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  • 1.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Explaining business model innovation processes: A problem formulation and problem solving perspective2022In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 105, p. 223-239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explains the business model innovation processes in industrial firms. Drawing on three case studies of leading business-to-business firms shifting from product-based to service-based business models, it introduces problems as a theoretical concept to explain business model innovation processes. We show how formulating and solving problems guide the search for a viable business model and why some problem formulation and solving activities lead firms to shift between backward-looking and forward-looking searches. The decision to shift to a forward-looking search is triggered by the perception of failure to continue with an established way of working, while the shift to a backward-looking search is based on the perception of high alternative costs. We contribute to the business model innovation and servitization literature by theorizing the process of business model innovation and providing implications for managers.

  • 2.
    Björkdahl, Joakim
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Holmén, Magnus
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Organizing for parallel business models in established firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior business model innovation research has paid little attention to the various choices and decisions of organizing for parallel business models. This paper explores how established firms organize for new business models that are to be run in parallel with their primary business model. Empirically we study how Skanska and IKEA, two multinational corporations developed new business models by industrializing construction. Neither full separation nor full integration was a panacea for how to organize a new business model running in parallel with the primary because the firms were unable to determine what to organizationally integrate or separate prior to implementation of the new business model. The paper argues that firms are unlikely to know how to organize for parallel business models before they know how the new business model will operate.

  • 3.
    Boyer, Robert
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Algurén, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Hunka, Agnieszka
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Three-dimensional product circularity2021In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 824-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Understanding product circularity as ?three-dimensional? could anchor the Circular Economy to common principles while affording its followers flexibility about how to measure it in their specific sectors and disciplines and within their organization's means. Inspired by a heuristic developed for the urban planning profession to cope with the inherent conflicts of Sustainable Development, this article argues that measuring product-level circularity should consider ways to achieve (1) high material recirculation, (2) high utilization, and (3) high endurance in products and service offerings. Achieving all three dimensions ensures that material flowing through the economy is recovered from prior use phases, that it is used intensely, and that it retains its value in spite of exogenous changes. The article argues further that these three dimensions ought to be measured and reported separately rather than as a composite metric and that certain applications will have opportunities to improve circularity through certain dimensions better than others. The article also explains how researchers at RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden AB) are working with industry and government partners to measure the three dimensions and how diverse actors interested in the Circular Economy can use the three dimensions to take the first steps in their transition to circularity.

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  • 4.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Ljungstrand, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Nilsson-Lindén, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Product Realisation Methodology.
    Stor Swienkels, Niels
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Bekken Björkman, Max
    Chalmers industriteknik, Sweden.
    Kazmierczak, Karolina
    Chalmers industriteknik, Sweden.
    Klint, Maria
    antrop, Sweden.
    Glimskär, Therese
    antrop, Sweden.
    Mair, Amanda
    antrop, Sweden.
    Produktpass som möjliggörare för cirkulära möbelflöden: Slutrapport2024Report (Other academic)
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  • 5.
    Diener, Derek
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Vanacore, Emanuela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Ways of operating in business ecosystems to drive circular transitions2021In: New Business Models in a Decade of Action:  Sustainable • Evidence-based • Impactful. Full Conference Proceedings. New Business Models 2021, Halmstad, Sweden, 2021, p. 150-156Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy megatrend demands that manufacturing firms change their business model, implying that great changes must happen in business ecosystems. This short paper is based on observations from research in three ecosystems and identifies avenues firms can take in business ecosystems when orchestrating implementation of circular economy goals.

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  • 6.
    Dopfer, Martina
    et al.
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Fallahi, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kirchberger, Markus
    Porsche AG, Germany.
    Gassmann, Oliver
    University of St Gallen, Switzerland.
    Adapt and strive: How ventures under resource constraints create value through business model adaptations2017In: Creativity and Innovation Management, ISSN 0963-1690, E-ISSN 1467-8691, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 233-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks into how new ventures organize their business models in order to meet their available resources. It employs the business model as the unit of analysis to investigate the role and nature of business model adaptation as a coping mechanism with resource constraints. By drawing on a case study with two ventures starting with different resources, the paper shows how those ventures use business model adaptation under resource constraints as a way to create comparable offerings. Business model adaptation involves a process of continuous search, selection, and improvement in value creation, value proposition, and value capture, based on the surrounding environment. For the two new ventures included in this study, early business model adaptations were related to (1) market — geography and customer, (2) strategy — marketing, sales, and growth, (3) profit — profit formula and cost structure, and (4) structures, processes, and capabilities. This paper also shows how the adaptation process is conditioned by the venture's stock and flow of resources. Bringing a resource perspective into the process of business model adaptation implies practical implications for new ventures that are developing and adapting their business models to strategically co‐develop their offering with their resources such that they match required adaptations. 

