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  • 1.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Vaz, S.
    Cabral, H.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Erratum: Environmental assessment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) purse seine fishery in Portugal with LCA methodology including biological impact categories (The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment DOI: 10.1007/s11367-013-0646-5)2014Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 471-472Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 2.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Cabral, Henrique
    Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental assessment of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) purse seine fishery in Portugal with LCA methodology including biological impact categories2014Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 2, s. 297-306Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purse seine fishery for sardine is the most important fishery in Portugal. The aim of the present study is to assess the environmental impacts of sardine fished by the Portuguese fleet and to analyse a number of variables such as vessel size and time scale. An additional goal was to incorporate fishery-specific impact categories in the case study. Methods: Life Cycle Assessment methodology was applied, and data were collected from nine vessels, which represented around 10 % of the landings. Vessels were divided into two length categories, above and below 12 m, and data were obtained for the years 2005 to 2010. The study was limited to the fishing phase only. The standard impact categories included were energy use, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential and ozone depletion potential. The fishery-specific impact categories were overfishing, overfishedness, lost potential yield, mean trophic level and the primary production required, and were quantified as much as possible. Results and discussion: The landings from the data set were constituted mainly by sardine (91 %), and the remainders were other small pelagic species (e.g. horse mackerel). The most important input was the fuel, and both vessel categories had the same fuel consumption per catch 0.11 l/kg. Average greenhouse gas emissions (carbon footprint) were 0.36 kg CO2 eq. per kilo sardine landed. The fuel use varied between years, and variability between months can be even higher. Fishing mortality has increased, and the spawning stock biomass has decreased resulting in consequential overfishing for 2010. A correlation between fuel use and stock biomass was not found, and the stock condition does not seem to directly influence the global warming potential in this fishery. Discards were primarily non-target small pelagic species, and there was also mortality of target species resulting from slipping. The seafloor impact was considered to be insignificant due to the fishing method. Conclusions: The assessment of the Portuguese purse seine fishery resulted in no difference regarding fuel use between large and small vessels, but differences were found between years. The stock has declined, and it has produced below maximum sustainable yield. By-catch and discard data were missing but may be substantial. Even being difficult to quantify, fishery impact categories complement the environmental results with biological information and precaution is need in relation to the stock management. The sardine carbon footprint from Portuguese purse seine was lower than that of other commercial species reported in.

  • 3.
    Almeida, Cheila
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment. New University of Lisbon, Portugal.
    Vaz, Sofia Guedes
    Portuguese Government, Portugal.
    Sevilla Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment of a Canned Sardine Product from Portugal2015Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 607-617Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the environmental impacts of canned sardines in olive oil, by considering fishing, processing, and packaging, using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The case study concerns a product of a canning factory based in Portugal and packed in aluminum cans. It is the first LCA of a processed seafood product made with the traditional canning method. The production of both cans and olive oil are the most important process in the considered impact categories. The production of olives contributes to the high environmental load of olive oil, related to cultivation and harvesting phases. The production of aluminum cans is the most significant process for all impact categories, except ozone depletion potential and eutrophication potential, resulting from the high energy demand and the extraction of raw materials. To compare to other sardine products consumed in Portugal, such as frozen and fresh sardines, transport to the wholesaler and store was added. The environmental cost of canned sardines is almost seven times higher per kilogram of edible product. The main action to optimize the environmental performance of canned sardines is therefore to replace the packaging and diminish the olive oil losses as much as possible. Greenhouse gas emissions are reduced by half when plastic packaging is considered rather than aluminum. Frozen and fresh sardines represent much lower environmental impacts than canned sardines. Nevertheless, when other sardine products are not possible, it becomes feasible to use sardines for human consumption, preventing them from being wasted or used suboptimally as feed.

  • 4.
    Avadí, Angel
    et al.
    UPR Recyclage et Risque, France ; University of Montpellier, France.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden ; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian
    Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Peru.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Towards improved practices in Life Cycle Assessment of seafood and other aquatic products2018Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, nr 5, s. 979-981Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: 

    Aquatic supply chains, based on e.g. fish, molluscs, crustaceans and algae, provide products aimed for direct or indirect human consumption and other uses. Global demand for these products is increasing, but the fact that wild-capture fisheries—supplying inputs for the food and feed industries—have stagnated (FAO 2016), or even declined, has raised questions about the environmental consequences of aquatic supply chains  Research applying LCA to seafood products has emerged since the early years of the century and, until today, dozens of case studies of fisheries and aquaculture systems from all around the world have been published. The body of literature in this field has grown to the extent of allowing systematic reviews to be undertaken on specific production sectors, such as for capture fisheries 

    The lifecycle of seafood commodities differs from that of terrestrial production systems in their diversity, in the case of fisheries, the reliance on extraction of a natural resource (fish stocks), their impacts on often unmapped ecosystems (e.g. seafloors and deep sea fish stocks) and the more complex trophic webs of aquatic ecosystems. To capture also these biotic and fisheries-specific impacts, an increasing number of fisheries and aquaculture LCAs apply novel impact categories such as biotic resource use and benthic ecosystems impacts. Aquaculture systems, in addition, often rely on feed resources from capture fisheries, agriculture and livestock, requiring extensive LCI models.

    Among the existing aquaculture seafood LCA studies, there is a strong focus on salmonids aquaculture in Europe and North America. The globally largest aquaculture sector, carp farming in China, has, however, been poorly covered. Peruvian anchoveta, the world’s largest fishery and the primary source of fishmeal and fish oil, was first modelled in 2014. Consequently, while the number of aquatic LCAs has steadily been increasing, the uniqueness of aquatic production chains and the diversity of species leave many inventories overlooked and some relevant impact categories unaddressed. In response, we initiated this Special Issue (SI), to supplement literature and highlight shortcomings. Thirteen articles were ultimately accepted in the SI

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Metod för beräkning av svensk sjömatskonsumtion2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Method for calculation of Swedish seafood consumption

    Robust statistics on how much and which seafood is consumed in Sweden are important for calculations of intake of both desired and undesired substances through seafood, as well as for mapping and forecasting the environmental footprint generated by consumption. Based on three previous reviews summarizing production and trade statistics to estimate Swedish seafood consumption per species and production method (fishing/ aquaculture), a method has been developed for calculating seafood consumption. Previous reports have provided valuable insights, since the Swedish Board of Agriculture does no longer publish data on Swedish seafood consumption in the same way as for other foods. Focusing on the most recent review, which represents the current state of knowledge and the latest statistics, the purpose of this report is to describe in detail, step by step, the method used for calculating Swedish seafood consumption. The calculation is based on public statistics on the volume of imports, exports and production in aquaculture and fisheries, which when needed was complemented with information from other sources. The method description includes where data is found, how it is downloaded, processed, categorized and how the different datasets were later combined to provide an overall picture of Swedish seafood consumption. Finally, knowledge gaps and the need for supplementary data collection is described. The work on this report has revealed that there are still considerable deficiencies and data gaps in the public production and trade statistics. For instance, landings by foreign commercial fishing boats as well as landings of certain species in recreational fishing are not presented. Production data of certain species in aquaculture may also be lacking, due to confidentiality, and requires alternative strategies to be obtained. In addition, available statistics on herring and sprat are uncertain and difficult to interpret, which is why the calculation of these species requires special treatment. Due to its great importance in both production and consumption, the uncertainties surrounding these species represent an important source of error in the estimation of total consumption. Improvements in production and trade statistics of seafood are important for several reasons and it is important that a future method for public consumption statistics is harmonized with that used for other foods, to enable comparisons. Using alternative and varied ways to fill data gaps from year to year obstructs reliable calculations and comparisons – over time and with other product groups. To ensure a sustainable increase in seafood production and consumption, improved transparency through the whole value chain is of considerable importance – not the least to understand which seafood species that could increase in a sustainable way.

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  • 6.
    Bastardie, Francois
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gislason, Henrik
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Eigaard, Ole R
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Reducing the Fuel Use Intensity of Fisheries: Through Efficient Fishing Techniques and Recovered Fish Stocks2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Marine Science, E-ISSN 2296-7745, Vol. 9, artikel-id 817335Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the drivers of greenhouse gas emissions in food production systems is becoming urgent. For wild capture fisheries, fuel use during the fishing phase generally dominates emissions and is highly variable between fisheries. Fuel use is also essential for the economy of the fisheries, but fuel-intensive fisheries can still be profitable due to fuel subsidies, in particular, if the target species is of high value. Developing an innovative bottom-up approach based on detailed catch and spatial fishing effort data, in the absence of direct fuel data, we analysed the fuel use intensity (fuel use per kg landed) and economic efficiency (landing value per litre fuel used) of Danish capture fisheries for the period 2005-2019. An overall decline in fishing effort did not significantly affect the overall fuel use intensity and efficiency, which was stable for most of the fleet segments and marine species. Robust differences in fuel use intensity among individual fisheries, reflected differential spatial accessibility and vulnerability of target species to fishing. In addition, different fishing techniques targeting the same set of species showed differences in fuel use per unit landed. Danish seining and gillnets had a lower fuel use intensity and higher economic efficiency than demersal trawling; and purse seining than pelagic trawling. The variability between stocks and fleets also indicates that there is generally potential for improvement in overall efficiency from improved stock status. Short-term management actions to promote the best available fuel-efficient fishing techniques combined with additional long-term actions to secure the recovery of stocks have the potential to reduce fishery greenhouse gas emissions. Sustainable fisheries and normative environmental management are crucial to developing incentives towards reducing fuel use whenever the fishing sector industry and science work jointly at implementing solutions, as incentives for the industry to reduce fuel use are limited as long as the fishing activity is profitable. Copyright © 2022 Bastardie, Hornborg, Ziegler, Gislason and Eigaard.

