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  • 1.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of supplementary cementitious materials on climate impact of concrete bridges exposed to chlorides2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 188, p. 391-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach a specific service life of reinforced concrete structures a certain cover thickness is needed. At present, this is regulated by national standards that also limit the amount and type of supplementary cementitious materials in different exposure environments. The regulations do not, however, consider the actual durability performance of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. As a consequence, the LCA results might be misleading. This paper shows the environmental impact of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials in chloride environment considering their specific performances. Prescriptive and performance based service life prediction models for chloride ingress are applied and compared.

  • 2.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hadi, Mohammad
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Neaz Sheikh, M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars: A simplified study on columns2019In: Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, International Federation for Structural Concrete , 2019, p. 1998-2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete has a significant influence on the global warming due to its high usage in the construction industry. There are a few different strategies to increase the sustainability potential of concrete structures. Most of these strategies involve reduction of the total clinker content. One strategy, which is often neglected due to its complexity, is to increase the durability of the concrete structure. By increasing the durability, the need for repair and maintenance is reduced and thus less resources are consumed during the service life. One of the main deterioration mechanisms in concrete structures is the corrosion of steel reinforcement. A strategy to increase the service life of concrete structures in harsh environment would therefore be to increase the durability of concrete or to use low- or non-corrosive reinforcement instead of traditional steel reinforcement. This paper focuses on the latter. Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars are non-corrosive and have emerged as an alternative to steel bars in reinforced concrete structures in harsh environment. They have other mechanical properties than steel and opens for alternative mix designs for concrete. However, the environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars has not been fully investigated and most life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies have an exchange ratio of 1:1 between GFRP and steel bars despite differences in the mechanical properties. This paper studies the climate impact of concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars through an LCA methodology, focusing on the functional unit.

  • 3.
    During, Otto
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Life cycle cost analysis on impregnated bridge edge beams2014In: Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 441–446-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    the edge beams. However, results from this study pointed out that in most cases there is a clear economic benefit to impregnate the bridge edge beams even if it has to be repeated every 15 years.

  • 4.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Petersson, Örjan
    Strängbetong, Sweden.
    Textile reinforced concrete sandwich panels2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, , p. 169-172p. 169-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main reason for the thickness of a concrete sandwich element is the requirement for the protective concrete cover for the steel reinforcement. By changing the steel reinforcement to non-corrosive textile fibre net this requirement could be strongly reduced. Use of textile reinforced concrete (TRC) makes it possible to produce much thinner and slimmer concrete facades in the future without changing their mechanical properties. This article presents selected results from Tekocrete project (Formas-BIC) concerning pilot production, modelling and full-scale testing of new light weight sandwich elements reinforced with AR glass and carbon fibre nets.

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  • 5.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Alternative anchorage systems for textile reinforced concrete elements.2013In: First International Conference on Concrete Sustainability. Tokyo. 2013-05-27--29, JCI , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Garcia, Oihana
    et al.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Definition of the procedure to determine the suitability and durability of an anti-graffiti product for application on cultural heritage porous materials2012In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 77–82-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Ollandezos, Pavlos
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Vidareutveckling av provningsmetod för klotterskyddsprodukter för betongytor2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Further development of a test method for anti-graffiti products for concrete surfaces Modified test methods for the performance of anti-graffiti coatings are presented in this report. As a base a test method applied in Sweden since is used which involves outdoor exposure of concrete slabs on which the coatings are applied followed by application of the graffiti and cleaning. The modifications are based on a review of methods existing in other countries, discussions with producers of anti-graffiti coatings and a test program carried out at RISE in Borås. The tests were carried out with two sacrificial coatings and some permanent coatings. In the latter case the graffiti is applied and cleaned ten times. In the existing method, the outdoor exposure is said to be three months. However, it was found that when this exposure takes place, in winter or in summer, greatly influenced the protective capability of the coating. In this project the influence of three different exposures were investigated; three month summer exposure, three month winter exposure and twelve month exposure. The test showed that the three-month summer exposure and the twelve-month exposure gave comparable results. Hence prolonging the exposure period is not necessary. However, very deviating results were obtained after the three-month winter exposure. The evaluation of the protective capability is started with a visual inspection against certain specified assessment criteria on remaining stains and visible marks of graffiti. If the coating met the assessment criteria for the visual inspection, assessment criteria on colour changes measured with a colour measuring device shall also be met. Separate assessment criteria for measured colour changes are used for sacrificial and for permanent anti-graffiti coatings. For a sacrificial coating, the assessment criterium is given in relation to the original concrete surface, while for a permanent coating the assessment criterium is formulated in relation to the exposed surface. It was found that the performance requirement on changes in gloss was irrelevant. In the revised method the selection of colour types and water temperature and pressure used in pressure washing has been modified to be consistent with praxis. The drying between cycles including application of graffiti and cleaning was shortened. The method is divided into two methods; one for sacrificial anti-graffiti coatings and one for permanent anti-graffiti coatings that does not require the use of chemical compounds. The latter method is not applicable to permanent anti-graffiti coatings which need the help of chemical products to give satisfactory cleaning.

