhesive and the bond line has been developed. Different stress ratios with alternating loads and high numbers of load cycles have been tested. The results of the tests are presented in this paper.

  • 6.
    Johansson, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Brander, Linus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Jansson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Svennberg, Kaisa
    Kvalitet hos byggnadsmaterial i cirkulära flöden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the project presented in the report was that construction and demolition waste will be recycled or recycled to a greater extent and at the same time fulfil the quality requirements on the materials.

    The purpose of the project has been to map and compile the knowledge and experience of the technical aspects of circular flows of building materials, focusing on quality issues, identifying new projects that can reduce the amount of construction and demolition waste deposited or burned, as well as creating new networks. There is widespread knowledge in the construction industry about these issues and there are also a wide range of research results in different areas. In the project, knowledge and experience have been gathered through literature studies, workshops and seminars, study visits and interviews.

    The first part of the report discusses general technical experiences and challenges in different parts of the building chain, while challenges for specific material groups are discussed in the second part of the report. These material groups are polymeric materials, flat glass, stone wool, glass wool, plasterboard, crushed concrete, wood and wood-based materials. The report also presents a survey conducted by Optimera among their professional costumers, which aimed at collecting their experiences and views on sustainable construction.

    In general, we can find that there are major challenges in increasing recycling rates for demolition and refurbishment waste. For installation and construction waste, the technical challenges are not as big. Challenges and conditions for increased recycling and reuse with retained good quality vary between different types of materials / products, type of construction project and intended use.

    The report proposes a number of proposals in areas where work can be continued. These include improved / expanded inventory for demolition and refurbishment, routines and sampling methods, proper sorting, handling and storage to ensure the right quality, to provide the ability to separate compound materials, logistics, production technology and quality assurance. The results also show the importance of education, networks and meeting places and that research projects are conducted interdisciplinary. There are good opportunities for increased recycling through cooperation throughout the entire building chain.

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  • 7.
    Källander, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Effects of heat treatment of small clearwood samples on equilibrium moisture content and deformation2007In: COST Action E53 The First Conference: Quality Control for Wood and Wood Products, Warsaw University of Life Sciences , 2007, , p. 63-68Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Swedish Technical Benchmarking of TallTimber Buildings2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood in the construction of multi-storey buildings has increased since the middle of the 1990’s and is still expected to grow in the future. 1994 the Swedish building rules changed. From material based, the rules became functional based. Before this year, the use of wood in houses with more than two storeys were prohibited for fire safety reasons. Now that wooden multi-storey buildings have been built for almost a quarter of a century, this report presents and explains the current technical requirements that multi-storey residential buildings must achieve:

    - Safety in case of fire, - Safe and comfortable structure, -Healthy indoor climate and frugal heating,

    Good acoustic. Environmental aspects and construction praxis are also shortly developed. Even thought, the list of requirements does not pretend to be exhaustively studied hereby. The choice is also related to the timber structures specificities. Five reference projects from 6 to 8 floors and built between 2006 and 2015 are presented briefly and used as examples along the report. Different wood building systems and technical solutions were used and illustrate the architectural and technical variability in the timber building industry as well as the evolution of the building regulations. The appendices to this report contain further information, drawings and pictures of these reference buildings. This report aims to bring some knowledge and practical ideas to people planning, designing or producing taller timber buildings in Sweden. It should be mention that the second part on safety in case of fire and the fifth part on acoustic require that the reader has some basic knowledge on this technical fields.

    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 9.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Comparative study of wind-induced accelerations in tall timber buildings according to four methods2021In: World Conference on Timber Engineering 2021, WCTE 2021, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The height and the market share of multi-story timber buildings are both rising. During the last two decades, the Architectural and Engineering Construction industry has developed new reliable solutions to provide strength, structural integrity, fire safety and robustness for timber structures used in the mid- and high-rise sectors. According to long-time survey and lab experiments, motion sickness and sopite syndrome are the main adverse effects on the occupants of a wind sensitive building. For tall timber buildings, wind-induced vibrations seem to be a new critical design aspect at much lower heights than for traditional steel-concrete buildings. To guarantee good comfort, the horizontal accelerations at the top of tall timber buildings must be limited. Two methods in the Eurocode for wind actions (EN1991-1-4), procedure 1 in Annex B (EC-B) and procedure 2 in Annex C (EC-C), provide formulas to estimate the along-wind accelerations. The Swedish code advises to follow a method specified in the National Annex to the Eurocode (EKS) and the American ASCE 7-2016 recommend another method. This study gives an overview on the background of the different methods for the evaluation of along-wind accelerations for buildings. Estimated accelerations of several tall timber buildings evaluated according to the different methods are compared and discussed. The scatter of the accelerations estimated with different codes is big and increases the design uncertainty of wind induced response at the top of tall timber buildings