  • 7.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden; Worldfish, Malaysia.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jonell, Malin
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Philis, Gaspard
    NTNU, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Recirculating Aquaculture Is Possible without Major Energy Tradeoff: Life Cycle Assessment of Warmwater Fish Farming in Sweden2020Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 54, nr 24, s. 16062-16070Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is seen as promising for more sustainable diets. The increasing production in land-based closed Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RASs) has overcome many local environmental challenges with traditional open net-pen systems such as eutrophication. The energy needed to maintain suitable water quality, with associated emissions, has however been seen as challenging from a global perspective. This study uses Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to investigate the environmental performance and improvement potentials of a commercial RAS farm of tilapia and Clarias in Sweden. The environmental impact categories and indicators considered were freshwater eutrophication, climate change, energy demand, land use, and dependency on animal-source feed inputs per kg of fillet. We found that feed production contributed most to all environmental impacts (between 67 and 98%) except for energy demand for tilapia, contradicting previous findings that farm-level energy use is a driver of environmental pressures. The main improvement potentials include improved by-product utilization and use of a larger proportion of plant-based feed ingredients. Together with further smaller improvement potential identified, this suggests that RASs may play a more important role in a future, environmentally sustainable food system.

  • 8.
    Bergman, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental impacts of alternative antifouling methods and use patterns of leisure boat owners2019Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, nr 4, s. 725-734Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Leisure boaters in the Baltic Sea apply more copper as antifoulant than needed and permitted. Initiatives have been started to identify efficient means making boat owners comply with regulations through changed consumer behavior. We compare the environmental impacts of conventional and alternative antifouling methods, using Life Cycle Assessment methodology. Methods: Two non-toxic methods were compared with biocide paint. To study the influence of boat owner use patterns, paint and brush washer scenarios (e.g., different paints, amounts, and maintenance) were created based on current use and recommendations. The functional unit was an average Swedish leisure boat kept fouling free for 1 year and impact categories studied were freshwater eco-toxicity and greenhouse gas emissions. Production of paints, fuel, electricity, and material used in the non-toxic methods was included. Sensitivity analysis was performed regarding the characterization method for toxicity, the fuel consumption data, and the copper release data. Results and discussion: The non-toxic methods, hull cover and brush washer, performed best, but a trade-off was identified when the brush washer was located further away from the home port, when additional transportation increased greenhouse gas emissions. The resources needed for the non-toxic methods (production of materials and electricity used) cause considerably lower toxic emissions than paint. In the paint scenarios, using less paint and cleaning the boat over a washing pad with water treatment reduces aquatic emissions significantly. Fuel-related emissions were consistently lower than paint-related emissions. In the best-performing paint scenario, fuel- and paint-related emissions represented 26 and 67% of total emissions, respectively. Conclusions: The non-toxic methods hull cover and brush washers lead to lower emissions, especially when brush washers were located close to the home port. Lacking such infrastructure, “painting less” is a way to reduce emissions, by using lower amounts of paint and painting less frequently. More widespread use of these antifouling strategies would considerably reduce copper emissions from leisure boating to the Baltic Sea. We suggest that support to marinas for investments in brush washers and washing pads should be further developed to enable boat owners to choose more sustainable antifouling methods and that information campaigns on the combined economic, health, and ecosystem impacts of antifouling are especially designed for boaters, marinas, market actors, and policy makers for a change to take place towards more sustainable practices.

  • 9.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Assessing seafood nutritional diversity together with climate impacts informs more comprehensive dietary advice2022Ingår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 3, nr 1, artikel-id 188Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood holds promise for helping meet nutritional needs at a low climate impact. Here, we assess the nutrient density and greenhouse gas emissions, weighted by production method, that result from fishing and farming of globally important species. The highest nutrient benefit at the lowest emissions is achieved by consuming wild-caught small pelagic and salmonid species, and farmed bivalves like mussels and oysters. Many but not all seafood species provide more nutrition at lower emissions than land animal proteins, especially red meat, but large differences exist, even within species groups and species, depending on production method. Which nutrients contribute to nutrient density differs between seafoods, as do the nutrient needs of population groups within and between countries or regions. Based on the patterns found in nutritional attributes and climate impact, we recommend refocusing and tailoring production and consumption patterns towards species and production methods with improved nutrition and climate performance, taking into account specific nutritional needs and emission reduction goals. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 10.
    Borthwick, Louisa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten visar att det är möjligt att få fram tillförlitlig statistik över svensk sjömatskonsumtion för alla arter utom sill och skarpsill på en detaljgrad som tidigare saknats, trots de dataluckor som finns.Sjömatskonsumtionen i Sverige beräknas ligga på 25 kg per capita hel sjömat, vilket motsvarar 12,5 kg ätlig sjömat eller knappt två portioner i veckan. Vi äter mindre sjömat än för fem år sedan.Upp mot 80 olika sjömatsarter finns på den svenska marknaden, men de tio vanligaste står för 80 procent av konsumtionen. Mest äter svenskar av lax, sill, torsk och räkor.Knappt 30 procent av det som äts kommer från den inhemska produktionen av sjömat från yrkes- och fritidsfiske, samt odling. Den inhemska produktionen kan ses som Sveriges teoretiska självförsörjningsgrad av sjömat. Drygt 70 procent importeras alltså och då främst med Norge, Danmark och Kina som avsändarland. Från den svenska produktionen är det främst sill, skarpsill, regnbåge och den fisk som rapporteras under koden ”Fryst fisk i.a.n.” i tulltaxan, som exporteras. Figuren nedan visar fördelningen mellan import och inhemsk produktion.Siffran på sillkonsumtion är mycket osäker på grund av att den officiella statistiken håller låg kvalitet. Sill är den volymmässigt och ekonomiskt viktigaste arten i svenskt fiske och den är viktig för svensk konsumtion. Det är därmed anmärkningsvärt att data kring fisket och handeln är så bristfällig.Det är genomförbart att ta fram statistiken på årlig basis för att följa trenden för sjömatskonsumtion över tid, både totalt och utvecklingen av enskilda arter. Metoden som utvecklats här förenklar detta avsevärt, men det krävs fortfarande en del manuell justering och bearbetning av befintliga dataset, samt kunskap om branschen.

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  • 11.
    Cardinaals, Renee P. M.
    et al.
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    Simon, Wolfram J.
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wiegertjes, Geert F.
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    van der Meer, Jaap
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    van Zanten, Hannah H. E.
    Wageningen University and Research, Netherlands.
    Nutrient yields from global capture fisheries could be sustainably doubled through improved utilization and management2023Ingår i: Communications Earth & Environment, E-ISSN 2662-4435, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 370Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The global food system is facing the challenge of producing sufficient nutrients to accommodate future demands within planetary boundaries, while reducing malnutrition. Although nutrient-rich seafood can play a prominent role in resolving this challenge, seafood from capture fisheries is currently partly wasted. Here we quantified the nutrient contribution from capture fisheries through a hypothetical scenario that assumed all captured seafood and byproducts from seafood processing would be used for human consumption. Our simulations show that available seafood per capita can be doubled without increasing the pressure on global fisheries when all reported, illegal, and discarded capture is used as food, complemented with processing byproducts. In such a scenario, seafood contributes greatly to daily nutrient requirements – e.g., omega-3 can be fully met. Although uncertainty should be considered, these results indicate that putting the whole fish on the table can increase nutrient availability from capture fisheries substantially and sustainably. 

  • 12.
    Cashion, Tim
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Review and advancement of the marine biotic resource use metric in seafood LCAs: a case study of Norwegian salmon feed2016Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, nr 8, s. 1106-1120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have adopted the primary production required (PPR) indicator to account for the impact of these production systems (e.g., capture fisheries or aquaculture) on the ecosystems they harvest wild inputs from. However, there exists a large diversity in the application of methods to calculate PPR, and current practice often does not consider species- and ecosystem-specific factors. Here, we critically examine current practice and propose a refined method for applying the PPR metric in seafood LCAs. Methods: We surveyed seafood LCAs that quantify PPR, or its derivatives, to examine the diversity of practice. We then defined and applied a refined method to a case study of the average Norwegian salmon feed in 2012. This refined method incorporates species-specific fishmeal and oil yields, source ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies and expresses results as a percentage of total ecosystem production that PPR represents. Results were compared to those using previously applied methods based on the literature review, and the impact of uncertainty and natural variability of key input parameters was also assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: From the literature review, most studies do not incorporate species-specific fishmeal and oil yields or ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies when calculating PPR. Our proposed method, which incorporated source species- and ecosystem-specific values for these parameters, provides far greater resolution of PPR than when employing global average values. When alternative methods to calculate PPR were applied to marine inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds, resulting PPR values were similar for some sources of fishmeal and oil. For other species, such as Atlantic herring from ecosystems with low transfer efficiencies, there was a large divergence in resulting PPR values. For combined inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds in 2012, the refined method resulted in a total PPR value that is three times higher than would result using the currently standard method signaling that previous LCA research may have substantially underestimated the marine biotic impacts of fishery products. Conclusions: While there exists a great diversity of practice in the application of the PPR indicator in seafood LCA, the refined method should be adopted for future LCA studies to be more specific to the context of the study.