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  • 8.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 9.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Gabrielsson, Ida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kortversion av SVU-rapport 2022:5 ”Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar”2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This RISE report is a short version of SVU report 2022:5 “Klimatförbättrad betong för dricksvattenanläggningar” (Low carbon concrete for drinking water infrastructure). The purpose of the project was to clarify if the carbon footprint of concrete for drinking water infrastructure can be lowered by replacing Portland cement with supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) accepted for use in concrete without influencing the quality of the drinking water negatively with regard to trace substances and PAH. In addition to reviewing the literature, leaching tests and LCA analyses were conducted on thirteen concretes mixes with varying binder compositions. The results show that it is possible to replace up to 50 % of the cement with the SCMs, ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), silica fume and fly ash. All this may be GGBS and up to 35 % fly ash may be used. This is valid under condition that a drinking water facility which in its entirety is new drinking goes through a tuning period of some days up to a week during which the water quality is monitored before water is delivered to clients. Leaching of some substances is somewhat increased and others are decreased by the replacement of the cement, however the changes are so small that the content in the drinking water in a real facility is only marginally influenced. Which type of binder to use should be decided based on other these materials influence on other concrete properties, for instance on the strength development. The decrease of the carbon footprint is roughly proportional to the cement replacement ratio.

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  • 10.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Microstructure and functional properties of rock materials2007In: Materials Characterization, Vol. 58, p. 1183-1188Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Assessment of mechanical durability properties of rock materials using quantitative microscopy and image analysis2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a project that focuses on the assessment of mechanical durability properties using quantitative microscopy. The project was financed by SGU under grant 03-1174/98. The aim has been to develop methods for assessment and presentation of rock quality data. Both optical and SEM/BSE microscopy were applied and combined with computerised image analysis and manual methods for the quantitative analysis. The first part of the project was to produce a literature overview of image analysis as applied to rock materials. A method for assessment of resistance to fragmentation of granitic rocks comparable with the Los Angeles test has been developed. By means of a quantitative description of foliation using a foliation index, FIX, it is possible to assess the potential length-thickness ratio of the crushed aggregate. Methods developed in the main part of the project have been applied in related areas. These include crack initiation and propagation under cyclic loading and cyclic thermal stress.

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  • 12.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Anti-graffiti systems on masonry in the scope of the Federal Motorway System2011In: Bautechnik, ISSN 0932-8351, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blick för forskning2014In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Consolidation of Gotland sandstone2004In: 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 2004, , p. 447-454Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Effekten av impregnering och klotterskydd är oklar2009In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klotter kostar runt en miljard årligen. Ett problem är att det saknas testmetoder för att avgöra om ett klotterskydd är effektivt mot klotter och smuts på en viss typ av yta. Inom kulturvård används impregnering för att förstärka byggnadsmaterial.

