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  • 1.
    Bachinger, Angelika
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Lindqvist, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Strid, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Gong, Guan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Polymera material och kompositer.
    Systematic evaluation of bromine-free flame-retardant systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene2022Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 139, nr 13, artikel-id 51861Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic investigation of phosphorus-based flame-retardant (PFR) systems in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) is presented. The effect of various PFRs, combinations thereof and influence of different synergists is studied in terms of fire and mechanical performance, as well as toxicity of resulting ABS. Sustainable flame-retardant systems with a promising effect on the fire-retardant properties of ABS are identified: A combination of aluminum diethylphosphinate and ammonium polyphosphate is shown to exhibit superior flame-retardant properties in ABS compared to other studied PFRs and PFR combinations. Among a variety of studied potential synergists for this system, a grade of expandable graphite with a high-initiation temperature and a molybdenum-based smoke suppressant show the most promising effect, leading to a significant reduction of the peak heat release rate as well as the smoke production rate. Compared to current state-of-the-art brominated flame-retardant for ABS, the identified flame-retardant systems reduce the maximum smoke production rate by 70% and the peak heat release rate by 40%. However, a significant reduction of the impact performance of the resulting ABS is identified, which requires further investigation.

  • 2.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    An experimental evaluation of the equivalence ratios in tests apparatus used for fire effluent toxicity studies2021Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 45, nr 8, s. 1085-1095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation was conducted on the bench-scale test methods most commonly applied for generating data for fire toxicity assessments. The test methods evaluated were ISO/TS 19700, ISO 5660-1 with the controlled atmosphere box, and ISO 5659-2. Toxic gases were quantitatively analyzed using Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy. Tests were made with 11 different insulation materials and polymethylmethacrylate as a reference material. The evaluation made was on the combustion conditions in the test apparatus, not generally on the precise yields measured. The evaluation focused on the ventilation conditions created in flaming combustion tests. It was seen that ISO/TS 19700 currently offers the best means among the three test methods evaluated for conducting tests at pre-determined and controlled equivalence ratios. The controlled-atmosphere cone calorimeter does not give a prolonged steady flaming combustion period for most materials and the influence of vitiation was difficult to predict and limiting in achieving higher equivalence ratios, with the test settings applied. ISO 5659-2 generally accumulates a mixture of gases from periods of both flaming and nonflaming combustion in a test, and the yields measured do not, in those cases, represent any specific combustion stage. For materials not showing flaming combustion, for example, mineral fiber products, the influence on the test conditions regarding oxygen consumption and heat generation from the material itself is limited compared to burning materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider. 

  • 3.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport.
    Experimental evaluation of fire toxicity test methods2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental evaluation of the most common bench-scale tests methods for fire toxicity was conducted by RISE Fire Research. The background of the work was the on-going discussion in the fire community on the applicability and relevance of these test methods.

    The test methods included in the programme were the ISO/TS 19700 steady-state tube furnace (SSTF), the controlled atmosphere cone calorimeter (CACC), and the EN 45545-2 smoke chamber test (SC). In these tests the production of selected toxic gases was quantitatively analysed using FTIR. Tests for the measurement of toxic gas production were made with eleven different materials used as test specimens, both combustible and non-combustible materials. The materials were commercially available insulation products provided by EURIMA, the sponsor of the project. These materials should not be regarded as typical or fully representative of a product category.

    The evaluation of the results from the different test methods was divided into combustible test specimens and non-combustible test specimens. That was because the test conditions in the first case are greatly influenced by the combustion behaviour of the test specimen, while in the second case the test conditions are more constant.

    A general observation was that there in many cases was correlation between both species composition and level of toxic gas species yields between test methods when the combustion conditions were similar. In cases where yields differed significantly it could in most cases be explained by clear differences in test conditions.