  • 13.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pihl, Leif
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sköld, Mattias
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Accounting for overfishing in life cycle assessment: New impact categories for biotic resource use2014Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1156-1168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Overfishing is a relevant issue to include in all life cycle assessments (LCAs) involving wild caught fish, as overfishing of fish stocks clearly targets the LCA safeguard objects of natural resources and natural ecosystems. Yet no robust method for assessing overfishing has been available. We propose lost potential yield (LPY) as a midpoint impact category to quantify overfishing, comparing the outcome of current with target fisheries management. This category primarily reflects the impact on biotic resource availability, but also serves as a proxy for ecosystem impacts within each stock. Methods: LPY represents average lost catches owing to ongoing overfishing, assessed by simplified biomass projections covering different fishing mortality scenarios. It is based on the maximum sustainable yield concept and complemented by two alternative methods, overfishing though fishing mortality (OF) and overfishedness of biomass (OB), that are less data-demanding. Results and discussion: Characterization factors are provided for 31 European commercial fish stocks in 2010, representing 74 % of European and 7 % of global landings. However, large spatial and temporal variations were observed, requiring novel approaches for the LCA practitioner. The methodology is considered compliant with the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) standard in most relevant aspects, although harmonization through normalization and endpoint characterization is only briefly discussed. Conclusions: Seafood LCAs including any of the three approaches can be a powerful communicative tool for the food industry, seafood certification programmes, and for fisheries management.

  • 14. Ford, J.S.
    et al.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.J.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Proposed Local Ecological Impact Categories and Indicators for Life Cycle Assessment of Aquaculture: A Salmon Aquaculture Case Study2012Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-265Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming-freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow-out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts of nutrient release are (1) the area altered by farm waste, (2) changes in nutrient concentration in the water column, (3) the percent of carrying capacity reached, (4) the percent of total anthropogenic nutrient release, and (5) release of wastes into freshwater. Proposed indicators for impacts on biodiversity are (1) the number of escaped salmon, (2) the number of reported disease outbreaks, (3) parasite abundance on farms, and (4) the percent reduction in wild salmon survival. For each proposed indicator, an example of how the indicator could be estimated is given and the strengths and weaknesses of that indicator are discussed. We propose that including local environmental impacts as well as global-scale ones in LCA allows us to better identify potential trade-offs, where actions that are beneficial at one scale are harmful at another, and synchronicities, where actions have desirable or undesirable effects at both spatial scales. We also discuss the potential applicability of meta-analytic statistical techniques to LCA. © 2012 by Yale University.

  • 15.
    Gephart, Jessica
    et al.
    American University, USA.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada; Aquaculture Stewardship Council, Netherlands.
    Shepon, Alon
    Tel Aviv University, Israel; Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, USA.
    Gorospe, Kelvin
    American University, USA.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eshel, Gidon
    Bard College, USA.
    Golden, Christopher
    Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, USA.
    Halpern, Benjamin
    University of California, USA.
    Hornborg, Sara
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; .
    Metian, Marc
    International Atomic Energy Agency–Environment Laboratories, Monaco.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Newton, Richard
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Zhang, Wenbo
    Shanghai Ocean University, China.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Environmental performance of blue foods2021Ingår i: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 597, nr 7876, s. 360-365Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fish and other aquatic foods (blue foods) present an opportunity for more sustainable diets1,2. Yet comprehensive comparison has been limited due to sparse inclusion of blue foods in environmental impact studies3,4 relative to the vast diversity of production5. Here we provide standardized estimates of greenhouse gas, nitrogen, phosphorus, freshwater and land stressors for species groups covering nearly three quarters of global production. We find that across all blue foods, farmed bivalves and seaweeds generate the lowest stressors. Capture fisheries predominantly generate greenhouse gas emissions, with small pelagic fishes generating lower emissions than all fed aquaculture, but flatfish and crustaceans generating the highest. Among farmed finfish and crustaceans, silver and bighead carps have the lowest greenhouse gas, nitrogen and phosphorus emissions, but highest water use, while farmed salmon and trout use the least land and water. Finally, we model intervention scenarios and find improving feed conversion ratios reduces stressors across all fed groups, increasing fish yield reduces land and water use by up to half, and optimizing gears reduces capture fishery emissions by more than half for some groups. Collectively, our analysis identifies high-performing blue foods, highlights opportunities to improve environmental performance, advances data-poor environmental assessments, and informs sustainable diets. © 2021, The Author(s)

  • 16.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Mifflin, Kathleen
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Combined climate and nutritional performance of seafoods2019Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 230, s. 402-411Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    National authorities in many countries advise their populations to eat more seafood, for health and sometimes for environmental purposes, but give little guidance as to what type of seafood should be consumed. The large diversity in species and production methods results in variability both in the nutritional content and in the environmental performance of seafoods. More targeted dietary advice for sustainable seafood consumption requires a better understanding of the relative nutritional benefits against environmental costs of various types of seafood. This study analyzes the combined climate and nutritional performance of seafood commonly consumed in Sweden, originating all over the world. Nutrient density scores, assessed by seven alternative methods, are combined with species- technology- and origin-specific greenhouse gas emission data for 37 types of seafood. An integrated score indicates which seafood products provide the greatest nutritional value at the lowest climate costs and hence should be promoted from this perspective. Results show that seafoods consumed in Sweden differ widely in nutritional value as well as climate impact and that the two measures are not correlated across all species. Dietary changes towards increased consumption of more seafood choices where a correlation exists (e.g. pelagic species like sprat, herring and mackerel)would benefit both health and climate. Seafoods with a higher climate impact in relation to their nutritional value (e.g. shrimp, Pangasius and plaice)should, on the other hand, not be promoted in dietary advice. The effect of individual nutrients and implications of different nutrient density scores is evaluated. This research is a first step towards modelling the joint nutritional and climate benefits of seafood as a concrete baseline for policy-making, e.g. in dietary advice. It should be followed up by modelling other species, including environmental toxins in seafood in the nutrition score, and expanding to cover other environmental aspects.

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  • 17.
    Henriksson, P. J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish Organization, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Cucurachi, S.
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Guinée, J. B.
    Leiden University, Netherlands.
    Heijungs, R.
    Leiden University, Netherlands; Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Troell, M.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; Royal Swedish Academy of Science, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    A rapid review of meta-analyses and systematic reviews of environmental footprints of food commodities and diets2021Ingår i: Global Food Security, ISSN 2211-9124, Vol. 28, artikel-id 100508Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic reviews, sometimes including meta-analyses, are often presented as an approach for identifying healthy and sustainable diets. Here we explore to which extent systematic review protocols have been adopted by studies comparing environmental impacts of foods based on Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) results, and to which extent they comply with the PRISMA protocol for transparent reporting. Out of 224 studies screened, seven explicitly define themselves as systematic reviews, and/or claim to carry out meta-analyses. Of these, only one acknowledges a review protocol, while none complies with all the PRISMA criteria. Neither do we believe that reviews of LCA results can comply with all the criteria or carry out meta-analyses, due to underreporting on standard deviations and artificial sample sizes in LCAs. Nonetheless, reviews of food commodities and diets based on LCA results would benefit from better aligning with criteria in systematic review protocols. 

  • 18.
    Hognes, Erik Skontorp
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Winther, Ulf
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Ellingsen, Harald
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sund, Veronica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Carbon footprint and energy use of Norwegian fisheries and seafood products2012Ingår i: Sustainable Maritime Transportation and Exploitation of Sea Resources - Proceedings of the 14th International Congress of the International Maritime Association of the Mediterranean, IMAM 2011, 2012, Vol. 2, s. 1031-1036Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel consumption and emission of cooling agents are important sources for climate impact from the value chain of wild caught Norwegian seafood products. For products that are exported quickly and/or over long distances transport is also an important source. Pelagic products have low carbon footprints due to energy efficient fishing, modern refrigeration systems and efficient export methods. The fuel consumption per kilo landed products varies a lot in Norwegian fisheries, both within fisheries that use the same gear or that target the same species. This variation shows that there is a high potential to reduce GHG emissions from Norwegian fisheries.

  • 19.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Driver svensk konsumtion av odlad lax ökat svenskt industrifiske i Östersjön?2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Does Swedish consumption of farmed salmon drive increase in industrial fisheries in the Baltic Sea?

    Swedish fishing in the Baltic Sea with large vessels to produce fish meal and oil, and the deteriorating conditions for small-scale fishing and herring stocks, has in recent years been heavily debated in media. A link between current large-scale fishing and Swedish consumption of Norwegian salmon is often made, i.e., that Norwegian salmon farming is a driver behind the recent development. The Swedish Fishing Industry Association has therefore commissioned this report with the aim to improve current knowledge. The overarching questions are whether i) there is a dependency, and ii) if Norwegian salmon farming can be considered a driver for Swedish large-scale fishing of herring in the Baltic Sea. It is found that the development from the 1950s needs to be taken into account to fully understand today's situation. The current Swedish fishing fleet in the Baltic Sea is in line with national fisheries’ objectives to make pelagic fishing more efficient, and the development of stocks is in turn governed by the EU Common Fisheries Policy – both independent to both Swedish consumption and Norwegian salmon farming. Several factors affect destination of landings, where an important aspect is quality of the catch. Current fishing pattern, with fewer and larger boats, have resulted in considerably larger landing volumes per vessel – compromising opportunities for processing for direct consumption. The exact link between Swedish fisheries and Norwegian salmon farming is however complicated. The different traceability systems for fish caught for feed versus direct consumption are not integrated, although detailed information "one step forward, one step back" is available from individual actors. This challenge an effective tracing of a certain fish volume caught for fish meal and oil production to the final use. Overall, available data find that the total share of herring (from all waters) in one kilo Norwegian salmon feed is small (3.77%), and a very small fraction is based on fisheries directly destined for fish meal and oil production (0.8%) – the largest share is based on trimmings from processing for direct consumption. However, most of the Swedish landings of herring from the Baltic Sea is directly destined for fishmeal and oil production in Denmark. The largest share of the total production in Denmark goes to aquaculture, mainly to Norway. Conclusions are that i) Norwegian salmon farming does not appear to use herring from the Baltic Sea to a large extent, although a large share of the fish meal and oil production from the Baltic Sea are destined to aquaculture, and ii) it is the fisheries management (EU and Swedish) that has shaped the fishing that exists today by creating the basic conditions. The report concludes with recommendations for follow-up measures to reduce conflict between fishing for feed and direct consumption, and to better ensure full traceability even for fish intended for feed production.