  • 16.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Klotterskydd: hur effektivt är det på betong och natursten?2008In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 17.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Marknaden är inte mogen för alternativa (eller nya) bindemedel i betongkonstruktionen2014In: Svensk Byggtidning, ISSN 2000-8880, no 6, p. 102-103Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Microscopic studies of the first steps in the chemical weathering of marble, limestone and sandstone2001In: Proceedings of the 8th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Buildings Materials, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny fasad med textilarmering2012In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny VD2014In: Svensk Bergs & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, Vol. 93, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textil armering kan bli verklighet2012In: Betong.se, no 11 AprilArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong för renovering av fasader2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Utgenannt, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Kartläggning av befintlig provningsverksamhet för cement och betong i Sverige och bedömning av provningsbehov vid introduktion av nya cement2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten presenterar resultat från projektet ‘Kartläggning av befintlig provnings-verksamhet för cement och betong i Sverige och bedömning av provningsbehov vid introduktion av nya cement’. Mot bakgrund av en minskad eller stoppad produktion av cement vid Cementas fabrik i Slite gav Regeringen Verket för innovationssystem (VINNOVA) den 3 november 2021 i uppdrag att kartlägga befintlig provningsverksamhet för cement och betong (N2021/02773) som finns tillgänglig för svenska aktörer och att föreslå åtgärder som kan skapa förutsättningar för en samordning vid en kraftigt ökad efterfrågan på denna verksamhet. Denna rapport behandlar hur provningsbehovet kan komma att utvecklas vid stopp i den svenska cementproduktionen i Slite vilket resulterar i ett behov av introduktion av stora volymer av ett eller flera nya cement under kort tid. Denna händelse benämns i rapporten förenklat som “cementkris”. Rapporten pekar på några förutsättningar som bör gälla för att ett cementbyte skall kunna genomföras rimligt kontrollerat. I rapporten görs det inte någon bedömning av hur byggbranschen eller samhället i stort skulle påverkas av en cementkris. Det görs inte heller någon analys av vem som tillser att produktions-bortfallet från Slite ersätts med annat cement eller varifrån detta cement kan komma. För en bedömning av provningsbehovet av betong har detta inte någon avgörande betydelse. Ett nytt cement från Kina kräver för betongtillverkaren lika mycket provning som ett nytt cement från närområdet i Europa eller för den delen Sverige. Förutsatt att cementet i sig är CE-märkt och uppfyller svenska krav.

    Den huvudsakliga slutsatsen är att: Under förutsättning att inte avkall får göras på de krav som ställs på cement och betong i Sverige idag krävs det att nu använda och nya cement finns tillgängliga parallellt under en övergångsperiod på minst två och ett halvt år. Detta gäller främst betong till anläggningskonstruktioner och infrastrukturprojekt där kraven på kvalitetssäkring via provning på ackrediterade laboratorier är hög. På grund av ökat provningsbehov går det inte att genomföra ett omfattande byte av cement på ett stort antal betongfabriker under kort tid utan betydande störningar och stopp i betongleveranser till svenska byggarbetsplatser, om inte nu använda och nya cement finns tillgängliga parallellt. Inom husbyggnadsområdet är behoven av provning på ackrediterade laboratorier lägre. Hur snabbt och smidigt ett byte av cement kan göras för husbyggnadsbetong avgörs i stället av möjligheterna att utföra nödvändiga interna provningar och intrimningar på fabrikerna.

    Om nu använda och nya cement till anläggningsbyggandet finns tillgängliga parallellt under minst två och ett halvt år är bedömningen att nödvändig ökning av provnings-kapacitet hinner byggas upp samtidigt som ett byte från nu använda till nya cement kan göras på ett rimligt kontrollerat sätt med avseende på behovet av extern provning. Detta förutsätter emellertid att samtliga nya cement är CE-märkta och uppfyller svenska krav samt en samordning av provningskapaciteten inom vissa kritiska provnings-områden. För att öka provningskapaciteten på nationell nivå inom kritiska provnings-områden krävs en noggrann planering av hur en sådan utökning skall genomföras (lokaler, utrustning, kompetens, vem som skall vara huvudman) och vem som skall bekosta en sådan ökning av provningskapaciteten.

