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  • 1. Hansson, Susanne
    et al.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Carlmark, A
    Malmström, Eva
    ARGET ATRP for versatile grafting of cellulose using various monomers2009In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 1, no 11, p. 2651-2659Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, cellulose-based materials have attracted significant attention. To broaden the application areas for cellulose, polymers are often grafted to/from the surface to modify its properties. This study applies ARGET (activators regenerated by electron transfer) ATRP (atom transfer radical polymerization) when straightforwardly grafting methyl methacrylate (MMA), styrene (St), and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) from cellulose in the form of conventional filter paper in the presence of a sacrificial initiator. The free polymer, formed from the free initiator in parallel to the grafting, was characterized by 1H NMR and SEC, showing that sufficient control is achieved. However, the analyses also indicated that the propagation from the surface cannot be neglected compared to the propagation of the free polymer at higher targeted molecular weights, which is an assumption often made. The grafted filter papers were evaluated with FT-IR, suggesting that the amount of polymer on the surface increased with increasing monomer conversion, which the FE-SEM micrographs of the substrates also demonstrated. Water contact angle (CA) measurements implied that covering layers of PMMA and PS were formed on the cellulose substrate, making the surface hydrophobic, in spite of low DPs. The CA of the PGMA-grafted filter papers revealed that, by utilizing either aprotic or protic solvents when washing the substrates, it was possible to either preserve or hydrolyze the epoxy groups. Independent of the solvent used, all grafted filter papers were essentially colorless after the washing procedure because of the low amount of copper required when performing ARGET ATRP. Nevertheless, surface modification of cellulose via ARGET ATRP truly facilitates the manufacturing since no thorough freeze-thaw degassing procedures are required.

  • 2.
    Mulla, Yusuf
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Isacsson, Patrik
    Linköping University, Sweden; Ahlstrom Group Innovation, France.
    Dobryden, Illia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Linköping University, Sweden; Ahlstrom Group Innovation, Sweden.
    Beni, Valerio
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Östmark, Emma
    Stora Enso AB, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Karl
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Edberg, Jesper
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Bio-Graphene Sensors for Monitoring Moisture Levels in Wood and Ambient Environment2023In: Global Challenges, E-ISSN 2056-6646Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood is an inherently hygroscopic material which tends to absorb moisture from its surrounding. Moisture in wood is a determining factor for the quality of wood being employed in construction, since it causes weakening, deformation, rotting, and ultimately leading to failure of the structures resulting in costs to the economy, the environment, and to the safety of residents. Therefore, monitoring moisture in wood during the construction phase and after construction is vital for the future of smart and sustainable buildings. Employing bio-based materials for the construction of electronics is one way to mitigate the environmental impact of such electronics. Herein, a bio-graphene sensor for monitoring the moisture inside and around wooden surfaces is fabricated using laser-induced graphitization of a lignin-based ink precursor. The bio-graphene sensors are used to measure humidity in the range of 10% up to 90% at 25 °C. Using laser induced graphitization, conductor resistivity of 18.6 Ω sq−1 is obtained for spruce wood and 57.1 Ω sq−1 for pine wood. The sensitivity of sensors fabricated on spruce and pine wood is 2.6 and 0.74 MΩ per % RH. Surface morphology and degree of graphitization are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis methods. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 3.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Johansson, Mats K.G.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Grafting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone and epoxidized soybean oil to wood: Reaction conditions and effects on the color stability of Scots pine2012In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 97, no 9, p. 1779-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the photostabilizing effect of the reactive UV-absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) when used as a primer for wood. The present work further includes a study on the effect of HEPBP used in combination with an epoxy functionalized vegetable oil as a primer system. The study is based on reactions performed on pine veneers using 3-pentanone as a solvent and 4-(dimethylamino)pyridine (DMAP) as a catalyst, varying the reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC measurements indicate that a desired reaction between HEPBP and wood does occur and that there are synergetic effects when HEPBP and oil are combined. Color measurements also indicate that the use of HEPBP and epoxidized soybean oil as pretreatment for wood results in a lower color change after 400 h of artificial weathering. We conclude that using HEPBP in combination with epoxy functionalized soybean oil does improve photostability of wood exposed to artificial weathering.

  • 4.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Covalently attached UV-absorbers for improved UV-protection of wood2010In: Proceedings of The Fifth European Conference on Wood Modification ECWM5, Latvian State Institute of Wood Chemistry , 2010, , p. 263-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study describes the use of reactive UV-absorbers (UVAs) that can be covalently attached to a wood substrate to obtain an improved exterior durability. It has previously been demonstrated that the photostability of wood is increased if the UVA is grafted to the wood surface. The grafting of an epoxide-functional UVA, 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP), to thin veneer wood specimens had a larger photostabilizing effect than if the corresponding UVA without the reactive handle was added to the wood coating. The present study shows that not only the chemical structure of the UVA is important but also how the modification is performed i.e. the reaction procedure. A successful attachment of the UVA depends on both the reaction conditions as well as if other reactive species are present at the same time. The presence of for example a vegetable oil (epoxy functionalized soy bean oil) affects the grafting reaction of the UVA. Details on the effect of reaction conditions, reaction sequences, and presence of co-reactants will be presented.

