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  • 1.
    Holmberg, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser. University West, Sweden.
    Steuwer, Axel
    Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, South Africa.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Haakanen, Marja
    Stresstech OY, Finland.
    Berglund, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Residual stress state in an induction hardened steel bar determined by synchrotron- and neutron diffraction compared to results from lab-XRD2016In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 667, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Induction hardening is a relatively rapid heat treatment method to increase mechanical properties of steel components. However, results from FE-simulation of the induction hardening process show that a tensile stress peak will build up in the transition zone in order to balance the high compressive stresses close to the surface. This tensile stress peak is located in the transition zone between the hardened zone and the core material. The main objective with this investigation has been to non-destructively validate the residual stress state throughout an induction hardened component. Thereby, allowing to experimentally confirming the existence and magnitude of the tensile stress peak arising from rapid heat treatment. For this purpose a cylindrical steel bar of grade C45 was induction hardened and characterised regarding the microstructure, hardness, hardening depth and residual stresses. This investigation shows that a combined measurement with synchrotron/neutron diffraction is well suited to non-destructively measure the strains through the steel bar of a diameter of 20 mm and thereby making it possible to calculate the residual stress profile. The result verified the high compressive stresses at the surface which rapidly changes to tensile stresses in the transition zone resulting in a large tensile stress peak. Measured stresses by conventional lab-XRD showed however that at depths below 1.5 mm the stresses were lower compared to the synchrotron and neutron data. This is believed to be an effect of stress relaxation from the layer removal. The FE-simulation predicts the depth of the tensile stress peak well but exaggerates the magnitude compared to the measured results by synchrotron/neutron measurements. This is an important knowledge when designing the component and the heat treatment process since this tensile stress peak will have great impact on the mechanical properties of the final component.

  • 2.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Borgenstam, Annika
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Miyamoto, Goro
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Furuhara, Tadashi
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Quantitative metallography for industrial use on martensitic steels2015In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Solid-Solid Phase Transformations in Inorganic Materials 2015, 2015, p. 539-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of powertrain components and rock tools relies on the inherent strength and hardness of ferrous martensite. Currently the industry uses experimental measurements of surface hardness and case depth to qualify their hardening processes. Often there are additional requirements on microstructure constituents, although there are no quantitative methods available to characterize ferrous martensite. Here such methodology is discussed in relation to EBSD measurements on the full practical range of Fe-C alloys. The orientation relationships between austenite and martensite along with the variant pairing tendency of martensite are determined from the EBSD data. These results are related to the well-known morphological transition from lath to plate martensite in Fe-C alloys. Quantitative metallography using EBSD has the potential to complement hardness- and residual-stress measurements when qualifying new steel grades and hardening processes in industry. It may also prove important when investigating the coupling between material properties and fatigue performance.

  • 3.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Goldsteinas, A.
    Rink, M.
    DoE – Interrupted Gas Quenching in a Single Chamber Vacuum Furnace2017In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olofsson, A.
    Scania CVAB, Sweden.
    Biwersi, K.
    Scania CVAB, Sweden.
    Haglund, S.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Effect of hardenability and press quenching on distortion of crown wheels2014In: Thermal Process Modeling - Proceedings from the 5th International Conference on Thermal Process Modeling and Computer Simulation, ICTPMCS 2014 / [ed] Papp R.MacKenzie S.Goldstein R.Ferguson B.L., ASM International , 2014, p. 149-155Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Press quenching is used to control distortion of large transmission components, e.g. case hardened crown wheels. The unsystematic distortion arises from non-uniformity in the steel properties and processing conditions and is a major concern for gear manufactures. In the present work a methodology is developed to analyze how various properties and parameters influence the distortion during press quenching of crown wheels. To obtain realistic quenching characteristics, to be used for simulation, a number of experiments are carried out on an industrial press quenching machine. In addition, the distortion potential from hardenability is surveyed on a set of non-press quenched crown wheels and quantified by 3D- scanning. Based on the experimentally obtained quenching characteristics the press quenching process is simulated by FEM. Impact of steel properties, quenching characteristics and processing conditions on the distortion is discussed and analyzed in relation to the experiments. From the results it may be concluded that press quenching is a powerful tool that can limit the impact of distortion carriers. However, to exploit the full capability of press quenching and thereby increase process optimization it is necessary to better quantify the distortion carriers in the parts to be hardened. Copyright © 2014 ASM International ® All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Scania CV AB.
    Biwersi, Karin
    Scania CV AB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Effect of Hardenability and Press Quenching on Distortion of Crown Wheels2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Induction hardening - Establishing the process window for induction quenching by using experimental results and computational tools2014In: Materials Performance and Characterization, E-ISSN 2165-3992, ISSN 21653992, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 352-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To establish the process window for the spray quenching step of the induction hardening process is essential for quality control and optimized use of the quenching capacity supplied by the quenching unit. In general, the process window is established by an empirical approach, where the processing is related to the mechanical properties. On the other hand, there has been a rapid development of computational tools that may facilitate and accelerate process optimization. In the present work it is demonstrated how such tools, e.g., FE-simulation and multivariate analysis, can be applied to couple quenching characteristics to mechanical properties. The methodology is applied to induction hardened steel cylinders that were quenched with different flow rates, temperatures and composition of the quenchant. The results show how mechanical properties can be related to characteristics of the quenching, e.g., heat transfer coefficients and characteristics of the cooling curve. Moreover, the work discusses and exemplifies how the process window can be established and how computational tools allow the user to virtually alter the processing and estimate the impact it may have on the mechanical properties.