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  • 24.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Experimental study on the variation in porosity of marble as a function of temperature2003In: Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies, Vol. 205, p. 81-88Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Tekniska textilier i betong2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 26.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Use of technical textiles for modification of concrete surface2012In: Restoration of Building and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mjörnell, Kristina
    Ställ tekniska egenskapskrav och använd deklarationerna2014In: Energi & Miljö, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Combadura y dilatación de paneles de piedra natural: ensayo y evaluación de mármol y caliza2008In: Materiales de construcción, ISSN 0465-2746, E-ISSN 1988-3226, Vol. 58, no 289-290, p. 97-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Conformity Assessment of Stone in Amman, Jordan2006Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Field exposure sites and accelerated laboratory test of marble panels2004In: Proceedings of the international conference on Dimension Stone 2004, 14-17 June 2004, Prague, Czech Republic, Taylor & Francis Group plc, A.A Balkema Publishers , 2004, , p. 261-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of thin marble and limestone for facade cladding has increased substantially during the last five decades. The durability of thin slabs (often only 30 mm thick) has been assumed to be satisfactory based on centuries of successful use as a structural building stone. Nevertheless, all over the world, the long-term deformation and strength loss of some claddings have led to concerns about its safe and durable use. The detailed assessment of marble and limestone within TEAM (see also www.sp.se/building/team) is used to develop a hypothesis for the observed deterioration and to develop remedial actions. This paper describes the field exposure sites, the accelerated test, and presents parts of the results. The results indicates that all marbles bow, but at different magnitudes. The marbles demonstrate diurnal and seasonal variation in bowing and dependence on the thickness and impregnation. The final evaluation of the results will be presented in 2005.

  • 31.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong ger lättare konstruktioner2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    REr.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Alkali Resistance of Textile Reinforcement for Concrete Façade Panels2014In: XXII NORDIC CONCRETE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM, 2014, , p. 61-64, Publication no. 50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete has been proven to be a suitable solution for the production of thin and lightweight façade panels. Despite it being researched over the past decade, its long-term durability is not sufficiently characterized. This article presents experimental results from accelerated aging and direct tensile testing of various textile reinforcement alternatives according to ISO 10406-1. Based on the results, a large degeneration of the glass and basalt fibre bars was observed after 30 days of immersion. As for carbon fibre grids, no significant difference in ultimate tensile force was noted before and after immersion.

  • 33.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Microscopic and macroscopic characterisation of the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation.2006In: Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, p. 939-947Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Microscopic studies of the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation.2004In: 10th Int Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 2004, , p. 131-138Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Development of pore structure and hydrate phases of binder pastes blended with slag, fly ash and metakaolin – A comparison2015In: ICCC 2015 Beijing: The 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blended binder systems in concrete have been in use for many years. However, over the recent discussions on the sustainability of cement and concrete the topic became of paramount importance for the construction industry. In Sweden blended binder systems in concrete were applied fairly recently and supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) were not used largely before. In Sweden over the last 30 years engineering structures were built, with exceptions, with a low alkali, sulfate resistant Portland cement due to domestic requirements. Therefore, in context to blended binder systems durability is a major point being discussed. Most interest lays in the resistance towards frost, carbonation and chloride penetration and the experience with blended systems was limited. It is therefore the goal of this study to investigate blended binder systems over a longer hydration period of up to two years in context to durability. The results presented here will focus on the porosity and hydrate phase development within the first 90 days of hydration. In this study in total 9 different binder blends were studied. The blends included different replacement levels with granulated blast furnace slag from a Swedish producer, fly ash from a Danish power plant and commercially available metakaolin. The matrix included also one set of factory-blended cements (with interground fly ash and slag). The pore structure was investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), phase development by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results are based on the evaluation of binder paste samples. Compared to a reference series consisting of a CEM I the slag containing series showed a continuous decrease of the total pore volume with increasing slag content over 90 days of hydration. The phase development showed a constant increase in monosulfate and hydrotalcite. The amount of these phases increased with increasing slag content. Notable was consumption of C4AF, which increased with the amount of slag and a decrease of C2S reaction. Compared to the reference Portland cement paste the fly ash containing pastes showed increased total pore volumes when the fly ash was just added. For the cement paste with interground fly ash the porosity development was the same as for the reference paste. The phase development for these series showed up to 28 days of hydration formation of ettringite, hemicarbonate and monocarbonate. After 91 days monosulfate was dominating and the amount of hemicarbonate was decreasing. The paste series with 15 % metakaolin showed a strong decrease in total pore volume compared to the reference series within 2 days. Afterwards the pore volume almost leveled to a constant value. The hydration phases included in the beginning large amounts of monosulfate, ettringite and hemicarbonate but changed after 91 days in favor to ettringite and monocarbonate. The metakaolin blend showed the lowest amounts of portlandite in all series, indicating a strong pozzolanic reactivity. The different hydrate phases, in particular AFm phases can help to explain a different behavior towards, e.g. chloride binding. The pore structure development has a large impact not only on strength development but also for ion and moisture transport as well as for carbonation in all series.

