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  • 1. Chozas, V.
    et al.
    Larraza, Í.
    Vera-Agullo, J.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Da Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Synthesis and characterization of reactive powder concrete for its application on thermal insulation panels2015In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2015, Vol. 96, no 1, article id 012044Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the synthesis and characterization of a set of textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (RPC) mixes that have been prepared in the framework of the SESBE project which aims to develop facade panels for the building envelope. In order to reduce the environmental impact, high concentration of type I and II mineral additions were added to the mixtures (up to 40% of cement replacement). The mechanical properties of the materials were analysed showing high values of compression strength thus indicating no disadvantages in the compression mechanical performance (∼140 MPa) and modulus of elasticity. In order to enable the use of these materials in building applications, textile reinforcement was introduced by incorporating layers of carbon fibre grids into the RPC matrix. The flexural performance of these samples was analysed showing high strength values and suitability for their further utilization.

  • 2.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Strutural performance of GFRP connectors in Composite sandwich facade elements2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic testing and modelling program has been developed for the verification of the structural performance of facade sandwich elements to take structural aspects into consideration in the SESBE research project, focusing on the development of “smart” facade elements.

    The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors of the novel type of facade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large facade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. The first series of the testing and modelling programme concerning connector performance are presented here. The results suggest that sufficient strength and ductility of the connectors can be ensured using GFRP in the proposed thin light-weight facade elements.

  • 3.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2172-2186Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 4.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Mueller, Urs
    Larraza, Inigo
    Edgar, Jan-Olof
    Wlasak, Lech
    Structural behaviour of RPC sandwich façade elements with GFRP connectors2015In: VII International Congress on Architectural Envelopes. San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain. 2015-05-27--29, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Dias Ferreira Da Silva, Nelson
    Mueller, Urs
    Larraza, Inigo
    Chozas, Valle
    Vera, Jose
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements – A sustainable approach2015In: VII International Congress on Architectural Envelopes. San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain. 2015-05-27--29, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Chozas, Valle
    Larraza, Inigo
    Dias Ferreira Da Silva, Nelson
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements: A sustainable approach2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized for external fa¸cade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market are usually expensive and less sustainable due to high cement clinker contents. In this study, improved RPC formulations with higher amounts of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were developed. The formulations were combined with different types of reinforcements ranging from steel fibres to fibre textile grids primarily to enhance the ductility and tensile strength of the composite material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to ca. 40% of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mixes could still be achieved. A fairly steep strength gain rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The materials displayed good flow properties and a reasonably short initial setting time. The incorporation of carbon textile fibre grids proved to be highly effective in improving the post cracking behaviour of the RPC. The results validated a more sustainable approach for RPC applied to thin fa¸cade elements. 

  • 7.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    3D Analysis of Strains in Fibre Reinforced Concrete Using X-Ray Tomography and Digital Volume Correlation2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In fibre reinforced concrete (FRC), understanding the underlying interaction mechanisms between discrete fibres and the surrounding concrete matrix can lead to the optimization of the fibre-matrix combination. This paper presents the initial development of a method enabling the analysis of this given interaction on ameso-mechanical level. The method is such that volume images are initially captured using X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) on small-scale FRC specimens under loading which are thereafter analysed to measure full 3D strainand deformation via Digital Volume Correlation (DVC). It is anticipated that the method developed in this project can be a useful tool for the developmentof new innovative and high performance FRC.

  • 8.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Hall, Stephen
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Engqvist, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Analysis of Failure Modes in Fiber Reinforced Concrete Using X-rayTomography and Digital Volume Correlation2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pull-out mechanisms for different common steel fibers were investigatedusing adapted pull-out tests performed in-situ in an x-ray micro tomograph(µXRT). High-resolution volume images from the µXRT scans enable clearvisualization of aggregates, pores, the fiber and the fiber-matrix interface.Furthermore, the natural density speckle pattern from aggregate distributionand pores was found suitable for Digital Volume Correlation (DVC) analysis.From the DVC results it was possible to visualize and quantify the straindistribution in the matrix around the fiber at the different load levels up tofinal failure, being marked by either pull-out or fiber rupture. This studydemonstrates that strain measurements within the concrete matrix can beobtained successfully using µXRT imaging and DVC analysis, which leads to anincreased understanding of the interaction mechanisms in fibre reinforcedconcrete under mechanical loading.