    For combustible materials it was concluded that the SSTF offers the best means for conducting tests at pre-decided and controlled flaming combustion conditions. The CACC does not give steady-state flaming combustion and the influence of vitiation was limited in the tests made. The SC generally accumulates a mixture of gases from both flaming and non-flaming combustion periods in a test, and the yields measured do not in those cases represent any specific combustion stage.

    For non-combustible materials a general observation was that any of the test methods investigated in principle could be used since the influence on the test conditions from the material itself is limited compared to combustible materials. However, there were specific properties and limitations of the different test methods observed that are important to consider.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    RISE Report 2018_40
  • 4.
    El Houssami, M.
    et al.
    Efectis, France.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Drean, V.
    Efectis, France.
    Guillaume, E.
    Efectis, France.
    Hofmann-Böllinghaus, A.
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und –prüfung, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safety of interior materials of buses2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 7, s. 910-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides an analysis on the fire safety of passengers and the fire protection of coaches and buses. A brief review of major bus fire incidents, an overview of current regulations in Europe, and their limitations are presented. The study finds that the current small-scale fire test methods described in UN ECE Reg No. 118 need to be replaced by test methods that can assess the reaction to fire of materials when exposed to ignition sources of varying sizes. To address these shortcomings, the study proposed an expert recommendation to update the material fire safety requirements and testing for buses. Additional measures are proposed, derived from objectives and strategies applied in other transport sectors, and can be tested through existing European and international standards, which are widely used by several industries. These measures aim to extend the time with tenable conditions for a safe evacuation in case of fire, reduce the degree of damage to buses, reduce the risk for fast and excessive thermal exposure on modern energy carriers needed for a more sustainable transport sector. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 5.
    Haubold, Thorben
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    Wolter, Nick
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mayer, Bernd
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany; University of Bremen, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    Fraunhofer Institute, Germany.
    How Phosphorous Flame Retardant Additives Affect Benzoxazine-Based Monomer and Polymer Properties2023Ingår i: Macromolecular materials and engineering, ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 308, nr 11, artikel-id 2300132Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The phosphorous-based flame retardant additives poly(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) (PMP) and resorcinol bis(diphenyl phosphate) (RDP) are reacted with bisphenol F and aniline–based benzoxazine (BF-a). DSC, rheological analysis, FT-IR, and soxhlet extraction reveal the covalent incorporation of both FR additives—initiating phenols in PMP structure as well as free phenols generated via transesterification reaction in the case of RDP. In contrast to PMP, RDP elongates the processing window but decreases the thermo–mechanical properties. Both additives increase the resistance in reactions against small flames with solely a phosphorous loading of 0.3 wt%, resulting in a V-0 rating and an improvement in the OI value by up to 2% for RDP and 4% for PMP. Both FRs reduce the heat release rate but increase the smoke production and the smoke toxicity in the case of RDP. 

  • 6.
    Khalili, Pooria
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blinzler, Brina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kádár, Roland
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Liu, Xiaoling
    University of Nottingham Ningbo China, China.
    Ramie fabric Elium® composites with flame retardant coating: Flammability, smoke, viscoelastic and mechanical properties2020Ingår i: Composites. Part A, Applied science and manufacturing, ISSN 1359-835X, E-ISSN 1878-5840, Vol. 137, artikel-id 105986Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation studied the utilization of intumescent thermal resistive mats to provide surface protection to the core natural fibre-reinforced Elium® composite structural integrity. The intumescent mats contained flame retardant (FR) i.e. expandable graphite (EG) with four different expansion ratios and alumina trihydrate (ATH). All natural fibre thermoplastic composites were fabricated using a resin infusion technique. The impact of char thickness and chemical compositions on the flammability and smoke properties was investigated. It was found that surface protection significantly reduced the peak heat release rate, total smoke release, smoke extinction area and CO2 yield, and substantially enhanced UL-94 rating, time to ignition and residual char network, depending on the EG exfoliation ratio, ATH and mineral wool fibre. The glass transition temperature increased for the FR composites containing EG with lower expansion ratio. Inclusion of intumescent mats increased the strength of the composites while it had a negative effect on the modulus. 