  • 7.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers, Technology Management and Economics, Entrepreneurship and Strategy.
    A Process View of Business Model Innovation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an era of globalization, cross-fertilization of technologies and industries, and changing markets, firms are introducing new ways of creating or capturing value through Business Model Innovations (BMI). In recent years, BMI has become one of the priorities of practitioners, and has attracted the interest of scholars since product or process innovations on their own are perceived insufficient in the current internet era when other sources of competitive advantage are being needed. However, BMI can be difficult to manage for many firms, and despite increasing debate in the field, there is a lack of understanding about how BMI processes unfold. The purpose of this thesis is to explore BMI processes in multiple industrial and organizational contexts. To achieve this, the thesis is based on four papers written during the course of this PhD research which draw on empirical studies of diverse industries such as manufacturing, automotive, construction, publishing, and home furnishing. The firms studied in this thesis are new ventures developing new Business Models (BMs), Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs), and multinational corporations that have been working with BMI, either in parallel or as a substitute to their existing BMs. The empirical observations support the distinction of two approaches to BMI: purposeful and unintentional. Purposeful BMI tends to be planned and starts with attentive cognitive search for a new BM, including recursive conceptualization, creation and offline evaluation of alternative BMs. The process is followed by experiential learning and adaptation of the new BM. Unintentional BMI refers to the emergence of a new BM as an outcome of the resolution of one or a number of major BM problems, to support other innovation activities. Thus, unintentional BMI processes take off from existing BMs and are characterized by a sequence of major problem formulation and solving which are orchestrated by shifts between experiential and cognitive search for solutions. My observations suggest that the antecedents to BMI may explain why in some cases, BMIs emerge unintentionally and in others firms embark purposefully on BMI. I discuss organizational implementation of BMIs in relation to how firms decide about the degree of separation and integration between parallel BMs. It is argued that the decision about how to structure parallel BMs cannot be made ex ante but emerges through the process of search for a new BM.   The contributions of this thesis are threefold; First it contributes to the emerging conceptualizations of BMI processes by explaining how BMI processes unfold in the two distinct spaces of ‘new BM design’ and ‘existing BM transformation’. Second, the thesis contributes to the BMI literature by introducing problem as a mechanism and theoretical construct for understanding BMI processes in established firms. While the prior literature emphasizes patterns of shift between cognitive search and experiential learning when firms search for a new BM, they do not explain under what circumstances firms embark on either mode of search. Using the problem as the unit of analysis provides an important theoretical basis for conceptualizing the dynamics of the BM by understanding sequential shifts between the two modes of learning along the BMI process. Third, the thesis contributes to the growing debates on how to organize parallel BMs by showing that what is to be separated between the BMs depends on the specific context of the firm. Prior to answering the question of how separated parallel BMs should be, firms need to make sure that they have a viable BM and understand how it operates.

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  • 8.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    In Search of a Route Map: Exploring Business Model Innovation Processes in Established Firms2018In: Academy of Management Proceedings, 2018, Vol. 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the millennium, discussion of business models as important vehicles and sources of innovation has increased. This paper explores the process of business model innovation in seven established firms from various industries. The findings provide evidence that business model innovation can follow a purposeful, or an unintentional and emerging process. Purposeful business model innovation occurs under conditions of perceived threats and is characterized by greater uncertainty, and the parallel design and implementation of several new business model elements that are organized in a separate business. The analyses reveal also that when embarking on the emerging process, the intention of managers was not necessarily to renew the firm's business model but rather to work on the design and development of a new value proposition. However, the complementarities among business model elements directed their attention to the changes required in other business model elements which ultimately resulted in a new business model as the process outcome. The main contribution of this paper is therefore to business model research by providing an explanatory, rather than prescriptive, approach to the process of business model innovation.