  • 9.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Composite Behaviour of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Façade Elements2018In: International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, ISSN 1976-0485, E-ISSN 2234-1315, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the EC funded project smart elements for sustainable building envelopes, carbon textile reinforcement was incorporated into reactive powder concrete, namely textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC), to additionally improve the post-cracking behaviour of the cementitious matrix. This high-performance composite material was included as outer and inner façade panels in prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich elements along with low density foamed concrete (FC) and glass fibre reinforced polymer continuous connecting devices. Experiments and finite element analysis (FEA) were applied to characterize the structural performance of the developed sandwich elements. The mechanical behaviour of the individual materials, components and large-scale elements were quantified. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC-FC sandwich element beams to quantify the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on digital image correlation were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behaviour of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels. As for the FEA, the applied modelling approach was found to accurately describe the stiffness of the sandwich elements at lower load levels, while describing the stiffness in a conservative manner after the occurrence of connector failure mechanisms. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 10.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carneiro, Erica
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Inspection and monitoring of bridges in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview about recent research activities and current practice concerning inspection and monitoring of the structural performance of bridges and the related decision-making process. A brief review of common methods of collecting information on structural performance of bridges is presented, followed by a description of the use of the information collected in structural analysis and maintenance planning. An overview about the state of the art is given including recent scientific developments. Finally, the current Swedish practice for bridge management is presented.

  • 11.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    REr.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Alkali Resistance of Textile Reinforcement for Concrete Façade Panels2014In: XXII NORDIC CONCRETE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM, 2014, , p. 61-64, Publication no. 50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete has been proven to be a suitable solution for the production of thin and lightweight façade panels. Despite it being researched over the past decade, its long-term durability is not sufficiently characterized. This article presents experimental results from accelerated aging and direct tensile testing of various textile reinforcement alternatives according to ISO 10406-1. Based on the results, a large degeneration of the glass and basalt fibre bars was observed after 30 days of immersion. As for carbon fibre grids, no significant difference in ultimate tensile force was noted before and after immersion.

  • 12. Miccoli, L.
    et al.
    Fontana, P.
    Johansson, Gabriel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Tillståndsbedömningar.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Numerical modelling of UHPC and TRC sandwich elements for building envelopes2015In: IABSE Conference, Geneva 2015: Structural Engineering: Providing Solutions to Global Challenges - Report, IABSE , 2015, p. 195-203Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a modelling approach is presented to reproduce the mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels via finite element analysis. Two types of panels were investigated in this scope of work. The first sandwich element was a textile reinforced concrete (TRC) panel with cellular lightweight concrete insulation and the second configuration was an ultra-high performances concrete (UHPC) panel with aerated autoclaved concrete insulation. The goal was to obtain a reliable numerical strategy that represents a reasonable compromise in terms of sufficient accuracy of the element characteristics and the computational costs. The results show the possibility of describing the composite action in a full sandwich panel. The achieved modelling approach will later be used for the optimization of TRC and UHPC panels in terms of minimizing the thickness, identifying the number and location of connectors, as well as evaluating varying anchorage systems.