  • 7.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Does age matter?: Impact on fire safety properties of composite materials from ageing2020Ingår i: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, IOP Publishing Ltd , 2020, Vol. 942, nr 1, artikel-id 012042Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    When materials are tested and classified before entering the market, they are mainly tested as newly produced. However, it is known that material properties change with time and when exposed to temperature, humidity, wind and light. As a result, it is important to have knowledge of how material age and which parameters are affected in order to retain safety. Studies show how the mechanical properties change when the materials age. But not much can be found in literature about the ageing effect on fire properties. In the present study, accelerated ageing testing was made with a composite material of phenolic resin and basalt fibres. Selected ageing methods applied were thermal ageing at 90 C and moisture ageing at 40 C and 90 % Relative Humidity. Samples were collected from ageing chambers after one, two and four weeks. To investigate the ageing effect on the fire properties of the composite, fire testing was conducted using cone calorimetry according to ISO 5660-1. The test results showed that ageing does matter. There was an impact on the material and the fire properties were affected. The ignition time decreased for the aged samples and the heat release rate slightly increased. Also, the smoke production increased with ageing. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 8.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Markert, Frank
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Methods for accelerated ageing of composite materials: a review2018Ingår i: Nordic Fire & Safety Days, 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    New materials and designs enter the market every day. They have a great market potential needed for many applications. The future market for development and production of fibre reinforced composite materials (lightweight materials) is very promising, not only within advanced application such as aeronautics, but also in maritime industries, on modern ship vessels and in railway vehicles. As a result of this it is important to know the material properties and fire behaviour in order to ensure a high safety level [1].Materials are tested as “new” and un-aged, which means testing is performed on newly produced products and materials. Very little research has been done regarding fire performance of materials after aging [5].Accelerated ageing can be performed with different aspects and in numerous ways. One type of these can be called weathering and there are mainly four basic types of this ageing used for products and materials. They are: thermal ageing, exposure of high temperature during a selected time; moisture ageing, exposure of water or moisture; UV exposure, and radiation ageing. [5]These types of ageing can be performed in many ways and combinations. For example, thermal ageing can be performed at a selected temperature and time. But it can also be one part of a climate cycling were you have fixed periods with temperature exposure followed by moisture exposure and UV exposure. This cycle can be repeated a numerus of times [7].The degradation of composite materials and change in properties is slow at room temperature. It gets faster with increased temperature. Accelerated ageing is an intentional way to expose materials and products to a proper simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Accelerated ageing can cause the material properties to get worse, and an undesirable loss of functionality may be evolved [4].The behavior and material properties of fibre reinforced composites, after exposure of aggressive environmental conditions, shows changes, compared to new materials. After exposure of moisture, the fibres may result in damage and the material structure might be changed. After exposure of moisture and high temperature the durability of the composite is reduced [2].The Arrhenius Rate Law of accelerated ageing can be used to correlate the time in ageing climate. A generalization, supported by the Arrhenius Rate Laws, is that for a reaction in room temperature, the reaction rate doubles every 10°C increase in temperature [6].The objective of this work is to gather the most common methods to perform accelerated ageing, to see the variations between the methods and within the method.