  • 9.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Jersler Fransson, Cajsa
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Sandberg Jadaan, Taline
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Nordström, Eva
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Lindberg, Jouni
    Sjöfartsverket, Sweden.
    Recruitment Equality & Diversity Opportunities: Slutrapport för forskningsprojektet ’Rekrytering till sjöfarten – måste sjömän vara män?’2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When the #metoo movement became viral in the world, women in shipping in Sweden started their own appeal that raised a large number of issues concerning the social work environment on board which became the starting point for the initiative Fair Winds in 2018.

    Fair Winds is a collaboration between collaboration between industry association/ employers´organisation, trade unions, academia, authorities, student associations and non-profit organisations in the Swedish shipping sector with an objective to create a shipping sector with world class work environment with a zero vision of harassment and discrimination for everyone working in the shipping sector in Sweden.

    Supported by the Fair Winds, research project REDO (Recruitment Equality & Diversity Opportunities) started in January 2020 in a collaboration between RISE Research Institutes of Sweden and the Swedish Maritime Administration with a vision to improve the social work environment from a gender equality perspective.

    The purpose of REDO is to create a safe and inclusive shipping industry where more women will want to apply for jobs at sea, and feel motivated and inspired to stay. It is an approach that needs to include everyone, from top management to every employee.

    In this project, we have applied ‘Design Thinking’ as the overarching, user-centered problem formulation and solving approach. To identify driving forces and obstacles for increasing diversity and recruitment of more women in the shipping industry, we have conducted surveys, interviews, and workshops with women that are currently or have previously worked in the shipping industry at different roles. A benchmark study of other male-dominated industries and their diversity strategies through marketing and communication, mentorship and networks, and challenging existing norms and work cultures has provided inspiration for how the shipping industry can address equality and diversity to improve the social work environment.

    This report intends to summarize the results and insights generated through the course of this project and to offer recommendations for how the shipping industry can continue to promote diversity by offering a social work environment which is built on three cornerstones of safety, inclusion, and motivation. More detailed documentations of results from the different studies conducted are supplemented to this report as four appendices. 

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    Slutrapport
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    Bilaga A
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    Bilaga B
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    Bilaga C
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    Bilaga D
  • 10.
    Fallahi, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Mogren, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Zec, Edvin Listo
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Algurén, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Hallquist, Lukas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Financing solutions for circular business models: Exploring the role of business ecosystems and artificial intelligence2023In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 32, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy promotes a transition away from linear modes of production and consumption to systems with circular material flows that can significantly improve resource productivity. However, transforming linear business models to circular business models posits a number of financial consequences for product companies as they need to secure more capital in a stock of products that will be rented out over time and therefore will encounter a slower, more volatile cash flow in the short term compared to linear direct sales of products. This paper discusses the role of financial actors in circular business ecosystems and alternative financing solutions when moving from product-dominant business models to Product-as-a-Service (PaaS) or function-based business models. Furthermore, the paper demonstrates a solution where state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) modeling can be incorporated for financial risk assessment. We provide an open implementation and a thorough empirical evaluation of an AI-model, which learns to predict residual value of stocks of used items. Furthermore, the paper highlights solutions, managerial implications, and potentials for financing circular business models, argues the importance of different forms of data in future business ecosystems, and offers recommendations for how AI can help mitigate some of the challenges businesses face as they transition to circular business models. © 2022 The Authors. 

  • 11.
    Olsson, Linda
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Diener, Derek
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Circular Business Models for Extended EV Battery Life2018In: Batteries, ISSN 2313-0105, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, a large volume of electric vehicle (EV) batteries will reach their end-of-life in EVs. However, they may still retain capacity that could be used in a second life, e.g., for a second use in an EV, or for home electricity storage, thus becoming part of the circular economy instead of becoming waste. The aim of this paper is to explore second life of EV batteries to provide an understanding of how the battery value chain and related business models can become more circular. We apply qualitative research methods and draw on data from interviews and workshops with stakeholders, to identify barriers to and opportunities for second use of EV batteries. New business models are conceptualized, in which increased economic viability of second life and recycling and increased business opportunities for stakeholders may lead to reduced resource consumption. The results show that although several stakeholders see potential in second life, there are several barriers, many of which are of an organizational and cognitive nature. The paper concludes that actors along the battery value chain should set up new collaborations with other actors to be able to benefit from creating new business opportunities and developing new business models together.