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  • 20.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bastardie, Francois
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Greenhouse gas emissions of seafood from Danish capture fisheries in the Skagerrak, Kattegat, and western Baltic2022Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in finding sustainable diets is increasing where more attention has been paid to the role of seafoods in recent years. Danish fisheries’ producer organisations are interested in better understanding the carbon footprint and nutritional content of different species caught in Danish fisheries and how they compare to other types of animal-source food. The aim of this report is to place a selection of seafood products from Danish capture fisheries in a sustainable nutrition context. This is done by quantifying their greenhouse gas emissions, inferred from fishing effort, as well as nutritional content and relate findings to previous estimates of other common animal-source foods (farmed salmon, chicken, pork and beef). Furthermore, attempts to identify important drivers and improvement potentials are made. It is found that in terms of nutritional value, fatty fish (herring and farmed salmon) have a higher combined nutrient density than other foods included. Overall, herring and plaice caught in Danish fisheries in the Skagerrak, Kattegat and western Baltic are animal-source foods with lower greenhouse gas emissions than pork, beef, chicken, and farmed salmon. The same results are found for cod compared to pork and beef. Variability within and between gears, fishing areas and over time is however found, indicating improvement potentials. In the Skagerrak and Kattegat, shifting from demersal trawling to Danish seine/other gear types would lower fisheries greenhouse gas emissions considerably, while this potential is smaller in the western Baltic Sea. This partly reflects different targeting patterns, where cod is the main target species in the western Baltic Sea, while it is more a by-catch in crustacean fisheries in the other fishing areas. When results are compared with other fisheries targeting the same species, Danish plaice fisheries are associated with considerably lower fuel use relative to other fisheries for plaice. Results for Danish herring and cod vary depending on fishery, with some fisheries being less efficient than found elsewhere. The outcome for Danish fisheries is in part reflecting the different gears used but could also indicate different stock status, in particular for cod, and different methodological approaches. More detailed analysis, with collection of actual fuel use data for these fisheries instead of using modelled data, would be of interest to allow for further understanding of drivers as well as validation of results.

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  • 21.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Trophic indicators in fisheries: A call for re-evaluation2013Ingår i: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1050-, artikel-id 20121050Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mean trophic level (MTL) of landings and primary production required (PPR) by fisheries are increasingly used in the assessment of sustainability in fisheries. However, in their present form, MTL and PPR are prone to misinterpretation. We show that it is important to account for actual catch data, define an appropriate historical and spatial domain, and carefully consider the effects of fisheries management, based on results from a case study of Swedish fisheries during the past century.

  • 22.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat2021Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood has gained increasing attention in discussions on sustainable and healthy diets. This is based on a generally high nutrient content in combination with a comparatively low environmental impact. But there are major differences between different seafoods. Furthermore, information available on Swedish seafood consumption is lacking or associated with uncertainties. Baselines on current consumption are needed to guide consumers and other seafood value chain actors in Sweden. Here Swedish seafood consumption in 2019 is presented, the third RISE report on the topic since 2017. Figures are based on available official statistics on production, import and export supplemented with collected data. The statistics have also been processed, such as grouped by species and recalculated to live weight and edible part by using general conversion factors. Both the previous two RISE reports identified data gaps. This report has therefore strived to reduce the uncertainties and use more data sources as they have been discovered. The methods and data thus differ somewhat between the reports, which implies that the results are not fully comparable. There are also still data gaps. Results show that Swedish consumption of seafood still does not reach the dietary advice by the National Food Agency in Sweden of 2-3 times per week. Furthermore, the overall trend is stable or possibly declining. In 2019, it is estimated that 123 777 tonnes of seafood were available for Swedish consumption in edible form (fillets, peeled and prepared products). This corresponds to an average of 12 kg per person per year (or 230 grams per week, 96 portions per capita). Converted to live weight, this is the equivalent of approximately 276 367 tonnes (or 27 kg per capita). The ten most common species or species groups contributed with over 75 % of the total volume, dominated by salmon, cod, herring and shrimps. The theoretical degree of self-sufficiency is low, 74 % of the volume was imported. Swedish production consists mainly of seafood from commercial fisheries (74 %), of which 3 % came from inland fisheries. Aquaculture contributed 16 % and the remaining from kept catches in recreational fishing. To this end, value chain perspectives – from sea to table – are essential for the sustainable development of the seafood sector. There are opportunities to diversify consumption towards more low impact and nutritious seafoods and increase self-sufficiency, but these shifts need concerted efforts. Consumer studies has shown that many Swedish consumer plan to increase their seafood consumption, and acceptance of more species is increasing. This interest, in combination with the current investments made in research in boosting seafood in Sweden, may offer a momentum to develop more sustainable seafood habits in Sweden.

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  • 23.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bianchi, Marta Angela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sanders, Christophe
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jacobsen, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Trigo, João P
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Undeland, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bryngelsson, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Environmental and nutritional perspectives of algae2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Algae have gained increasing attention as promising food from both an environmental and nutritional perspective. However, current understanding is still limited. This report summarizes the status of knowledge for this emerging sector, focusing on micro- and macroalgae species most relevant for Europe (particularly Sweden). Environmental impacts, with focus on climate, are evaluated through literature reviews and analysis of existing life cycle assessments (LCAs), and nutritional potential in the form of data compilation and calculation of nutrient density scores. Overall, findings reveal that current data is incomplete and of poor representativeness. Most LCAs are not performed on commercial production, but at pilot or experimental scale, why often only indicative drivers for greenhouse gas emissions may be identified. For microalgae, there is a wide diversity of production systems in different conditions across the globe. Based on the data at hand, energy use is a key hotspot across most studies for this production, driven by the requirements of different types of systems and species, and to location. For macroalgae production, despite poor representativeness of especially green and red macroalgae, key aspects for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions are associated with energy consumption and use of materials for farming such as ropes. No LCA exists on wild harvested macroalgae, representing the largest production volume in Europe (>95%); large-scale wild harvest may also be associated with risks to ecosystems unless suitable management is enforced. Significant data gaps also exist in food composition databases regarding nutrient and heavy metal content in algae (e.g., vitamins and omega-3 fatty acids). When available, nutrient content was found to be highly variable within and across species, but overall, the evaluation of nutritional quality indicated that algae may be a considerable source of minerals and vitamin B12. The contribution of fiber and protein is generally minimal in a 5 g dry weight portion of macroalgae; microalgae may have higher protein content, and also fat. However, excessive amounts of iodine and several heavy metals may be represented even in very small amounts of unprocessed macroalgae. In summary, the suggested potential of farmed algae as a sustainable food resource is overall strengthened by its generally low carbon footprint during production compared to other food raw materials. However, more input data are needed to fill data gaps regarding both environmental impacts and nutrient quality, and effects from different processing, as well as improved understanding of nutrient and contaminant bioavailability. Pending further research, careful considerations of risks and benefits associated with algae production and consumption should be applied.

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  • 24.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

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  • 25.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Hobday, Alistair J.
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Smith, Anthony D. M.
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Green, Bridget S.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Gibbs, Mark
    Shaping sustainability of seafood from capture fisheries integrating the perspectives of supply chain stakeholders through combining systems analysis tools2018Ingår i: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, artikel-id fsy081Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood from capture fisheries can be assessed in many ways and for different purposes, with sometimes divergent views on what characterizes “sustainable use”. Here we use two systems analysis tools—Ecological Risk Assessment for Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—over the historical development of the Australian Patagonian toothfish fishery at Heard and McDonald Islands since the start in 1997. We find that ecological risks have been systematically identified in the management process using ERAEF, and with time have been mitigated, resulting in a lower risk fishery from an ecological impact perspective. LCA inventory data from the industry shows that fuel use per kilo has increased over the history of the fishery. Our results suggest that LCA and ERAEF may provide contrasting and complementary perspectives on sustainability and reveal trade-offs when used in combination. Incorporation of LCA perspectives in assessing impacts of fishing may facilitate refinement of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such as improved integration of the different perspectives of supply chain stakeholders.

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  • 26.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Science, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Integrated environmental assessment of fisheries management: Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries evaluated using a life cycle approach2012Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, nr 6, s. 1193-1201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management needs to broaden its perspective to achieve sustainable resource use. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products using a broad and systematic approach. In this study, the outcome of a management regime promoting species-selective trawling in Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries was studied using LCA methodology by quantifying the impacts per kilogram of landing using two different fishing methods. Demersal trawling has previously been found to be both energy intensive and destructive in terms of seafloor impact and discards. It is demonstrated that species-selective trawling fulfils management objectives, although with tradeoffs in terms of fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. To prioritize between impacts, one must be aware of and quantify these potential tradeoffs. LCA could be an important tool for defining sustainable seafood production as it can visualize a broad range of impacts and facilitate integrated, transparent decision making in the seafood industry. It is also concluded that, with current LCA methodology, use of total discarded mass could increasingly be distinguished from potential impact by applying two new concepts: primary production requirements and threatened species affected. 