  • 36.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Influence of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity on cleaning graffiti on concrete panels and natural stones2012In: Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting III (ICCRRR), TAYLOR and FRANCIS GROUP, LONDON, UK , 2012, p. 269-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-Graffiti Systems (AGS) are meant to make the cleaning process more efficient by inserting a layer between the paint and the substrate. This layer can have a low surface energy thus make it difficult for the paint to stick to the substrate or it may be easily removed together with the paint. This paper is presenting results from a study of how hydrophobicity and oleophobicity influence the cleaning efficiency of graffiti paints from concrete and natural stones. The results demonstrated that high hydrophobicity and high oleophobicity are not guaranteeing satisfying cleaning effects. The physical properties of a substrate in combination with the characteristics of the AGS layer decide about the cleaning effect.

  • 37.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Plusquellec, Gilles
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Potential for use of activated clays in concrete in Sweden – Roadmap2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish construction industry is generating a save and affordable built environment for transport, work and living but it is faced with a huge challenge: drastic reduction of greenhouse gases and an increase of circularity in their production cycles. One material, which has inherently embodied CO2, is limestone, which is needed for the production of Portland cement, the essential ingredient in concrete. The CO2 emission during cement production can be drastically compensated by so called supplementary cementitious materials (SCM), which replace cement components causing CO2 emissions. SCM can be used by incorporating them into Portland cement or can be used directly by mixing into concrete. However, traditionally used SCM such as ground granulated blast furnace slag or fly ash are only available in limited amounts in Sweden, not matching the domestic cement production. An alternative to those more traditional SCM is activated or calcined clay, which reacts similar to blast furnace slag or fly ash. Calcined clay is created from natural clays by heating up to 700 ° - 800 °C, where it become very reactive. In this roadmap the state-of-the-art about activated clays is shown from a Swedish perspective. It also shows challenges and needs that have been formulated for a future implementation of activated clays as a component of low carbon concrete.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Report in fulltext
  • 38.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Schlegel, Moriz-Caspar
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Emmerling, Franziska
    BAM Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    Novel techniques for studying damage mechanisms of cementitious matrices affected by sulphate attack2012In: fib symposium Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community / [ed] Bager, D.H., Silfwerbrand, J., 2012, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the presented study novel methods were applied to analyse the changes of the cement phase composition due to sulphate attack. The analytical methods were based on spatial x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation and incoherent white x-ray radiation. The spatial resolution of the methods is ca. 10 μm and 400 μm, respectively. The specimens for phase analysis consisted of thick sections of sulphate exposed cement paste specimen. Different cement pastes showed a clear evolution in the sulphate and phase distribution. Phase analytical data was compared to chemical information acquired by SEM-EDX analysis.

  • 39.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chozas, Valle
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larraza, Inigo
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    da Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements: A sustainable approach2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized for external fa¸cade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market are usually expensive and less sustainable due to high cement clinker contents. In this study, improved RPC formulations with higher amounts of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were developed. The formulations were combined with different types of reinforcements ranging from steel fibres to fibre textile grids primarily to enhance the ductility and tensile strength of the composite material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to ca. 40% of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mixes could still be achieved. A fairly steep strength gain rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The materials displayed good flow properties and a reasonably short initial setting time. The incorporation of carbon textile fibre grids proved to be highly effective in improving the post cracking behaviour of the RPC. The results validated a more sustainable approach for RPC applied to thin fa¸cade elements. 