  • 9.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Markert, Frank
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    The necessity of accelerated ageing in fire performance assessments of composite materials2021Ingår i: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 141, artikel-id 105358Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The market for lightweight fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites is growing. This is seen within advanced applications for e.g. aeronautics, modern ship vessels and railway vehicles. FRPs are often used to save weight, but the downside is that they are ignitable, which implies a potential higher fire risk. It is thus important to thoroughly characterise the material properties of FRPs, including the fire performance, in order to ensure a high safety level. Fire performance testing is made with newly produced materials to show the conformance to required standard test. However, the impact of ageing on the fire performance of materials and products is not mandatory information and hardly ever known. This is still an overlooked matter that is important to address for combustible materials in transport applications, where the requirements of personal safety are especially high. Accelerated ageing is a method to expose materials and products to various environmental parameters for a simulation of long-term usage. Within a few days, weeks or months the damage and degradation of the materials can occur, which normally would be after years in normal climate and after normal usage. Fire performance testing of test samples subjected to accelerated ageing would potentially give important information on the long-term safety of the end-use application of FRPs. The objective of this paper is twofold. One is to find out if the industry, society and research need to deal with the effect of ageing on materials in relation to fire safety as this is not dealt with in fire regulations. And further to identify the state-of-the-art of accelerated ageing methods relevant for Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) materials. In summary, the findings in the literature were limited of reported ageing effects of FRPs, with respect to the fire behaviour. An important conclusion is that there is a major lack of knowledge regarding material aging and fire behaviour, especially for FRPs. However, the identified ageing studies showed that both fire and mechanical properties were affected by ageing. The accelerated ageing methods described in literature was not consequently applied. The ageing methods were special designed for each study and application of material. All methods need a proper validation applying real time ageing. 

  • 10.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire safe bus interior materials – flame retardants and the effect on smoke production and smoke gas toxicity2023Ingår i: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The demands on bus interior products have increased with increasing sustainability, circularity and a reduction of harmful substances, today’s materials must be improved with regards of additives, such as flame retardants. A comprehensive study was made to evaluate the possibility to use phosphorous flame retardants (FRs) instead of the commonly used halogenated FRs compounded with ABS. The study showed that the fire performance could be improved with phosphorous FRs regarding heat release and smoke production. However, it was noted that the smoke production still was high, and that the smoke density was highest possible, i.e., no visibility through the smoke layer. Further testing of today’s bus interior materials showed that the high smoke density was achieved already after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that, in case of a fire, the visibility in the bus will be reduced and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. The bus fire regulation R118 for interior materials basically deals with burning rate and melting through a fine mesh. Critical fire parameters such as smoke production and smoke toxicity is not dealt with. The R118 regulation need to be improved with these critical parameters in order to have fire safe materials inside the bus.

  • 11.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    A modified specimen holder for cone calorimeter testing of composite materials to reduce influence from specimen edges2022Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 46, nr 1, s. 80-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    ISO 5660-1 specifies the cone calorimeter method for characterizing the ignition and surface burning behavior of materials. The specimen is irradiated through a square opening in the frame of the specimen holder. The frame is intended to protect the edges of the specimen from irradiation but covers the edges with only a few mm. In tests with products such as composite laminates and sandwich wall panels, the production of pyrolysis gases from the edges and, in many cases, burning have been observed. Early contribution from the edges in the test is not representative for surface burning. A modified specimen holder was developed with a larger specimen size to allow better protection of the edges. The opening for exposure to irradiance of the retainer frame is circular and of the same area as that of the original frame. The distance between the exposed surface and the specimen edges is larger in order to prevent early exposure of edges. Tests using the standard specimen holder resulted in pyrolysis and burning from edges that took place outside of the specimen holder. Comparative tests using the modified specimen holder showed that it prevented the exposure and pyrolysis from edges for an extended time. However, the influence on ignition time and peak heat release due to the increased size of the modified specimen holder has not been characterized fully, and test results should not be used for direct comparison with those of the standard holder.