  • 13.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application for Facades2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized also for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market have drawbacks in terms of sustainability due to their high clinker content and heat curing which is often applied to increase final strength and material density. The presented study focusses on improved formulations with higher replacement levels of cement clinker by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). One different mix formulation was designed and tested in terms of mechanical properties. The formulation was combined with carbon textile reinforcements primarily to enhance the flexural and tensile behavior of the material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to 33 % of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mix could still be achieved. Fairly steep strength gains rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The incorporation of carbon textile fiber grids proved to be effective in improving the post peak performance of the RPC. However, their performance depended strongly on the bond between the carbon grid and the RPC. Higher moister contents in the concrete proved to reduce the bond strength between the carbon textile and the cement paste. This is maybe less relevant for facades but structural elements with textile reinforcement and RPC might perform less well in completely submerged environment.

  • 14.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Boubitsas, Dimitrios
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Sprickor i betong2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Fortifications Agency

    ’s (FORTV) property stock consists of numerous concrete structures built both above and below rock. Some of these structures have experienced cracking overtime which, in turn, can lead to subsequent problems such as reinforcement corrosion and deterioration of structural performance. Due to the fact that in many cases there are building requirements related to protection against forced entry and weapon attacks, it is of great importance for FORTV to gain an understanding of how cracks are developed, the significance of the crack development, how do cracks affect the performance, as well as how cracks can be remediated. A similar project, with a focus on so-called access protection, has earlier been managed by FORTV. During the project, it was ascertained that there is inadequate knowledge pertaining to crack repair.

    The goals of this project were the following:

    • Suggest a method or a tool to evaluate the extent of cracking in concrete structures which are included in protective facilities.
    • Describe which parameters can initiate cracking.
    • Describe repair methods to reinstate the functionality of concrete structures.

    Cracking naturally takes place during the normal use of a concrete structure without influencing

    the structure’s functionality given that it is designed correctly. However, there are other mechanisms which can initialize cracking in concrete structures. These mechanisms take place during various time periods (hardening, after hardening and

    during the service life). Three crack groups have been identified accordingly: a) cracks due to poor workmanship, b) cracks due to chemical deterioration mechanisms and c) loading cracks.

    Damage identification and a condition assessment can be conducted in different stages to determine the extent of cracking. It is firstly recommended to review the existing documentation coupled to the structure, followed by a preliminary inspection (visual), additional non-destructive testing and lastly destructive testing. Repairs are selected according to the source of the damage, it is to say concrete defects or corroded reinforcement. In addition, the functionality requirements for the structure shall be evaluated and the selected methods shall be assessed according to e.g. lifespan and cost.

  • 15. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Fernandez Perez, Ignasi
    Pull-out of textile reinforcement in concrete2014In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 71, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    Alkali resistance of textile reinforcement for concrete facade panels2014In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 61-64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, K.
    Tensile behaviour of textile reinforcement under accelerated ageing conditions2016In: Journal of Building Engineering, ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 5, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) has emerged as a promising alternative wherein corrosion is no longer an issue and much thinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched, the formalization of experimental methods concerning durability arises when attempting to implement and design such innovative building materials. In this study, accelerated ageing tests paired with tensile tests were performed. The change in physico-mechanical properties of various commercially available textile reinforcements was documented and evaluated. The ability for the reinforcements to retain their tensile capacity was also quantified in the form of empirical degradation curves. It was observed that accelerated test parameters typically applied to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and grids are generally too aggressive for the textile reinforcement products and alternative boundary conditions are necessary. The developed degradation curves were found to have an overall good correlation with the experimental findings.