  • 10.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, A.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Dynamical properties of a large glulam truss for a tall timber building2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When designing a tall timber building, the accelerations due to wind loads are in many cases decisive. The parameters governing the dynamic behaviour of the building are the structure's stiffness, damping and mass together with the loads. The first two parameters are not well-known during the serviceability limit state of timber structures generally and of timber connections specifically. In this study, dynamical properties of a large glulam truss, a part of the vertical and horizontal structural system in a residential six-storey timber building, are estimated from measurements made in the manufacturing plant. The timber members of the truss are joined with slotted-in steel plates and dowels. Forced vibrational test data are used to extract the dynamical properties. Finite element (FE) models, supported by the experimental results, were developed and simulations, to study the influence of the connection stiffnesses on the total behaviour, were performed. The vibration test results of measurements made on separate structural parts give valuable input to model timber structures and better possibilities to simulate the dynamic behaviour of tall timber buildings as well as the load distribution in wooden structures in the serviceability limit state.

  • 11.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Reduced and test-data correlated FE-models of a large timber truss with dowel-type connections aimed for dynamic analyses at serviceability level2022In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 260, article id 114208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rise of wood buildings in the skylines of cities forces structural dynamic and timber experts to team up to solve one of the new civil-engineering challenges, namely comfort at the higher levels, in light weight buildings, with respect to wind-induced vibrations. Large laminated timber structures with mechanical joints are exposed to turbulent horizontal excitation with most of the wind energy blowing around the lowest resonance frequencies of 50 to 150 m tall buildings. Good knowledge of the spatial distribution of mass, stiffness and damping is needed to predict and mitigate the sway in lighter, flexible buildings. This paper presents vibration tests and reductions of a detailed FE-model of a truss with dowel-type connections leading to models that will be useful for structural engineers. The models also enable further investigations about the parameters of the slotted-in steel plates and dowels connections governing the dynamical response of timber trusses. © 2022 The Author(s)

  • 12.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Validation of a structural model of a large timber truss with slotted-in steel plates and dowels2020In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Structural Dynamic , EURODYN, European Association for Structural Dynamics , 2020, p. 4349-4357Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dynamic response to time varying loads, e.g. wind loads or earthquakes, is in many cases decisive when designing a tall timber building. The structural parameters governing the dynamic behaviour are the mass, the damping and the stiffness. The last two parameters are not well-known at serviceability levels for timber structures in general and for timber connections specifically. Results from forced vibration tests on single components and on a full-scale truss for an eight-storey residential building have been analyzed. In parallel, a detailed Finite Element (FE) model of a large Glulam truss with slotted-in steel plates and dowels connections has been developed and simulations have been made. The damping caused by the structural components, the embedment of fasteners and friction of mating surfaces of components in the selected connection types is quantified experimentally. The materials' stiffness values in the model were evaluated. The results from this study bring knowledge on the structural dynamic properties of large timber structures with mechanical connections and will facilitate the performance prediction of new tall timber buildings for better comfort at higher levels in environmentally friendly expansions of our cities. 

  • 13.
    Landel, Pierre
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Test-analyses comparisons of a stabilizing glulam truss for a tall building2019In: 2nd International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 14.
    Linderholt, A.
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Forced Response Measurements on a Seven-Story Timber Building2024In: SEM 2023: Dynamics of Civil Structures, Springer , 2024, p. 1-4Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the project Dyna-TTB, vibrational tests have been conducted on eight high-rise timber buildings, in Europe. A main objective of the project is to gain knowledge about damping in timber buildings to assist in predicting the accelerations, at the top of a building, due to wind-induced vibrations. One of the buildings is Eken (the oak) in Mariestad in Sweden. That building is seven stories tall, thus questionable as a tall timber building, yet an interesting test object. The building structure is made up of glue laminated timber beams and columns stabilized with glulam trusses. Forced vibration were conducted on Eken with the aim to estimate the building’s dynamic properties from test data. Estimates of the eigenfrequencies, mode shapes, and their scalings are useful both in the calculations of wind-induced vibrations and to calibrate numerical models. However, the most important outcome is estimates of the modal damping values. The damping impacts the acceleration and thus the serviceability of the building, and at the same time, it is very hard to model damping. So, during the design phase, one must rely on previous test data (of which very few exist for taller timber buildings) and rule of thumbs. It is therefore important to gain knowledge about the damping for timber buildings in order to enable good designs of future and taller timber buildings.