  • 12.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sørensen, Lars
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Dederichs, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    The Effect of Accelerated Ageing on Reaction-to-Fire Properties–Composite Materials2022Ingår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 58, nr 3, s. 1305-1332Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As material age, the durability, strength, and other mechanical properties are impacted. The lifespan of a material generally decreases when exposed to weathering conditions such as wind, temperature, humidity, and light. It is important to have knowledge of how materials age and how the material properties are affected. Regarding materials´ fire behaviour and the effect of ageing on these properties, the knowledge is limited. The research questions of the current work are: Are the fire properties of composite materials affected by ageing? And if so, how is it affected? The study is on material at Technology Readiness Level 9 (TRL). In this study, three composite fibre laminates developed for marine applications were exposed to accelerated ageing. Two different ageing conditions were selected, thermal ageing with an increased temperature of 90°C and moisture ageing in a moderately increased temperature of 40°C and a relative humidity of 90%. Samples were collected after one, two and four weeks of ageing. The reaction-to-fire properties after ageing was evaluated using the ISO 5660–1 cone calorimeter and the EN ISO 5659–2 smoke chamber with FTIR gas analysis. The test results showed that the fire behaviour was affected. Two of the composite laminates, both phenolic/basalt composites, showed a deteriorated fire behaviour from the thermal ageing and the third composite laminate, a PFA/glass fibre composite, showed an improved fire behaviour both for thermal and moisture ageing. The smoke toxicity was affected by the accelerated ageing, especially for the PFA/glass fibre composite that showed a higher production of CO and HCN, both for the thermal aged and the moisture aged samples. © 2021, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredriksson, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Evaluation of smoke gas toxicity and smoke density of bus interior materials2023Ingår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, nr 2, s. 270-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Materials used for interior parts in buses are today fire classified according to UNECE Regulation 118, evaluating the horizontal and vertical burning rates and the melting behaviour. However, in recent accidents, the smoke has been identified as the critical parameter for deaths. An evaluation has been made of six materials used as interior parts in busses and is presented in this paper. Fire testing was conducted according to UNECE R 118 and smoke production including smoke gas toxicity was further evaluated with the smoke chamber test, EN ISO 5659-2 and EN 17084. All six tested materials fulfilled the requirements of UNECE R 118; however, most materials showed fire properties which are not desirable, such as dark smoke and melting of large burning pieces. The tests with the smoke chamber showed that all materials gave a very high smoke production, in fact a smoke density value of the highest possible for the equipment to measure. This occurred only after a few minutes of test time. Thus, it can be concluded that this high smoke production will, in case of fire in a bus, reduce the visibility, and limit the ability of the passengers to safely evacuate. In addition, several toxic gases were detected in the smoke, both irritants and suffocating gases. © 2022 The Authors.

  • 14.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Wind turbine tower made of wood exposed to a campfire2024Ingår i: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS Nordic Fire & Safety, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden , 2024, s. 25-Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 15.
    Sandinge, Anna
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ukaj, Kujtim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjögren, Anders
    Ad Manus Materialteknik, Sweden.
    Kompositlösningar inom sjöfarten - KOMPIS2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Composite solutions for marine applications - KOMPIS. Extensive research has been devoted to improving commercial shipping’s environmental footprint by focusing on lightweight constructions during the past decade. The biggest challenge to replacing steel structures with fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) is ensuring fire safety at sea. Ongoing electrification and its dependence on weight reduction has further increased the demand for lightweight solutions, and in particular composite solutions that provide satisfactory fire safety. The purpose of this study was to inform regional actors concerning the feasibility of FRP composite in ship structures to respond to the growing demand for fire-safe composite materials, and as a step towards more environmentally friendly vessels. Within the project, a comprehensive literature study was conducted to find available components for a composite laminate on the market. A comprehensive list with polymers, fibres and additives was compiled. A hybrid composite laminate consisting of fenol/glass and vinylester/glass was manufactured and protected with an intumescent coating. The composite laminate was evaluated with regards to fire performance and mechanical properties. The results showed no ignition in the fire testing and good mechanical performance.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Sjögren, Peter
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Maritima avdelningen.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Zhiyuan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kompositer för en hållbar sjöfart2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstudien ”Kompositer för en hållbar sjöfart” genomfördes som ett svar på lättviktsindustrins vilja att kartlägga de stötestenar som fortfarande hindrar fler och större tillämpningar av kompositmaterial inom sjöfarten. Allt sedan den första generationens Visby-korvetter sjösattes under tidigt 2000-tal har industrin visat att det går att tillverka stora fartyg i komposit med goda hållfasthets- och sjöegenskaper med låga underhållskrav. Trots detta så är potentialen i moderna lättviktsmaterial för sjöfarten underutnyttjad. I huvudsak kan stötestenarna delas upp i tre områden: brandegenskaper, kompetens och ekonomi. Därtill kan läggas osäkerhet vid drift i kalla klimat (isegenskaper) och återvinningsfrågor, som hinder för mer utbrett nyttjande av kompositer. Inom ramen för studien genomfördes isberäkningar för att visa på nya metoder att optimera kompositskrov och en tidigare förstudies resultat kompletterades med brandprover för nya brandskydd på begäran från industrin. Samtidigt visar förstudiens resultat att kompositer har en given plats i framtidens sjöfart på flera och nya sätt. Med framväxten av elektriska drivlinor är, precis som för flyg- och bilindustri, lättvikt en förutsättning för att kunna gå från ett bränsle med hög energidensitet till ett med lägre. Lättvikt är en möjliggörare för en eldriven flotta. Eldrift och fossilfria energibärare innebär också direkta innovationsmöjligheter kopplade till materialval. Strukturella batterier, bärplansteknik, termiskt och elektriskt ledande lättviktsmaterial är områden vi ser växa fram i kölvattnet av eldriftens framfart.