  • 18. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lundgren, Karin
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Implementation of experimental data in analyses of textile reinforced concrete structures2015In: FERRO-11 – 11th International Symposium on Ferrocement and 3rd ICTRC - International Conference on Textile Reinforced Concrete, 2015, , p. 149-158Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Anchorage of Textile Reinforcement in High-Performance Concrete2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of textile reinforced high-performance concrete (TRHPC) applied in innovative lightweight sandwich elements has been investigated in the framework of EC supported FP7 project, H-House (Healthier Life with Eco-innovative Components for Housing Constructions). TRHPC offers new possibilities for architects and engineers to create thinner and more durable concrete façade elements. Textile reinforcement grids are typically woven from non-metallic rovings usually consisting of continuous glass, rock or carbon fibres. The most promising performing textile reinforcement alternative in terms of mechanical and durability performance consists of carbon fibres. Carbon fibres do however have an inherent smooth surface which is unfavourable concerning its bond to the cement paste, which is often improved by polymer-based coatings. The bond behaviour, being a critical design parameter, should be investigated for TRHPC in order to understand limitations regarding required anchorage lengths for use in applications such as façade elements. The aim of this study was to quantify and verify the required anchorage length for a selected epoxy impregnated carbon textile reinforced TRHPC combination. To achieve this aim, the bond behaviour, leading to a suitable anchorage length (or overlap), was firstly studied by means of pull-out tests. Thereafter, the ultimate strength of the composite material was measured via uniaxial tensile testing with and without an overlap splice according to the findings from the pull-out tests. Optical measurements during the pull-out tests were performed using a video extensometer technique and by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for the uniaxial tensile tests. Results indicated that the required anchorage length to yield rupture of the textile reinforcement in pull-out was deemed appropriate as an overlapping length when tested in tension. The combination of these two experimental methods on the composite level was useful for determining the overlapping length required for the TRHPC which could be applied in larger scale applications.

  • 20.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, MathiasRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.Mueller, UrsRISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Analysis of the Flexural Behavior of Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Sandwich Elements Using Optical Measurements2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prefabricated and non-load bearing sandwich façade elements were developed using Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete (TRRPC) along with low density Foamed Concrete (FC) and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) continuous connecting devices. Four-point bending tests were performed on large-scale TRRPC sandwich element beams to characterize the structural performance, which included the flexural capacity, level of composite action, resulting deformation, crack propagation and failure mechanisms. Optical measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were taken simultaneously to enable a detailed analysis of the underlying composite action. The structural behavior of the developed elements was found to be highly dependent on the stiffness and strength of the connectors to ensure composite action between the two TRRPC panels.

  • 21.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Experimental Study on Anchorage in Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete2017In: Nordic Concrete Research, ISSN 0800-6377, Vol. 57, no 2, p. 73-88, article id 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The EC funded project SESBE (Smart Elements for Sustainable Building Envelopes) focused on utilizing new types of cementitious materials for reducing the mass and thickness of façade elements while increasing their thermal performance. A method enabling the quantification and verification of the required anchorage length for a given textile reinforced reactive powder concrete (TRRPC) is presented. At the material level, tensile tests were conducted to determine the tensile properties of the reinforcement. Pull-out tests were applied to quantify the required anchorage length, while uniaxial tensile tests were performed to quantify the ultimate strength and verify the suitability of the anchorage length at the composite level. The combination of these methods was deemed useful to determine the overlapping length required for larger scale façade applications.

  • 22.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Bending behaviour of novel Textile Reinforced Concrete-foamed concrete (TRC-FC) sandwich elements2017In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 177, p. 104-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel sandwich element design consisting of two facings made of carbon reinforced Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), a low density foamed concrete (FC) core and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connecting devices was experimentally investigated according to quasi-static and cyclic quasi-static fourpoint bending. Optical measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were taken during testing to enable a detailed analysis of the bending behaviour and level of composite action. A model, verified by the experiments, was developed based on non-linear finite element analysis (NLFEA) to gain further insight on the failure mechanisms. Under both loading conditions, the bending behaviour of the TRCFC composite elements was characterized by favourable load bearing capacity, partial composite action, superior ductility and multiple fine cracking. The connecting devices were found to be the critical elements causing the initial failure mechanism in the form of localized pull-out within an element.