  • 40.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application for Facades2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized also for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market have drawbacks in terms of sustainability due to their high clinker content and heat curing which is often applied to increase final strength and material density. The presented study focusses on improved formulations with higher replacement levels of cement clinker by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). One different mix formulation was designed and tested in terms of mechanical properties. The formulation was combined with carbon textile reinforcements primarily to enhance the flexural and tensile behavior of the material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to 33 % of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mix could still be achieved. Fairly steep strength gains rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The incorporation of carbon textile fiber grids proved to be effective in improving the post peak performance of the RPC. However, their performance depended strongly on the bond between the carbon grid and the RPC. Higher moister contents in the concrete proved to reduce the bond strength between the carbon textile and the cement paste. This is maybe less relevant for facades but structural elements with textile reinforcement and RPC might perform less well in completely submerged environment.

  • 41.
    Sadagopan, M.
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, A.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Improving recycled aggregate quality by mechanical pre-processing2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 19, article id 4342Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete with crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) shows lesser compressive strength than reference concrete with natural aggregates. The goal of this study is to improve the strength of structural concrete with 53% and 100% CCA replacements without increasing the cement content. Thus, improvements in CCA quality are induced by combining mechanical and pre-soaking pre-processing techniques. Mechanical pre-processing by rotating drum is separately pursued on fine and coarse CCA for 10 and 15 min respectively. Results show, adhered mortar content and CCA water absorption reduces as pre-processing duration increases. Pre-processing influences CCA particle grading, flakiness index, shape index, void-content, unit-weight and density, jointly seen as packing density, which increases with pre-processing duration. Water amount to pre-soak CCA before concrete mixing is stable despite grading modifications, due to reduced water absorption resulting from mechanical pre-processing. Compressive strength and workability for pre-processed CCA50 and CCA100 concrete are comparable to reference concrete and show similar trends of improvement with packing density. Packing density markedly shows the quality improvements induced by pre-processing on CCA, maybe considered as one of the quality assessment indexes for CCA. Packing density should be investigated for other recipes to see the stability of the trend with workability and compressive strength. © 2020 by the authors. 

  • 42.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Lundin, Magnus
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Effects of Slag Addition and Mechanical Pre-Processing on the Properties of Recycled Concrete in Terms of Compressive Strength and Workability2021In: Nordic Concrete Research, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 11-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete waste as crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) in structural concrete prolongs the technical life of the reference concrete accomplishing closed loop recycling. CCA concrete reaches the reference concrete compressive strength and workability by the densification of CCA and cement paste. Our previous study demonstrates CCA densification by mechanical pre-processing, aggregate quality improvements discerned by increased packing density giving reference concrete strength and workability. This study addresses paste densification with blast furnace slag (GGBS) to replace 30 (wt.%) of Portland cement at reference concrete w/b ratio 0.5 and a lower w/b 0.42. Two CCA replacements are investigated: fine aggregates, CCA50; overall aggregate replacement, CCA100

  • 43.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Modified pycnometer method to measure the water absorption of crushed concrete aggregates2020In: Journal of Sustainable Cement-Based Materials, ISSN 2165-0373, E-ISSN 2165-0381, Vol. 9, no 5, p. 259-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The water absorption of crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) has a major influence on concrete workability. In order to determine the water absorption of CCA, a more porous material than natural aggregates, modifications to the standard pycnometer method are proposed as: (1) Water absorption is measured on a combined fraction CCA consisting of fine and coarse aggregates proportioned according to concrete recipe. (2) The CCA is pre-processed to mitigate sedimentation. (3) Saturated surface dry condition of aggregate is assessed by vacuum filtration and ocular technique. Water absorption development is measured at 0 min, 15 min, and 24 h. About 90% of the 24-h water absorption occurs in 15 min, value which is introduced in the concrete recipe; slump flow and compressive strength are determined. The modified pycnometer method shortens test duration, is operator insensitive and gives reliable water absorption result for CCA leading to concrete workability fitting industrial application. © 2020, © 2020 The Author(s).