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  • 17.
    Wolter, Nick
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Beber, Vinicius
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Goethals, Frederik
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Marc
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Jubete, Elena
    CIDETEC, Spain.
    Mayer, Bernd
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Carbon, glass and basalt fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine: The effects of fiber reinforcement on mechanical, fire, smoke and toxicity properties2020Ingår i: Polymers, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 12, nr 10, artikel-id 2379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Bisphenol F and aniline-based benzoxazine monomers were selected to fabricate basalt, glass and carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine via vacuum infusion, respectively. The impacts of the type of fiber reinforcement on the resulting material properties of the fiber reinforced polymers (FRPs) were studied. FRPs exhibited a homogenous morphology with completely impregnated fibers and near-zero porosity. Carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine showed the highest specific mechanical properties because of its low density and high modulus and strength. However, regarding the flammability, fire, smoke and toxicity properties, glass and basalt reinforced polybenzoxazine outperformed carbon fiber reinforced polybenzoxazine. This work offers a deeper understanding of how different types of fiber reinforcement affect polybenzoxazinebased FRPs and provides access to FRPs with inherently good fire, smoke and toxicity performance without the need for further flame retardant additives. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 18.
    Wolter, Nick
    et al.
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Carrillo Beber, Vinicius
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Haubold, Thorben
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Sandinge, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Blomqvist, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Goethals, Frederick
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Van Hove, Marc
    CENTEXBEL, Belgium.
    Jubete, Elena
    BRTA, Spain.
    Mayer, Bernd
    University of Bremen, Germany; Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Koschek, Katharina
    Fraunhofer, Germany.
    Effects of flame-retardant additives on the manufacturing, mechanical, and fire properties of basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazine2021Ingår i: Polymer Engineering and Science, ISSN 0032-3888, E-ISSN 1548-2634, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 551-561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Basalt fiber-reinforced polybenzoxazines (BFRP) were manufactured through vacuum infusion using resorcinol bis (diphenyl phosphate) and poly-(m-phenylene methylphosphonate) together with bisphenol-F and aniline based benzoxazine. Different types and loadings of flame-retardant additives showed to have catalysis or dilution effects in viscosity measurements. BFRPs show well-penetrated fibers and near-zero porosity. Additive addition did not influence tensile properties, while apparent interlaminar shear strength decreased indicating a lower adhesion between fiber and matrix. BFRP's heat and smoke release properties increased, though time to ignition increased and flammability behavior improved by decreasing delamination yielding oxygen indices in between 72 and 91%. © 2020 The Authors. 

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