  • 15.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linneuniversity, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Tall Timber Buildings Subjected to Wind Loads - Full Scale Experimental Dynamics2023In: Wood Building Nordic, 2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Wind-induced dynamic excitation is a governing design action determining size and shape of modern Tall Timber Buildings (TTBs). The wind actions generate dynamic loading, causing discomfort or annoyance for occupants due to the perceived horizontal sway, i.e. a vibration serviceability problem. The DynaTTB project, funded by the ForestValue research program, mixed on-site measurements on timber buildings, for identification of the structural system, with numerical modelling of timber structures. The goal was to identify and quantify the causes of vibration energy dissipation in modern TTBs and provide key elements to finite element models. This paper presents an overview of the project.    The paper also presents measurements using forced vibration conducted on the seven-storey timber building Eken in Mariestad in Sweden. The main objective is to estimate the building’s dynamic properties from test data. The eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and their scalings are useful to calibrate numerical models. However, the most important outcomes are the estimates of the modal damping values. The test data shows that the modal damping is roughly equal to 2% of the critical viscous ones for the eigenmodes extracted.

  • 16.
    Linderholt, Andreas
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    FORCED RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS ON A SEVEN STOREY TIMBER BUILDING IN SWEDEN2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forced vibration tests have been conducted on the seven-storey timber building Eken in Mariestad in Sweden. The main objective is to estimate the building’s dynamic properties from test data. The eigenfrequencies, mode shapes and their scaling are useful to calibrate numerical models. However, the most important outcomes are the estimates of the modal damping values. The reason is that the damping impacts the acceleration, and thus the serviceability of the building, and at the same time, it is very hard to model damping. So, during the design phase, one must rely on previous test data (of which very few exist for taller timber buildings) or rule of thumbs. It is therefore important to gain knowledge about the damping for timber buildings in order to enable good designs of future and taller timber buildings. The test data shows that the modal damping is roughly equal to 2% of the critical viscous ones for the eigenmodes extracted. The test campaign on Eken is made as a part of the project Dyna-TTB in which vibrational tests have been performed on eight high-rise timber buildings, in Europe, of which Eken is one.

  • 17.
    Norbäck, Viktor
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building and Real Estate.
    Dölerud, Erik
    Modvion AB, Sweden.
    Wickström, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    ON-SITE GLUING AND WEATHER EFFECTS ON TALL WOODEN WINDTURBINE TOWERS2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modvion develops modular wind turbine towers made of wood. The application requires strong and stiff connections and to achieve the desired performance, a hybrid connection with perforated steel plates slotted into LVL modules is used. The parts will be glued together on site, using a polyurethane adhesive (PUR), providing high strength and stiffness to the connection. This paper presents a preliminary screening on how temperature and relative humidity of the surrounding air during assembly and curing will influence the strength of the bond glued on-site. Static tests were performed on the hybrid connections which were glued and cured in different climates. Tests were also performed at different hardening times to evaluate strength growth in the studied climates. The test results show that at cold temperatures of 9 °C to 12 °C there is a breakpoint where the rate of strength growth starts to decline. The experiments show also that the relative humidity may influence the final strength of the bond. However, the low number of tested specimens brings uncertainties to this observation. High temperatures up to 27 ºC and dry climates down to 20% RH did not impact the strength of the tested hybrid connections.

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  • 18. Petra, Steen
    et al.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Erik, Dölerud
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Otto, Lundman
    Modvion, Sweden.
    Structural design methods for tall timber towers with large wind turbine2019In: International Conference on Computational Methods in Wood Mechanics – from Material Properties to Timber Structures. ECCOMAS Thematic Conference, June 17-19, 2019, Växjö, Sweden, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
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