  • 44.
    Sadagopan, Madumita
    et al.
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Oliva Rivera, Alexander
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology. University of Borås, Sweden.
    Nagy, Agnes
    University of Borås, Sweden.
    Recycled Fine and Coarse Aggregates’ Contributions to the Fracture Energy and Mechanical Properties of Concrete2023In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 16, no 19, article id 6437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the fracture mechanical properties of concrete, using crushed concrete aggregates (CCA) and granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) for partial cement replacement. CCAs made from prefabricated concrete replace 100% of the fine and coarse fractions in concrete recipes with w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Two pre-treatment methods, mechanical pre-processing (MPCCA) and accelerated carbonation (CO2CCA), are investigated for quality improvements in CCA. The resulting aggregates show an increased density, contributing to an increase in the concrete’s compressive strength. The novelty of this paper is the superposition of the effects of the composite parts of concrete, the aggregate and the cement mortar, and their contributions to concrete fracture. Investigations are directed toward the influence of fine aggregates on mortar samples and the influence of the combination of coarse and fine aggregates on concrete samples. The physical and mechanical properties of the aggregates are correlated with mortar and concrete fracture properties. The results show that CCA concrete achieves 70% of the fracture energy values of concrete containing natural aggregates, and this value increases to 80% for GGBS mixes. At lower w/c ratios, MPCCA and CO2CCA concretes show similar fracture energies. CO2CCA fine aggregates are the most effective at strengthening the mortar phase, showing ductile concrete behavior at a w/c ratio of 0.48. MPCCA aggregates contribute to higher compressive strengths for w/c ratios of 0.42 and 0.48. Thus, mechanical pre-processing can be improved to produce CCA, which contributes to more ductile concrete behavior.

  • 45.
    Schlegel, M. C.
    et al.
    Helmholtz-Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany.
    Stroh, J.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Meng, B.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Panne, U.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany; Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerling, F.
    Helmholtz-Center Berlin for Materials and Energy, Germany.
    Pathway of a damaging mechanism-Analyzing chloride attack by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction2015In: Solid State Sciences, ISSN 1293-2558, E-ISSN 1873-3085, Vol. 44, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typically, the changes of the phase compositions due to the chemical attack are studied in-situ only by chemical analysis or microscopy. In this study, the chloride transport and binding in the cement matrix in different cementitious materials was analyzed by synchrotron based X-ray diffraction (SyXRD) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Sample materials consisting of cement paste were embedded in high concentrated sodium chloride solution over different time spans. Afterwards, the phase and chemical compositions were determined. The high spatial resolution and the information about the chloride distribution offer a detailed view of chloride binding in the cement matrix and allow the conclusions about the degradation mechanisms. The results are discussed related to the influence of different supplementary cementitious materials on the damaging mechanism. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

  • 46.
    Schlegel, Moritz Caspar
    et al.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Mueller, U.
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Panne, Ulrich
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany; Humboldt University zu Berlin, Germany.
    Emmerling, Franziska
    BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Germany.
    Spatially resolved investigation of complex multi-phase systems using μxRF, SEM-EDX and high resolution SyXRD2013In: Cement & Concrete Composites, ISSN 0958-9465, E-ISSN 1873-393X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 241-245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatially resolved analysis of complex multi-phase systems can be validated through different analytical methods. This study compares investigations by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis and high resolution X-ray diffraction. The studied sulfate attacked cement paste containing fly ashes consists of different interacting crystalline and amorphous phases. The complementary methods revealed in detail changes in phase composition due to the chemical attack. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed and suggestions are given for combining them with additional methods to maximize the information content.