  • 7.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jerome
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Impact of Internal Oxidation and Quenching Path on Fatigue of Powertrain Components2015In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 504-509Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in 16MnCr5 and 20NiMo9-7F.

  • 8.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jérôme
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Haglund, Sven
    RISE, Swerea, KIMAB.
    Impact of internal oxidation and quenching path on fatigue of powertrain components2015In: Heat Treating 2015: Proceedings of the 28th ASM Heat Treating Society Conference, 2015, p. 498-503Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atmospheric case hardening of powertrain components may cause internal oxidation and thus reduce hardenability at the surface zone. This may affect the fatigue strength, which restricts the maximum cyclic load on steel components and hence is a major impediment for powertrain development and design. Here we have investigated the effect of furnace gas atmosphere composition and quenching path on fatigue properties of powertrain components. The results show that the detrimental effect of internal oxidation on fatigue may be compensated for by altering of the furnace atmosphere. Moreover, it is shown that the quenching path below the martensite start temperature also has an impact on the fatigue properties. These experiments were done in a full-scale industrial furnace on steel bars in l6MnCr5 and 2ONiMo9-7F. 

  • 9.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Tillverkningsprocesser.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Troell, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Effects of Hardenability and Quenching on Distortion of Steel Components2015In: Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Distortion Engineering (IDE 2015), 2015, p. 39-46Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distortion is a major concern for industrial production of case-hardened steel-components. Carriers of distortion have been identified at all stages in the production chain. Often recognized is the effect of steel hardenability, which is defined as “susceptibility to hardening by rapid cooling”. Hardenability is often represented by Jominy- or Grossman numbers, which are determined by experimental testing or calculation. Hardenability is derived from the steel ability to delay diffusion-controlled phase transformations, i.e. being dependent on alloying content and austenite grain-size. Hence, it may be of interest to investigate effects of individual alloying elements on distortion. Here we make an attempt to investigate the effect of hardenability (and alloying content) of case-hardening steel-grade 16NiCrS4 on distortion of ring- and c-shaped steel-components. The steel components are machined from tubes of three 16NiCrS4 heats, being dissimilar in alloying content and hardenability. After stress relief annealing, the steel-components were measured using either 3D-scanner or coordinate measuring machine. Subsequently, they were hardened, without carburization, using oil, gas or salt as quenchant. The components were measured in their hardened state and their distortion determined. The results clearly show the effects of hardenability and quenching on distortion. Moreover, these results are discussed in relation to production follow-up in industrial heat-treatment workshops. It is realized that to effectively handle distortion originating from hardenability; material, processing and component design has to be associated.

  • 10.
    Stormvinter, Albin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Senaneuch, Jérome
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, KIMAB.
    Makander, G.
    Kristoffersen, Hans
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Induction hardening: Effect of Bainite in the Case Layer on Fatigue Strength2017In: Proceedings of the 24th IFHTSE CONGRESS 2017 European Conference on Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering, 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 10 of 10
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