  • 5.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Reactive UV-absorber and epoxy functionalized soybean oil for enhanced UV-protection of clear coated wood2014In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 110, p. 405–414-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigates the photostabilising effect of a pretreatment consisting of 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functionalized soybean oil (ESBO), reacted on to Scots pine veneers coated with two different acrylic top coats. Two different pretreatment procedures were used, varying in reaction time and temperature. Results from FTIR and SEC analysis indicate that a large amount of reactant was present on the veneers after treatment with either of the two reaction procedures. Furthermore, coating of the pretreated surfaces was possible and the pretreatment does not seem to affect the adhesion between the coating and the wood substrate. Both accelerated ageing and natural exposure was used to study the resistance to photodegradation, and the results were analysed using colour measurements, FTIR and SEM. These analyses all show that 1400 h of accelerated ageing degrades neither the wood nor the coating to any larger extent. However, after 4000 h of UV exposure some signs of degradation are visible but to a lesser extent for pretreated samples. For the samples exposed to natural weathering during 14 months the performance was good in terms of photostabilisation, however all samples suffer from mould to different extents. Pretreated samples show smaller and more evenly distributed areas of mould compared to the references, which show slightly more mould. The combined coating/pretreatment system is thus assumed to have an effect in terms of photostabilization of the coated wood.

  • 6.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Utilising reactive UV absorber and epoxidised soybean oil for enhanced UV protection of clear coated wood2012In: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , p. 455-462Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Matsunaga, Hiroshi
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Kataoka, Yutaka
    Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Japan.
    Johansson, Mats
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Matsumura, Junji
    Kyushu University, Japan.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    A SEM study on the use of epoxy functional vegetable oil and reactive UV-absorber as UV-protecting pretreatment for wood2015In: Polymer degradation and stability, ISSN 0141-3910, E-ISSN 1873-2321, Vol. 113, p. 40-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the ageing performance of a UV protective system for wood, comprising the reactive UV absorber 2-hydroxy-4(2,3-epoxypropoxy)-benzophenone (HEPBP) and epoxy functional vegetable oils (linseed and soybean oil). Scots pine samples of radial or cross-sectional surfaces were treated using a combination of the two components, or using only one of the oils. The treated samples were then aged in a Weather-Ometer for 2 × 60 h and analysed using VPSEM to follow the degradation of the wood substrate in the exact same spot before, during and after ageing. The results of the radial surfaces show slightly less degradation of samples treated with a combination of HEPBP and oil, and for the cross-sectional surfaces an even stronger protective effect is visible. For samples treated with only one of the two oils, no improvement was detectable. The radial surfaces were also analysed using FTIR where the results indicate presence of the protective treatment even after 120 h of exposure. Overall the combined pretreatment of HEPBP and epoxy functional linseed oil was concluded to have a photostabilising effect of the wood substrate.

  • 8.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson, Mats
    Evans, Philip
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Improving UV-protection of exterior wood by utilizing UV-absorber in combination with epoxy functionalized soybean oil2011In: Proceedings of the 2011 IAWS Annual Meeting on Novel Materials from Wood or Cellulose, Innventia , 2011, , p. 63-64Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Olsson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ibach, R.E.
    Clemons, Craig M
    FS Forest Products Laboratory.
    Segerholm, Kristoffer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    The use of esterified lignin for synthesis of durable composites2011In: 7th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science & Engineering (WSE), Norsk institutt for skog og landskap , 2011, , p. 173-178Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignin is a natural polymer and one of the most abundant materials on earth. Despite this fact, lignin is often viewed as a by-product in chemical pulp processing and the use of lignin as a sustainable material is low. However, research and public awareness of sustainability have opened up new possibilities for using lignin as a material. In this study, Kraft softwood lignin was reacted with acetic and propionic anhydride to synthesize esterified lignin. Reactions were performed at 80 °C. The product was analyzed using IR, DSC and processability parameters, such as melt viscosity. The product was then blended with LDPE and extruded into composite films. The films were analyzed using FTIR and TGA, and the mechanical properties were determined by tensile tests. Preliminary results are positive and further studies are planned to confirm the results and establish the range of properties attainable.

  • 10.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wedin, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Chemical Recycling of Textile Fibres2018In: Sustainable Fibre Toolkit 2018 / [ed] Annie Gullingsrud, Stockholm: Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning , 2018, 2, p. 169-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Jones, Dennis
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Scientific Programme and Book of Abstracts: Workshop Science and uses of nanocellulose & Cellulose foams and films. March 5-6, 20142014Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Aspling, Jonas
    Henriksson, Marielle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    EcoBuild Activity Report 20132014Report (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 13.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Lawther, Mark
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Nordqvist, Petra
    Khabbaz, Farideh
    Malmström, Eva
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bio-resin Bonded Acetylated OSB2009In: Proceedings of The Fourth European Conference on Wood Modification., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2009, , p. 531-538Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Östmark, Emma
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Nyström, D
    Lindqvist, J
    Carlmark, Anna
    Malmström, Eva
    Hydroxypropyl cellulose as multifunctional initiator for controlled polymerizations2008In: Polymer Preprints, ISSN 0032-3934, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 585-586Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 14 of 14
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