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  • 12.
    Selvefors, Anneli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Nordenö, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Einebrant, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Whalen, Katherine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Leivas, Matilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    How can games aid co-design of user-centered circular offerings?2023In: Proc. 5th PLATE 2023 Conference., 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Widespread adoption of circular offerings, including those based on products with prolonged lifetimes, depend on offers which are attractive to users. To develop such offers, user needs must be considered in depth during the development process. Co-design is a promising approach to develop user-centered solutions but is yet underexplored when it comes to design of circular offerings. To facilitate co-design of circular offerings, games present one opportunity but have previously primarily been used to support understanding, creation, and learning in relation to circular economy. This paper explores how games can support co-design of user-centred circular offerings by presenting insights from an analysis of existing circularity-related games and summarizing insights from literature. Eight circularity-related games were played to identify benefits and drawbacks. Relevant literature was also reviewed to synthesise recommendations for a game aimed at supporting co-design of user-centred circular offerings. The results show none of the existing circularity-related games include a deep understanding of users’ needs and only a few go beyond mere learning and actually contribute to developing companies’ offerings. Identified recommendations suggest games will have higher potential to support co-design of user-centred circular offerings if they, for example, enable co-design with users and co-creation with multiple stakeholders in the business ecosystem, provide game elements that represent circular challenges and opportunities in a realistic and dynamic way, and create bridges from the game to the real world. Future game development should hence take such recommendations into account, while ensuring the developed games do not become too complicated to play.

  • 13.
    Selvefors, Anneli
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Whalen, Katherine A.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Leivas, Matilda
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Nordenö, Hanna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Fransson, Alexandra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    User-centered circular value propositions – approaches in practice and research2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 207, article id 107628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular value propositions enable companies to build business models based on value preservation and circular resource flows. Circular value propositions also allow people to live more sustainably by facilitating increased utilization and resource efficiency. However, despite potential, transitions to circular business models remain low. One reason may be that circular value propositions are less attractive because they are often not developed with a user-centered approach and thus fail to meet people’s everyday needs. Through interviews with 13 companies and a literature study, this paper explores how companies consider user needs and involve users during development of circular value propositions. It also identifies conditions and actions that aid development of attractive circular offers. The findings are synthesized in a framework describing six enabling conditions and a definition of user-centered circular value propositions useful for circular economy practice and research. 

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  • 14.
    Whalen, Katherine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Renström, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Selvefors, Anneli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Einebrant, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Opportunities for Co-Designing Circular Business Models with Game-Based Approaches - A literature and practice review2022In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on New Business Models, 2022, p. 540-542Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Zec, Edvin Listo
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Mogren, Olof
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Fallahi, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Alguren, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Residual value prediction using deep learning2022In: Proceedings - 2022 IEEE International Conference on Big Data, Big Data 2022, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2022, p. 4560-4567Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Great environmental problems are facing us at an unprecedented level.One way of approaching these global challenges is by transitioning from a linear economy to a circular one. In a circular economy, product and material flows become circular, which can significantly improve resource efficiency for environmental sustainability. This can help with minimizing waste and pollution and aid in the regeneration of nature.Meanwhile, transitioning from linear business models to circular business models (CBMs) often leads to a number of financial risks for product companies, since they need to secure more capital in a stock of products that will be rented out over time. This leads to a slower, more volatile cash flow in the short term compared to linear direct sales of products.In this work, we address this problem by reducing the uncertainty of the future value of products. This can increase the willingness among financiers to be part of the development of new circular business models (CBMs). In particular, we study the predictability of online auction end prices using machine learning. The models are trained and evaluated on data collected from a Swedish online auction site.Our results show that deep learning is able to model the residual value of second-hand items on the market using user-uploaded text and images. Our hypothesis is that this technique will be useful to estimate the value of second-hand inventories and to help estimate the value of circular businesses, aiding in a transition from a linear to a circular economy. 

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