  • 27.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    By-catch impacts in fisheries: Utilizing the iucn red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAS2013Ingår i: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 52, nr 5, s. 1239-1248Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  • 28.
    Krause, G.
    et al.
    Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Germany.
    Le Vay, L.
    Bangor University, UK.
    Buck, B. H.
    Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Germany; University of Applied Sciences Bremerhaven, Germany.
    Costa-Pierce, B. A.
    Ecological Aquaculture Foundation, USA; Ecological Aquaculture Foundation, Portugal.
    Dewhurst, T.
    Kelson Marine Co, USA.
    Heasman, K. G.
    Cawthron Institute, New Zealand.
    Nevejan, N.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Nielsen, P.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nielsen, K. N.
    Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Park, K.
    Kunsan National University, South Korea.
    Schupp, M. F.
    Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Germany: University of Dundee, UK.
    Thomas, J. -B
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Troell, M.
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Webb, J.
    Bangor University, UK.
    Wrange, Anna-Lisa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Strand, Åsa
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Prospects of Low Trophic Marine Aquaculture Contributing to Food Security in a Net Zero-Carbon World2022Ingår i: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 6, artikel-id 875509Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To limit compromising the integrity of the planet, a shift is needed towards food production with low environmental impacts and low carbon footprint. How to put such transformative change towards sustainable food production whilst ensuring food security into practice remains a challenge and will require transdisciplinary approaches. Combining expertise from natural- and social sciences as well as industry perspectives, an alternative vision for the future in the marine realm is proposed. This vision includes moving towards aquaculture mainly of low trophic marine (LTM) species. Such shift may enable a blue transformation that can support a sustainable blue economy. It includes a whole new perspective and proactive development of policy-making which considers, among others, the context-specific nature of allocation of marine space and societal acceptance of new developments, over and above the decarbonization of food production, vis á vis reducing regulatory barriers for the industry for LTM whilst acknowledging the complexities of upscaling and outscaling. This needs to be supported by transdisciplinary research co-produced with consumers and wider public, as a blue transformation towards accelerating LTM aquaculture opportunities in a net zero-carbon world can only occur by considering the demands of society. Copyright © 2022 Krause, Le Vay, Buck, Costa-Pierce, Dewhurst, Heasman, Nevejan, Nielsen, Nielsen, Park, Schupp, Thomas, Troell, Webb, Wrange, Ziegler and Strand.

  • 29.
    Langeland, Markus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Greenhouse gas emissions of rainbow troutfed conventional and novel feeds from Balticregion, evaluated using Life Cycle Assessment2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture production set a new record in 2020, with over 120 million tonnes of production, whichcorresponds to about half of the global seafood consumption. However, Swedish aquacultureproduction is currently low, but slowly increasing. The global aquaculture sector is predicted tocontinue to grow but needs to reduce its environmental footprint. In intensive aquaculture in whichfeed is used, feed inputs often account for the largest share of environmental impacts, thus feeddevelopment is a priority to increase the sustainability of fed aquaculture.The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental sustainability implications of shiftingto more regional and circular feed inputs for rainbow trout, by, as a first step, estimating thegreenhouse gas emissions – or carbon footprint- of the novel feed and fish raised on it compared toconventional production. Fish were produced in net pens in Sweden and fed either a conventionalfeed (reference), or an experimental feed in which 60% of the protein content derives from novelingredients (insects, blue mussels, sea squirts and fava bean protein isolate) sourced from the Nordiccountries to replace land animal by-products (i.e. blood meal and poultry by product meal) and soyprotein concentrate.Results show that the novel feed reduces greenhouse gas emissions of one kg of rainbow troutby around 63 %. Fish fed the experimental feed maintained the same growth and economic feedconversion ratio (eFCR) as fish fed the control feed. The reduction is mainly due to the almost 70%lower emissions of the experimental feed; 1.6 kg CO2eq./kg feed compared to 5.4 kg CO2eq./kg feedof the conventional feed. Feeding fish insects reared on plant-based waste streams from the foodindustry, increases the circularity and reduces emissions. However, the modelling choice that somefeed inputs based on side streams with no economic value are free of environmental burden, has astrong influence on the results. Despite shorter transport distances no lower impact of transportscould be found for the experimental feed due to the utilisation of more climate intensive transportmeans/modes. Further, the novel feed ingredients used in the study come from pilot or test scaleproduction plants, with potential to further decrease emissions with optimised processing. Atpresent, the available volumes of these feed inputs are limited which prevents a rapid large-scaleshift of the aquaculture industry. Other sources of uncertainty include the fact that the FCR is basedon a four-month growth trial which might not reflect a complete production cycle. This studyindicates that there is a potential to reduce the carbon footprint of intensive aquaculture by usingalternative protein sources, an important step that shows that it is worthwhile to continue expandingthe analysis to cover also other environmental aspects to avoid shifting burdens between differenttypes of environmental impact.

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  • 30.
    Latka, Catharina
    et al.
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Heckelei, Thomas
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Batka, Miroslav
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Boere, Esther
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Chang, Chiao-Ya
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Cui, David
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Geleijnse, Marianne
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Havlik, Petr
    IIASA International Institute for Applies Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commission, Belgium.
    vant Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Witzke, Heinz-Peter
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    The potential role of producer and consumer food policies in the EU to sustainable food and nutrition security2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    EU sustainable food and nutrition security is no sure-fire success. The future of<br/>the agro-food system is uncertain and subject to different macro-level trends.<br/>Previous analysis revealed the role of food system drivers creating challenges and<br/>opportunities for dietary and environmental improvements under certain future<br/>constellations. However, these challenges and opportunities need to be addressed by policies to allow for actual improvements in the sustainability<br/>performance of EU food systems, for people, planet and profit. In this deliverable,<br/>an assessment and pre-test of potential policy measures is carried out. The policy<br/>analyses are contrasted to a &#8216;business-as-usual&#8217; baseline scenario with current<br/>trends of food system drivers. We apply the SUSFANS modelling toolbox in order<br/>to test relevant policy measures in four distinct aqua-agro-food policy sectors.<br/>Regarding health and nutrition of the EU population, we provide a ranking of<br/>potential dietary policies and interventions based on their effectiveness,<br/>implementation costs and restrictiveness for consumers and producers. Based on<br/>this overview, options for health and nutrition policy are designed containing a<br/>mixture of different policy instruments. These apply &#8211; in line with the allocation<br/>of policy responsibilities in the EU - at the level of individual member states and<br/>not at the realms of an EU policy. In the context of the Common AgriculturalPolicy (CAP), we assess the impact of a livestock density restriction on EU Agricultural areas. Results indicate a reduction of soil nutrient surpluses (-9 to -13%) and of greenhouse gas emissions (-9%) at EU average and considerably stronger in the livestock density and over-fertilization hotspots. Trade openness restricts the impact on food consumption and dietary change of EU consumers. Three Common Fisheries Policies (CFP) are tested with the newly developed fish modules of GLOBIOM and CAPRI: Directing capture in EU waters to levels that keep fish stocks at the maximum sustainable yield (MSY), or at the maximum economic yield (MEY), and the implementation of national aquaculture growth plans composed by EU member states. Our results show limited policy impacts due to the rlatively small size of the EU fish producing sector with some trade but<br/>limited consumption changes. Finally, different storage policies are tested with the new short-term volatility module of GLOBIOM. The scenarios reveal that storage availability and intervention prices reduce price volatility caused by yield shocks. The assessments illustrate that individual, yet unaligned policy measures can already contribute significantly to reaching sustainable food and nutrition<br/>security. On the way to the final foresight assessment extensions are require regarding a) metrics quantifiability, b) the harmonization of metrics computation<br/>approaches, and c) smaller model improvements

  • 31.
    Nilsson, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Behaderovic, Danira
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Wocken, Yannic
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Branschgemensam metodik för att beräkna klimatavtryck för livsmedelsprodukter2024Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    På uppdrag av Livsmedelsföretagen, LI, och Svensk Dagligvaruhandel, SvDH, har RISE tagit fram en branschgemensam metodik för att beräkna klimatavtryck av livsmedels-produkter. Framtagen klimatberäkningsmetodik bygger på den underlagsrapport om metodik och standarder för beräkning av klimatavtryck på livsmedelsprodukter som RISE tog fram i uppdrag av Li och SvDH, våren 2023 (RISE, 2023). Metodiken gäller för klimatberäkning av • Producentspecifikt och produktrepresentativt klimatavtryck av livsmedel – i rapporten kallat Representativt klimatavtryck. • Generiska klimattal av livsmedel – i rapporten kallat Generiskt klimattal.

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  • 32. Nilsson, P.
    et al.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Spatial distribution of fishing effort in relation to seafloor habitats in the Kattegat, a GIS analysis2007Ingår i: Aquatic conservation, ISSN 1052-7613, E-ISSN 1099-0755, Vol. 17, nr 4, s. 421-440Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. High-resolution fishing effort data from the Kattegat, an important fishing ground for Swedish and Danish fishermen, was analysed in a Geographical Information System (GIS). Data were based on position data for individual tows reported by Swedish fishermen during 2001-2003. 2. Gear dimension and towing speed data were used to calculate an index for area swept per hour for each main gear type in use in the area. These indexes were multiplied by fishing effort and a grid theme of fishing intensity was created after GIS analysis. 3. Around 44% of the entire area was affected by Swedish fisheries during the study period, hence 56% was not affected. 4. Effort was highly concentrated in certain areas and 10% of the total area was covered more than twice per year. 5. Overlaying the effort data set with habitat maps classified according to the European Nature Information System (EUNIS) showed that the fishing pressure differed between habitats. For deep rocky and muddy habitats, almost the entire area was affected by fisheries during the study period, while both intensity and proportion affected were lower in sandy sediments and gravels. 6. Around 55% of the deep rocky habitats were trawled more than twice per year. Of the muddy seafloor areas, 41% were covered more than twice per year and 4% more than once a month by trawls. 7. The biological effects of the fishing intensities found were analysed using a database (MarLIN) containing assessments of marine habitat recoverability. All habitats except muds are probably in a nearly or fully recovered condition (as defined by MarLIN). A considerable part of the muddy habitats are in a permanently altered condition owing to fishing disturbance taking place more frequently than the indicated recovery time. 8. Danish fishermen report more fishing effort in the area than do Swedes. Owing to differences in reporting fishing positions, Danish fisheries could not be included in the present study. Scaling up the results to include Danish fisheries is discussed. 9. The results of the present study could be used to target habitat management goals more precisely, while minimizing the negative impact of restrictions on the fishing sector. 10. A prerequisite for performing similar studies is the availability of high-resolution fishing effort data and high-resolution benthic habitat maps. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • 33.
    Parodi, A.
    et al.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Leip, A.
    European Commission, Italy.
    De Boer, I. J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Slegers, P. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Temme, E. H. M.
    RIVM National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Netherlands.
    Herrero, M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Tuomisto, H.
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Valin, H.
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Van Middelaar, C. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Loon, J. J. A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Van Zanten, H. H. E.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets2018Ingår i: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 1, nr 12, s. 782-789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Altering diets is increasingly acknowledged as an important solution to feed the world’s growing population within the planetary boundaries. In our search for a planet-friendly diet, the main focus has been on eating more plant-source foods, and eating no or less animal-source foods, while the potential of future foods, such as insects, seaweed or cultured meat has been underexplored. Here we show that compared to current animal-source foods, future foods have major environmental benefits while safeguarding the intake of essential micronutrients. The complete array of essential nutrients in the mixture of future foods makes them good-quality alternatives for current animal-source foods compared to plant-source foods. Moreover, future foods are land-efficient alternatives for animal-source foods, and if produced with renewable energy, they also offer greenhouse gas benefits. Further research on nutrient bioavailability and digestibility, food safety, production costs and consumer acceptance will determine their role as main food sources in future diets.

