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  • 1.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Costagliola, F.
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Reducing influence from ground reflection during RCS characterization of automotive targets2019Inngår i: 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ground reflection is the major contributor to measurement uncertainty in the characterization of Radar Cross-Section (RCS) of automotive targets. In this paper we present a study of the influence of ground reflection on RCS measurements of large targets - such as real vehicles or surrogate objects - performed on flat outdoor test ranges. The influence of ground reflection and several means to reduce this effect are investigated and compared. Results are derived with theoretical formulas and simple models.

  • 2.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Lang, John
    Autoliv, Sweden.
    Costagliola, Francesco
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Zheng, Tian
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Marel, Elias
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    HiFi Radar Target: High fidelity soft targets and radar simulation for more efficient testing (real and virtual)2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The 77 GHz radar is a crucial sensor in the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) and Autonomous Driving (AD) system due to its ability to detect and track objects at distances up to 200 meters. To ensure high reliability of the radar function, extensive testing with soft surrogate targets is needed. However, the radar response of a surrogate target may differ from that of real targets, causing unexpected reactions of the ADAS and AD functions in real traffic situations. The first project goal was therefore to develop and validate realistic soft surrogate targets, a work which was performed in several steps. First radar reference targets were designed and verified. Secondly procedures for calibration of automotive radars were developed. Finally, a thorough investigation on Radar Cross Section (RCS) characterization methods for large test objects on the test track was conducted resulting in several measurement setups and measurement procedures including uncertainty analysis. Now, with the ability to perform repeatable and reliable RCS characterizations, several real and surrogate targets were characterized and work on improving RCS profile of surrogate targets were conducted.Strong competition in the automotive industry and the need to validate more and more complex functions (including autonomous drive) drives the development of virtual test methods. The ability to test the ADAS or AD functions virtually early in the development will save considerable time and cost. However, there were no such tools available with full radar simulation in-loop available prior to the project, which was the reason for the second goal of this project: an ADAS/AD system simulation tool-chain with radar simulation in-loop.The HiFi Radar Target project (diarienr. 2015-04852) was an FFI project within the Electronics, Software and Communications program. After prolongation it was a 30-month project that started 2015-12-31 and ended 2018-06-30. The project had a total budget of 15.9 MSEK.

  • 3.
    Toss, Henrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    How to Perform EMC Testing of Autonomous Vehicles2017Inngår i: Electronic Environment, nr 3, s. 32-34Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EMC TESTING of autonomous vehicles is challenging because the involved systems are designed to identify unrealistic driving conditions, which is exactly what we have in a typical anechoic EMC chamber. When the system detects unrealistic conditions, autonomous driving functions are disabled or set to predefined states, which means that EMC testing of autonomous functions is not possible. To fully test autonomous driving systems, we therefore need to emulate a realistic environment in many aspects, i.e., we need to stimulate involved sensors in a realistic way.

  • 4.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Karlsson, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Elektronik.
    Radar reflectivity spatial profile of 3D surrogate targets and real vehicles2019Inngår i: 13th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation, EuCAP 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a method to find a radar reflectivity spatial profile for comparing 3D surrogate targets with real vehicles is proposed. Utilizing this method, the spatial profile can be acquired using only high-level data from an automotive grade radar. For data within a small angular window at arbitrary aspect angle relative to the target, the proposed method back-projects Radar Cross Section (RCS) detections, to build up a spatial profile. This profile can then be used to evaluate multiple scattering centers on targets, which are important during test of autonomous vehicles and active safety functions. The method is used on measured data from 3D surrogate targets as well as real vehicles, which are presented in the paper.

  • 5.
    Toss, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lönnqvist, Susanna
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Sawatdee, Anurak
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nissa, Josefin
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Fabiano, Simone
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kratz, Gunnar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Simon, Daniel T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ferroelectric surfaces for cell release2017Inngår i: Synthetic metals, ISSN 0379-6779, E-ISSN 1879-3290, Vol. 228, s. 99-104Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Adherent cells cultured in vitro must usually, at some point, be detached from the culture substrate. Presently, the most common method of achieving detachment is through enzymatic treatment which breaks the adhesion points of the cells to the surface. This comes with the drawback of deteriorating the function and viability of the cells. Other methods that have previously been proposed include detachment of the cell substrate itself, which risks contaminating the cell sample, and changing the surface energy of the substrate through thermal changes, which yields low spatial resolution and risks damaging the cells if they are sensitive to temperature changes. Here cell culture substrates, based on thin films of the ferroelectric polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE) co-polymer, are developed for electroactive control of cell adhesion and enzyme-free detachment of cells. Fibroblasts cultured on the substrates are detached through changing the direction of polarization of the ferroelectric substrate. The method does not affect subsequent adhesion and viability of reseeded cells.

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