  • 23. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Larraza, Inigo
    Chozas, Valle
    Mueller, Urs
    Agullo, Jose
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Synthesis and characterization of reactive powder concrete for its application on thermal insulation panels.2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Sustainable potential of textile-reinforced concrete2015In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 4014207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building construction industry is in need of sustainable materials and solutions. A novel building material, such as textile-reinforced concrete (TRC), could be used to meet this demand. Textile-reinforced concrete is a combination of fine-grained concrete and multiaxial textile fabrics that has been fundamentally researched over the past decade. TRC-based research has explored various facets of this composite material, such as its structural functionality, production, applicability, and design. One key aspect that is still missing, however, is a comprehensive review of the sustainable potential of this material in terms of its input–output and durability that suitably answers to requirement No. 7 of EU’s Construction Products Regulation. This article provides qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sustainable potential and prospective development of TRC particularly reinforced by alkali-resistant (AR) glass, carbon, or basalt fibers. Based on the outcome of this evaluation, carbon textile fibers were observed to hold the optimal potential mechanical behavior; additionally, it was revealed through the conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) that basalt had the least cumulative energy demand, whereas carbon had the least environmental impact.

  • 25.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nyholm Thrane, Lars
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flexural behaviour of textile reinforced concrete composites: experimental and numerical evaluation2017In: Materials and Structures, ISSN 1359-5997, E-ISSN 1871-6873, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) is an innovative high performance composite material which has revealed many promising attributes in various applications but test methods and reliable numerical models need to be established to reduce uncertainty and the need for extensive experimental studies. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the flexural behaviour of carbon textile reinforced TRC slabs both experimentally and numerically along with the characterization of the material and interaction level properties. The experimental results characterizing the bond behaviour were linked to the experimental behaviour of a rectangular TRC slab in bending through numerical analyses. A 2D macro-scale FE-model of the tested TRC slab was developed based on the related experimental input. Comparison of the numerical results to the experiments revealed that the flexural failure was governed by bond, and reasonable agreement was obtained in terms of crack development, deflections, maximum load, and failure mode. Accordingly, the experiments further indicated that the flexural behaviour of TRC slabs is greatly influenced by the bond quality.

  • 26.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Billberg, Peter
    Durability study of textile fibre reinforcement2015In: Concrete 2015: the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week, “Construction Innovations, Research into Practice”, Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional steel reinforced concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials,yet it has shortcomings in terms of weight, thick concrete covers, and durability namely corrosion of thereinforcement. Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), a combination of fine-grained concrete and noncorrosivefibre grids, has emerged as a promising alternative; corrosion is no longer an issue and muchthinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched,unknowns pertaining to the long-term durability arise when attempting to implement such innovativebuilding materials. The aim of this article is to study the effect of accelerated aging on the tensile strengthof various textile fibre grids according to ISO 10406-1 [1]. Carbon, basalt and alkali-resistant (AR) glassfibre grids were immersed into high alkali environment and elevated temperature for 30 days. Directtensile tests were conducted before and after aging to observe the degree of stiffness and tensile strengthloss. After aging, the carbon fibre grids were marked by an increase in both tensile strength and stiffness,while AR-glass and basalt were degraded to the extent that tensile tests could not be conducted.Specimens were therefore exposed to alternative conditions to identify the governing degradation factor.

  • 27.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    GFRP connectors in textile reinforced concrete sandwich elements2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm, 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 1331-1338Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, both experimental and numerical methods are presented to gain an understanding of the structural behaviour related to a TRC sandwich panel with a glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) plate connection system. Double shear tests were conducted on component-scale sandwich panels to characterize the available shear capacity provided by the connectors and panel configuration. Three-dimension (3D) non-linear Finite Element Analysis (NLFEA) was applied to develop a model for the design of TRC sandwich panels while focusing on the connectors. The experimental outcome of the shear tests was applied to validate the corresponding numerical model developed in this work. The need for further modifications to the design of the shear connectors or other parameters such as panel thickness can be established accordingly. This developed FE model can essentially be applied as a design tool to further predict the structural behaviour of the full-scale sandwich elements.

1 - 27 of 27
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