  • 34. Peacock, N.
    et al.
    De Camillis, C.
    Pennington, D.
    Aichinger, H.
    Parenti, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Towards a harmonised framework methodology for the environmental assessment of food and drink products2011Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 16, nr 3, s. 189-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction "Food and drink" products are the basis of life. However, it is recognised that their supply also contributes to the environmental impacts associated with production and consumption. Recently, an increasing number of food chain partners and public authorities have introduced a widening range of initiatives to provide information about the environmental performance of food and drink products. These initiatives show a high degree of diversity in terms of their chosen scope, assessment methodologies and means of communication, which has the potential to confuse or even mislead consumers and other stakeholders. In this context, the European Food Sustainable Consumption and Production (SCP) Round Table was launched by food supply chain partners and the European Commission with the vision of promoting a science-based, coherent approach to sustainable consumption and production in the European food sector. Objectives This article presents this European initiative by introducing its Guiding Principles and summarizing the proceedings of the scientific workshop held in Ispra on 14-15 June 2010. The aim of the workshop was to identify scientific inputs for developing the harmonised framework methodology for assessing the environmental issues of food and drink products. In this context, the main purpose was to provide a common understanding of what is involved in reliable and robust environmental assessments of the food chain, current limitations, and how to go from detailed assessments to more focused criteria, guidance and tools. Conclusion The current experiences presented in the workshop demonstrate that much advancement has already been made towards the measurement and management of the environmental performance of food and drink products. Detailed methodologies and tools are already being used by various players. According to the workshop speakers, the definition of methodological choices concerning the functional unit, systemboundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation rules and environmental impact categories are some of the key issues to be fixed in the harmonised framework methodology. The Round Table process has the potential to make a substantial contribution to the sustainable consumption and production of food and drink products. This model might be proposed and reiterated for other sectors as well. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  • 35. Pelletier, N.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Not all salmon are created equal: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems2009Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 23, s. 8730-8736Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and quantity of material/energy resource use and associated emissions per unit production across regions. This suggests significant scope for improved environmental performance in the industry as a whole. We identify key leverage points for improving performance, most notably the critical importance of least-environmental cost feed sourcing patterns and continued improvements in feed conversion efficiency. Overall, impacts were lowest for Norwegian production in most impact categories, and highest for UK farmed salmon. Our results are of direct relevance to industry, policy makers, eco-labeling programs, and consumers seeking to further sustainability objectives in salmon aquaculture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 36. Pelletier, N.L.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Kruse, S.A.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Impact categories for life cycle assessment research of seafood production systems: Review and prospectus2007Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 414-421Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. In face of continued declines in global fisheries landings and concurrent rapid aquaculture development, the sustainability of seafood production is of increasing concern. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) offers a convenient means of quantifying the impacts associated with many of the energetic and material inputs and outputs in these industries. However, the relevant but limited suite of impact categories currently used in most LCA research fails to capture a number of important environmental and social burdens unique to fisheries and aquaculture. This article reviews the impact categories used in published LCA research of seafood production to date, reports on a number of methodological innovations, and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for further impact category developments. Main Features. The range of environmental and socio-economic impacts associated with fisheries and aquaculture production are introduced, and both the commonly used and innovative impact categories employed in published LCA research of seafood production are discussed. Methodological innovations reported in agricultural LCAs are also reviewed for possible applications to seafood LCA research. Challenges and options for including additional environmental and socioeconomic impact categories are explored. Results. A review of published LCA research in fisheries and aquaculture indicates the frequent use of traditional environmental impact categories as well as a number of interesting departures from the standard suite of categories employed in LCA studies in other sectors. Notable examples include the modeling of benthic impacts, by-catch, emissions from anti-fouling paints, and the use of Net Primary Productivity appropriation to characterize biotic resource use. Socio-economic impacts have not been quantified, nor does a generally accepted methodology for their consideration exist. However, a number of potential frameworks for the integration of such impacts into LCA have been proposed. Discussion. LCA analyses of fisheries and aquaculture call attention to an important range of environmental interactions that are usually not considered in discussions of sustainability in the seafood sector. These include energy use, biotic resource use, and the toxicity of anti-fouling paints. However, certain important impacts are also currently overlooked in such research. While prospects clearly exist for improving and expanding on recent additions to environmental impact categories, the nature of the LCA framework may preclude treatment of some of these impacts. Socio-economic impact categories have only been described in a qualitative manner. Despite a number of challenges, significant opportunities exist to quantify several important socio-economic impacts. Conclusion. The limited but increasing volume of LCA research of industrial fisheries and aquaculture indicates a growing interest in the use of LCA methodology to understand and improve the sustainability performance of seafood production systems. Recent impact category innovations, and the potential for further impact category developments that account for several of the unique interactions characteristic of fisheries and aquaculture will significantly improve the usefulness of LCA in this context, although quantitative analysis of certain types of impacts may remain beyond the scope of the LCA framework. The desirability of incorporating socio-economic impacts is clear, but such integration will require considerable methodological development. Recommendations and Perspectives. While the quantity of published LCA research for seafood production systems is clearly increasing, the influence this research will have on the ground remains to be seen. In part, this will depend on the ability of LCA researchers to advance methodological innovations that enable consideration of a broader range of impacts specific to seafood production. It will also depend on the ability of researchers to communicate with a broader audience than the currently narrow LCA community. © 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 37.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dverdal Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gansel, Lars C
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hansen Aas, Grete
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Quantifying environmental impacts of cleaner fish used as sea lice treatments in salmon aquaculture with life cycle assessment2022Ingår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 26, nr 6, s. 1992-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing pressure of sea lice, development of multi-resistance to chemotherapeutants, and alternative delousing strategies have been raising concerns about the environmental impacts of salmon farming. Ectoparasitic sea lice and its treatments represent a major bottleneck for the development of the Norwegian salmonid aquaculture. The environmental impacts of different treatments and their contribution to the salmon footprint remain unknown; these processes have been excluded from life cycle assessment (LCA) of farmed salmon. In this work, we apply LCA to quantify the impacts of three different value chains expressed per ton of cleaner fish farmed/fished, distributed, and used. The impacts of farmed lumpfish, farmed wrasse, and fished wrasse are then combined to calculate the footprint of the Norwegian biological lice treatment mix, expressed per ton of salmon produced. We found that wrasse fishing generates considerably lower impacts than farmed lumpfish and, a fortiori, farmed wrasse. The direct comparison of these value chains is compromised since LCA is unable to quantify ecosystem impacts and because cleaner fish delousing efficiencies remain unknown. Overall, the impacts of biological lice treatments have a low contribution to the salmon footprint, suggesting that using this treatment type could be a sound approach to treat salmon. However, such favorable results depend on three critical factors: (1) the efficiency of biological lice treatments needs to be confirmed and quantified; (2) ecosystem impacts should be accounted for; and (3) cleaner fish welfare issues must be addressed. This article met the requirements for a gold-gold JIE data openness badge described at http://jie.click/badges. © 2021 The Authors.