  • 47.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Proper Maintenance; a necessity for a long service life of natural stones.2004Report (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Stain test for natural stones NORDTEST Project No. 040292005Report (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Grelk, B.
    Testing and Assessment of Marble and Limestone (TEAM) - Important Results from a Large European Research Project on Cladding Panels2007In: Journal of ASTM InternationalPaper ID JAI 100855, Vol. 4, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of natural stone as facade cladding has been shown to have much lower life cycle costs and they are more environmentally friendly than comparable products of concrete, glass, and steel. Promoting the use of natural stone has therefore a great positive impact on the environment. However, the number of occurrences of bowing and expansion of marble and limestone panels has led to increased maintenance costs, significant safety risk, and negative publicity. The lack of knowledge of a solution to the problem of bowing marble has a large negative effect on the entire stone trade. In response, short-sighted and less durable construction solutions are used as an alternative, adding to the decreasing export figures and numbers of employees within the stone sector. The TEAM _TEAM_TEsting and Assessment of Marble and limestone_ project addresses a problem with marble types, from several European countries, that display bowing on facades in both cold and warm climates. There is, therefore a need to develop harmonized European standards for differentiating between marble that is susceptible to bowing and marble that is not. Resolution No. 013, in May 1999 taken by the European Committee for Standardization _CEN_, Technical Committee _TC_ 246 Natural Stone states the urgent needs “to develop a direct test method of the bowing risk for marble cladding products.” Thus, the project addresses the mandate for external wall coverings and the safety of panels. This paper serves to give a comprehensive overview of the main findings in the project. The main objectives were: • To understand and explain the mechanisms of the expansion and loss of strength, probably the most important phenomena leading to degradation of marble and limestone clad facades. • To prevent the use of deleterious marble and limestone by introducing drafts for European standards. • To develop a concept for assessment of facades, including a monitoring system in order to predict strength development and improve safety and reliability. • To analyze if surface coating and impregnation could prevent or diminish the degradation. • To address quality control aspects in order to optimize the production conditions. The TEAM project consortium, representing nine EU _European union_ countries, comprised sixteen partners representing stone producers and trade associations, testing laboratories, standardization and certification bodies, consultants, building owners and caretakers and producers of fixing and repair systems. A state-of-the-art report has been written and is based on an extensive compilation of more than 400 papers on marble and limestone deterioration dating from the late 1800s to 2006. A survey of about 200 buildings has given a clear picture of the extent of the problem in geographical, geological, and climatological terms. Detailed case studies of six buildings have resulted in a methodology for assessment of facades including monitoring system and risk assessment. Research both in the laboratory and the field were performed on a large number of different stone types from different countries and used in different climates. This gave the explanation of degradation mechanisms and led to the determination of the critical influencing factors. Two tests methods, including precision statements: one for bowing _1_ and one for thermal and moisture irreversible expansion have been prepared for submission to CEN TC 246. Repair techniques based on the use of surface coating and impregnation systems has been tested at laboratory and in the field. Positive side effects including increased durability and easier cleaning have been observed. Guidelines for production and product control have been proposed, and an instruction for stone sampling and description has been developed.

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  • 50.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Grelk, B.
    Christiansen, C.
    Duarability of Marble Cladding - A Comprehensive Literature Review2007In: Journal of ASTM International Vol 4 No 4, Vol. 4, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural stone has been used for centuries as building material. In historical time it was mainly used as load bearing elements, but within the past 50 years a new processing technique has made it commercially feasible to produce and use thin façade cladding. Unfortunately, a number of marble facades on buildings in both Europe and elsewhere have had serious problems with deterioration of the stone material. The TEAM _TEAM _ TEsting and Assessment of Marble and limestone_ project consortium represents nine European countries and comprises 16 partners, representing stone producers and trade associations, testing laboratories, standardization and certificate bodies, consultants, building owners and caretakers and producers of fixing and repair systems. The project had a budget of approximately 5 million dollars and was partly funded by the European Commission under the contract no. G5RD-CT-2000-00233. Two of the main objectives in the TEAM project were: — To understand and explain the mechanisms of the expansion, bowing, and loss of strength leading to degradation of marble and limestone clad facades. —To prevent the use of deleterious marble and limestone by introducing a draft for new European standards. This paper presents some of the important conclusions drawn from a literature review carried out within the TEAM project—and was based on an extensive review of literature on marble and limestone deterioration dating from the late 1800s to 2006 and the results of the TEAM project. The comprehensive information from more than 70 selected literature references is reviewed and discussed in order to describe the present knowledge on the causes and mechanisms responsible for the bowing and strength loss of thin marble cladding. In the following, the literature and TEAM findings are grouped under a number of headings proposed to explain observations. Thus, the information from the literature is compared and supplemented with the results from the TEAM project in order to present a good overview of the existing, most relevant, knowledge in the field. The literature review reveals that only few researchers have examined the durability problem from a broad perspective. In addition, no conclusive answer about the mechanisms and influencing factors can be given. The TEAM project has made it possible to identify several of the key influencing factors in marble degradation, the relative importance of various factors, and to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved.

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