  • 38.
    Philis, Gaspard
    et al.
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Gansel, Lars
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Jansen, Mona
    Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Norway.
    Gracey, Erik
    BioMar Group, Norway.
    Stene, Anne
    NUTU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Comparing life cycle assessment (LCA) of salmonid aquaculture production systems: Status and perspectives2019Ingår i: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, nr 9, artikel-id 2517Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector worldwide, mostly driven by a steadily increasing protein demand. In response to growing ecological concerns, life cycle assessment (LCA) emerged as a key environmental tool to measure the impacts of various production systems, including aquaculture. In this review, we focused on farmed salmonids to perform an in-depth analysis, investigating methodologies and comparing results of LCA studies of this finfish family in relation to species and production technologies. Identifying the environmental strengths and weaknesses of salmonid production technologies is central to ensure that industrial actors and policymakers make informed choices to take the production of this important marine livestock to a more sustainable path. Three critical aspects of salmonid LCAs were studied based on 24 articles and reports: (1) Methodological application, (2) construction of inventories, and (3) comparison of production technologies across studies. Our first assessment provides an overview and compares important methodological choices. The second analysis maps the main foreground and background data sources, as well as the state of process inclusion and exclusion. In the third section, a first attempt to compare life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) data across production technologies was conducted using a single factor statistical protocol. Overall, findings suggested a lack of methodological completeness and reporting in the literature and demonstrated that inventories suffered from incomplete description and partial disclosure. Our attempt to compare LCA results across studies was challenging due to confounding factors and poor data availability, but useful as a first step in highlighting the importance of production technology for salmonids. In groups where the data was robust enough for statistical comparison, both differences and mean equalities were identified, allowing ranking of technology clusters based on their average scores. We statistically demonstrated that sea-based systems outperform land-based technology in terms of energy demand and that sea-based systems have a generally higher FCR than land-based ones. Cross-study analytics also strongly suggest that open systems generate on average more eutrophying emissions than closed designs. We further discuss how to overcome bottlenecks currently hampering such LCA meta-analysis. Arguments are made in favor of further developing cross-study LCA analysis, particularly by increasing the number of salmonid LCA available (to improve sample sizes) and by reforming in-depth LCA practices to enable full reproducibility and greater access to inventory data. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 39.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Scholten, Jesper
    Blonk Consultants, The Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Seafood Life Cycle Inventory database : Methodology and Principles and Data Quality Guidelines2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En växande insikt om betydelsen av livsmedel för global miljöpåverkan, särskilt animaliska livsmedel inklusive sjömat, har lett till ett behov hos producenter såväl som handeln att kommunicera miljöpåverkan av råvaror och produkter genom livsmedelskedjan. Detta visar sig i form av nya krav på att dokumentera produkters miljöavtryck, t ex vid certifiering och i regelverk. EU initiativet inom hållbar utveckling med en "inre marknad för gröna produkter" är ett exempel, med målet att dokumentera miljöavtrycket av produkter på EU marknaden enligt metoden Product Environmental Footprinting (PEF). Målet är att göra det möjligt för konsumenter, handel, producenter och lagstiftare att göra medvetna val och att etablera drivkrafter mot reducerad miljöpåverkan i produkters värdekedja.

    För att kunna leva upp till dessa nya krav, krävs tillgång på representativ data av hög kvalitet, något som i stort sett har saknats för sjömatsprodukter. För att göra högkvalitativa, representativa data kring resursåtgång och miljöpåverkan av sjömatsprodukter (inklusive biomassa som direkt eller indirekt används till foder) tillgängliga, initierade den norska sjömatsbranschen ett pilotprojekt. Projektet definierade en rekommenderad metod och struktur för datainsamling och använde denna metod för att samla in tillgängliga data för ett antal pilotfall. Metoden för datainsamling presenteras i detta dokument och kan, tillsammans med pilotdataseten som gjorts tillgängliga i projektet, användas av näringen som grund för en bredare datainsamling för att skapa en utbyggd sjömats-LCI-databas.

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  • 40.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste E.
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Ellen
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Life cycle environmental impacts of kelp aquaculture through harmonized recalculation of inventory data2024Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 450, artikel-id 141987Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As seaweed farming gains prominence in future blue economies, scientifically robust environmental evaluations are vital. Harmonizing life cycle assessment (LCA) studies provides nuanced insights, allowing generalizations and potentially more accurate results than individual studies. This study recalculates life cycle inventory (LCI) data to offer a comprehensive perspective on sugar kelp Saccharina latissima. The findings affirm and validate previous studies, emphasizing critical hotspots such as fuel use for boats at sea, impacts from the use of plastic ropes, buoys and metal components at sea, and electrical energy use in the hatchery. The overall environmental impacts of seaweed farming remain relatively low compared to other seafood and biomass sources. The study also highlights the importance of how fuel use is modelled for the outcome. While harmonization enhances certainty and facilitates robust comparisons, challenges arise from the lack of standardized methods for data collection and reporting, along with data gaps between studies. Addressing these limitations calls for standardized protocols and improved data sharing practices in the field. 

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  • 41. Thrane, M.
    et al.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Eco-labelling of wild-caught seafood products2009Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 416-423Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Several eco-labels for wild-caught seafood have been developed during the last decade. This article describes and analyses the criteria applied by four different eco-labelling schemes for seafood products from capture fisheries, and discusses the criteria in terms of environmental impacts, based on the ISO 14040 standard for life cycle assessment. It is concluded that the most widespread eco-label, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), mainly addresses the fishing stage, in particular the overexploitation of marine resources. LCA studies confirm that the fishing stage represents the most significant environmental burden, but energy consumption and emissions of anti-fouling agents at the fishing or harvesting stage contribute with significant impacts that are not being addressed by international labelling initiatives for wild-caught seafood. LCA studies show that significant environmental impacts are related to the life cycle stages after landing. This includes fish processing, transport, cooling and packaging (especially for highly processed seafood products). Hence, another challenge would be to include criteria related to the post-landing consumption of energy, certain materials and chemicals, waste handling and wastewater emissions. Minimizing product losses throughout the product chain would also be an important area for future criteria in order to avoid fishing at high environmental costs only to produce something that is later wasted. The analysis shows that the Swedish KRAV is the only one that currently addresses a range of issues that include energy and chemicals in the whole life cycle of the products. International initiatives such as MSC cover fish products from many parts of the world emphasizing 'overexploitation of fish resources'. It is recommended, however, that international initiatives such as MSC develop criteria related to energy use and chemicals - at least at the fishing stage. Over time, other life cycle stages could be addressed as well to the extent that this is manageable. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Tlusty, Michael
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, US.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Bailey, Megan
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Béné, Christophe
    International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Colombia.
    Bush, Simon
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Newton, Richard
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Asche, Frank
    University of Florida, US.
    Little, David
    University of Stirling, UK.
    Troell, Max
    Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Reframing the sustainable seafood narrative2019Ingår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 59, artikel-id 101991Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant sustainable seafood narrative is one where developed world markets catalyze practice improvements by fisheries and aquaculture producers that enhance ocean health. The narrow framing of seafood sustainability in terms of aquaculture or fisheries management and ocean health has contributed to the omission of these important food production systems from the discussion on global food system sustainability. This omission is problematic. Seafood makes critical contributions to food and nutrition security, particularly in low income countries, and is often a more sustainable and nutrient rich source of animal sourced-food than terrestrial meat production. We argue that to maximize the positive contributions that seafood can make to sustainable food systems, the conventional narratives that prioritize seafood's role in promoting ‘ocean health’ need to be reframed and cover a broader set of environmental and social dimensions of sustainability. The focus of the narrative also needs to move from a producer-centric to a ‘whole chain’ perspective that includes greater inclusion of the later stages with a focus on food waste, by-product utilization and consumption. Moreover, seafood should not be treated as a single aggregated item in sustainability assessments. Rather, it should be recognized as a highly diverse set of foods, with variable environmental impacts, edible yield rates and nutritional profiles. Clarifying discussions around seafood will help to deepen the integration of fisheries and aquaculture into the global agenda on sustainable food production, trade and consumption, and assist governments, private sector actors, NGOs and academics alike in identifying where improvements can be made.

  • 43.
    Tlusty, Micheal
    et al.
    University of Massachusetts, USA.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Jonell, Malin
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik J. G.
    Stockholm University, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Newton, Richard
    Stirling University, UK.
    Little, Dave
    Stirling University, UK.
    Fry, Jillian
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Love, Dave
    John Hopkins University, USA.
    Cao, Ling
    Stanford University, USA.
    Commentary: Comparing efficiency in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems2018Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 13, nr 12, artikel-id 128001Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquaculture is receiving increased attention from a variety of stakeholders. This is largely due to its current role in the global food system of supplying more than half of the seafood consumed, and also because the industry continues to steadily expand (UN Food and Agriculture Organization 2018). A recent article in Environmental Research Letters, 'Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: Do we measure it correctly?', by Fry et al (2018a) found that measuring feed conversion efficiency of selected aquatic and terrestrial farmed animals using protein and calorie retention resulted in species comparisons (least to most efficient) and overlap among species dissimilar from comparisons based on widely used weight-based feed conversion ratio (FCR) values. The study prompted spirited discussions among researchers, industry representatives, and others. A group assembled to write a standard rebuttal, but during this process, decided it was best to engage the study's original authors to join the discourse. Through this collaboration, we provide the resultant additional context relevant to the study in order to advance conversations and research on the use of efficiency measures in aquatic and terrestrial animal production systems.

  • 44.
    van Hal, Ollie
    et al.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    van Zanten, Hannah H.E.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Schrama, Johan W.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Kiki
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel. Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    de Boer, Imke J.M.
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    The role of fisheries and fish farming in a circular food system in the European Union2023Ingår i: Sustainable Production and Consumption, ISSN 2352-5509, Vol. 43, s. 113-123Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies that demonstrated animals can contribute to resource efficient food supply, by upcycling low-opportunity-cost feed (LCF), into valuable animal-source food, focussed solely on livestock (ruminants, pigs and poultry). Aquatic animals, however, also make valuable contributions to food supply, especially as they are our main natural source of eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) ω-3 fatty acids. Our aim, therefore, was to assess the contribution of capture fisheries and fish farming (salmon and tilapia) to human nutrient supply in EU-28 (before Brexit), when feeding no biomass from arable land or waterbodies but only LCF to livestock and farmed fish. To this aim, we deployed an optimisation model allocating available LCF in the EU under various scenarios, to that combination of fish and livestock that maximises human digestible protein supply, while meeting human requirements of vitamin B12 and EPA + DHA. We found that capture fisheries could fulfil maximally around 40 % of daily per capita EPA + DHA requirements in EU28. This contribution would already require rebuilding fish stocks and prioritising edible fish for human consumption. To meet our EPA + DHA requirements we, thus, need to additionally farm fatty fish (salmon). Our results show that, when feeding only LCF, these fatty fish depend on by-products from fisheries to meet their own EPA + DHA requirements and on livestock slaughter by-products to meet their high protein requirements. Feeding livestock by-products to farmed fish, however, is not common practice due to concerns about consumer acceptance. We also demonstrate that upcycling LCF into valuable human food requires a proper balance of different farmed fish and livestock systems, tailored to the available LCF and desired nutrient supply to the human population. Overall, our results provide insights into the role of aquatic animals across land and water to human nutrient supply and give a direction for strategic sustainability development of both capture fisheries and fish farming. 

  • 45.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental assessment of a Swedish, frozen cod product with a life-cycle perspective: a data report2002Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • 46.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental impact assessment of seafood products2003Ingår i: Environmentally-Friendly Food Processing, s. 70-92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 47.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of seafood products from capture fisheries2007Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 61-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 48.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Axelsson, Anna F
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sanders, Christophe
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sverige och sjömaten: idag och i morgon. Kan vi samtidigt öka produktion, konsumtion och hållbarhet?2023Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sjömat, beroende på art och produktionsmetod, har visat sig vara ett bra alternativ till framför allt rött kött ur både miljö- och hälsosynpunkt. Sverige har dock utvecklingsbehov vad gäller såväl konsumtion som produktion av sjömat – vi når idag inte upp till Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationom att äta 2–3 portioner per vecka, vi håller oss till få arter och importerar dessutom omkring 75% av den sjömat vi äter. Att undersöka utvecklingspotentialen för svensk sjömatssektor är med andra ord högst relevant, inte minst mot bakgrund av den svenska livsmedelsstrategin som bl a syftar tillökad inhemsk produktion och försörjningskapacitet. Det är också viktigt att utvecklingen sker inom de delar av sektorn som är mest hållbara. Detta innebär exempelvis att fiskets fångster inte kan öka,utan i stället bör användas mer effektivt än idag. Syftet med den här rapporten är att kartlägga miljöavtrycket av dagens produktion och konsumtion av sjömat och modellera framtidsscenarier för 2030 och 2045. Tanken är att ge en bild av hur det skulle kunna se ut, genom att kombinera pågående och önskvärda trender kring sjömat, snarare än att försöka ge en exakt bild av hur framtiden kommer att bli. Rapporten är främst tänkt att utgöra ett diskussionsunderlag för vad som behöver göras för att nå dit. Vi undersöker också om det finns förutsättningar att kunna tillgodose Sveriges befolkningmed sjömat enligt rekommendationerna, samtidigt som klimatavtrycket minskar. För de arter som dominerar dagens produktion respektive konsumtion identifierades de viktigaste produktionsteknikerna och bästa tillgängliga data för klimatavtrycket av dessa. För produktionen vägdes även potentiell övergödning samt påverkan på bestånd och bottenhabitat in och diskuterades semi-kvantitativt/kvalitativt. Framtidsscenarierna baserades sedan på fyra åtgärderför att öka produktionen och/eller minska klimatavtrycket: 1) ökat vattenbruk, 2) ökad användning av pelagisk fisk till livsmedel, 3) ökad användning av sidoströmmar från fiskberedning till livsmedelsamt 4) minskat klimatavtryck och bränsleåtgång inom fisket bl a genom mer hållbar förvaltning. För att modellera framtida konsumtion antogs att fördelningen mellan huvudtyper av sjömat, t ex vitfisk och laxfisk, var liknande, men att efterfrågan på de mest klimatsmarta alternativen inom varje grupp ökade. Analysen visar att det totala klimatavtrycket och övergödningspotentialen ökar när större volymer produceras, liksom klimatavtrycket per kilo med den sammansättning som är vald. Närsaltsutsläpp med potentiell övergödande effekt ökar både totalt och per kg p g a ökad produktion av kassodlad fisk. Vad gäller konsumtion innebär en växande inhemsk produktion i kombinationmed en förändrad sammansättning inom och mellan sjömatskategorier att vi kan nå upp till Livsmedelsverkets rekommendationer, samtidigt som sjömatskonsumtionens totala klimatavtryckminskar. Dessutom kan utveckling av teknik och foder leda till ytterligare förbättringar som vi idag inte kan förutse, men det kan också ske försämringar p g a klimatförändringarna. Det finns således teoretiska förutsättningar att öka både produktion och konsumtion till nivåer som ligger i linje med nationella behov och rekommendationer, och samtidigt minska klimatavtrycket per kg sjömat konsumerad. För att realisera detta krävs breda och målinriktade samarbeten mellan myndigheteroch näring, hållbara inköpsstrategier samt långsiktigt hållbar förvaltning av fisket. Det finns många fördelar med att öka den inhemska produktionen, men trots kortare transporter är svenskproducerad sjömat inte per definition mer hållbar än importerad – det viktigaste är hur den är producerad. Det finns även behov av att utveckla vad som kännetecknar mervärden kring svensk sjömat. Ur perspektivet hållbara dieter är det dessutom viktigt att se till helheten, dvs även vilka produkter den nya sjömaten ersätter.

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  • 49.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Svensk konsumtion av sjömat - en växande mångfald2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska sjömatsmarknaden har kartlagts i syfte att identifiera och kvantifiera de vanligaste arterna av fisk och skaldjur, eller "sjömat", som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Offentlig statistik kring volym av import, export och produktion i fiske och vattenbruk för 2015 har utgjort grunden för analysen och kombinerats till att ge en översiktsbild av vad som säljs och konsumeras i Sverige. Merparten företag i fiskbranschen kontaktades och har levererat både kvantitativa och kvalitativa uppgifter.

    Biodiversiteten i den svenska sjömatsimporten visade sig vara hög och omfatta ett hundratal arter eller artgrupper. Volym och viktigaste ursprungsländer presenteras för dessa. Svensk konsumtion av sjömat domineras inte oväntat av lax, torsk och sill. Mer överraskande var att en kategori bestående av oidentifierade torskfiskar, bl a från tropiska vatten, hamnar så högt som på plats 13. Av varje kategori av sjömat (torskfisk, laxfisk, plattfisk, räka, krabba, musslor, tonfisk) redovisas en del ospecifikt tillhörande "Övrigt". Längre ner på listan hamnar nya importerade, odlade arter som guldsparid, havsabborre, men även fiskade arter som nilabborre, tandnoting och ett antal arter av tonfisk, varav flera är kraftigt överfiskade. Exempelvis konsumerades fyra ton av den akut hotade blåfenade tonfisken i Sverige. De här arterna har etablerat sig på den svenska sjömatsmarknaden på senare år. Runt 15 ton ål konsumeras per år i Sverige, både från svenskt fiske och från import, och även den är akut hotad.

    Den totala svenska sjömatskonsumtionen för 2015 är 109 000 ton filé och skaldjur utan skal, vilket motsvarar 11 kg per person eller runt 25 kg hel fisk per person. Av detta är 60 % vildfångat och 40 % odlat. Cirka en fjärdedel av den totala volymen är certifierad av antingen MSC eller ASC. Närmare 75 % av det vi äter är importerat, medan svenskt fiske står för drygt 20 % och svenskt vattenbruk står för runt 6 %. På grund av osäkerheter i rapporteringen av import och export så är dock dessa siffror något osäkra. Den totala konsumtionen har mellan 2011 och 2015 ökat. Kartläggningen har gett nya insikter om diversiteten i den svenska sjömatskonsumtionen och fördelningen mellan arter, trots de osäkerheter som finns.

    Sjömat har en stor potential som både hälsosam och hållbart producerad mat, och Livsmedelsverket rekommenderar att vi äter fisk och skaldjur 2-3 gånger per vecka. För stora grupper betyder detta att de bör äta mer sjömat. Det har dock stor betydelse vilken typ av sjömat man väljer att äta både för hälsa och miljö. Därför är det viktigt med bra kunskap om vad som konsumeras och var och hur det har producerats.

    Genomgången har gett insyn i vad statistiken kan användas till och vilka osäkerheter som finns. Rapporten ger även en rad förslag på hur statistiken skulle kunna förbättras, både genom att ställa krav på att nuvarande rutiner för datainsamling om handel och konsumtion av sjömat i större utsträckning följs och genom att mer långsiktigt arbeta för att förbättra dessa rutiner.

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  • 50.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Parker, Robert
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hognes, Erik
    Asplan Viak, Norway.
    Jafarzadeh, Sepideh
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Adding perspectives to: “Global trends in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion in marine fisheries from 1950 - 2016"2019Ingår i: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 107, artikel-id 103488Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A contribution in this issue, Greer et al. (2019), models carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion in global fisheries. This is done based on a method using data on fishing effort, presenting results for two sectors: small-scale and industrial fisheries. The selection of these sectors is not motivated in relation to studying fuel use, and it is well-documented that other factors more accurately predict fuel use of fisheries and would constitute a more useful basis for defining sub-sectors, when the goal of the study is to investigate fuel use. Weakly grounded assumptions made in the translation of fishing effort into carbon dioxide emissions (e.g. the engine run time per fishing day for each sector) systematically bias results towards overestimating fuel use of “industrial” vessels, underestimating that of “small-scale”. A sensitivity analysis should have been a minimum requirement for publication. To illustrate how the approach used by Greer et al. (2019) systematically misrepresents the fuel use and emissions of the two sectors, the model is applied to Australian and New Zealand rock lobster trap fisheries and compared to observed fuel use. It is demonstrated how the approach underestimates emissions of small-scale fisheries, while overestimating emissions of industrial fisheries. As global fisheries are dominated by industrial fisheries, the aggregate emission estimate is likely considerably overestimated. Effort-based approaches can be valuable to model fuel use of fisheries in data-poor situations, but should be seen as complementary to estimates based on direct data, which they can also help to validate. Whenever used, they should be based on transparent, science-based data and assumptions.

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