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  • 1.
    Flys, Olena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jarlemark, Per
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Rosen, B. -G
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Applicability of characterization techniques on fine scale surfaces2018In: Surface Topography: Metrology and Properties, ISSN 2051-672X, Vol. 6, no 3, article id 034015Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, several surface topographies typical for dental implants were evaluated by different measurement techniques. The samples were prepared by machine turning, wet chemical etching and electrochemical polishing of titanium discs. The measurement techniques included an atomic force microscope (AFM), coherence scanning interferometer (CSI) and a 3D stereo scanning electron microscope (SEM). The aim was to demonstrate and discuss similarities and differences in the results provided by these techniques when analyzing submicron surface topographies. The estimated surface roughness parameters were not directly comparable since the techniques had different surface spatial wavelength band limits. However, the comparison was made possible by applying a 2D power spectral density (PSD) function. Furthermore, to simplify the comparison, all measurements were characterized using the ISO 25178 standard parameters. Additionally, a Fourier transform was applied to calculate the instrument transfer function in order to investigate the behavior of CSI at different wavelength ranges. The study showed that 3D stereo SEM results agreed well with AFM measurements for the studied surfaces. Analyzed surface parameter values were in general higher when measured by CSI in comparison to both AFM and 3D stereo SEM results. In addition, the PSD analysis showed a higher power spectrum density in the lower frequency range 10-2-10-1 μm-1 for the CSI compared with the other techniques.

  • 2.
    Granskog, Viktor
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    García-Gallego, Sandra
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    von Kieseritzky, Johanna
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Rosendahl, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Zhang, Yuning
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Petronis, Sarunas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Lyvén, Benny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Arner, Marianne
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Malkoch, Michael
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    High-Performance Thiol–Ene Composites Unveil a New Era of Adhesives Suited for Bone Repair2018In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 28, no 26, article id 1800372Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of adhesives for fracture fixation can revolutionize the surgical procedures toward more personalized bone repairs. However, there are still no commercially available adhesive solutions mainly due to the lack of biocompatibility, poor adhesive strength, or inadequate fixation protocols. Here, a surgically realizable adhesive system capitalizing on visible light thiol–ene coupling chemistry is presented. The adhesives are carefully designed and formulated from a novel class of chemical constituents influenced by dental resin composites and self-etch primers. Validation of the adhesive strength is conducted on wet bone substrates and accomplished via fiber-reinforced adhesive patch (FRAP) methodology. The results unravel, for the first time, on the promise of a thiol–ene adhesive with an unprecedented shear bond strength of 9.0 MPa and that surpasses, by 55%, the commercially available acrylate dental adhesive system Clearfil SE Bond of 5.8 MPa. Preclinical validation of FRAPs on rat femur fracture models details good adhesion to the bone throughout the healing process, and are found biocompatible not giving rise to any inflammatory response. Remarkably, the FRAPs are found to withstand loads up to 70 N for 1000 cycles on porcine metacarpal fractures outperforming clinically used K-wires and match metal plates and screw implants.

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  • 3.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    A methodological study of the mechanics controlling implant fixation ex vivo2011In: Annual Conference of the European Society for Biomaterials; EBS 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Understanding mechanisms and factors related to implant fixation; a model study of removal torque2014In: Journal of The Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, ISSN 1751-6161, E-ISSN 1878-0180, Vol. 34, no Jun, p. 83-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegration is a prerequisite for achieving a stable long-term fixation and load-bearing capacity of bone anchored implants. Removal torque measurements are often used experimentally to evaluate the fixation of osseointegrated screw-shaped implants. However, a detailed understanding of the way different factors influence the result of removal torque measurements is lacking. The present study aims to identify the main factors contributing to anchorage. Individual factors important for implant fixation were identified using a model system with an experimental design in which cylindrical or screw-shaped samples were embedded in thermosetting polymers, in order to eliminate biological variation. Within the limits of the present study, it is concluded that surface topography and the mechanical properties of the medium surrounding the implant affect the maximum removal torque. In addition to displaying effects individually, these factorsdemonstrate interplay between them. The rotational speed was found not to influence the removal torque measurements within the investigated range.

  • 5.
    Murase, Kohei
    et al.
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Three-dimensional modeling of removal torque and fracture progression around implants.2018In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 29, no 7, article id 104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, a model for simulations of removal torque experiments was developed using finite element method. The interfacial retention and fracturing of the surrounding material caused by the surface features during torque was analyzed. It was hypothesized that the progression of removal torque and the phases identified in the torque response plot represents sequential fractures at the interface. The 3-dimensional finite element model fairly accurately predicts the torque required to break the fixation of acid-etched implants, and also provides insight to how sequential fractures progress downwards along the implant side.

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  • 6.
    Shah, Furqan A.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Martinelli, Anna
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Centre of Biomaterials and Cell Therapy, Sweden.
    Direct communication between osteocytes and acid-etched titanium implants with a sub-micron topography2016In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 27, no 11, article id 167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The osteocyte network, through the numerous dendritic processes of osteocytes, is responsible for sensing mechanical loading and orchestrates adaptive bone remodelling by communicating with both the osteoclasts and the osteoblasts. The osteocyte network in the vicinity of implant surfaces provides insight into the bone healing process around metallic implants. Here, we investigate whether osteocytes are able to make an intimate contact with topologically modified, but micrometre smooth (Sa < 0.5 µm) implant surfaces, and if sub-micron topography alters the composition of the interfacial tissue. Screw shaped, commercially pure (cp-Ti) titanium implants with (i) machined (Sa = ~0.2 µm), and (ii) two-step acid-etched (HF/HNO3 and H2SO4/HCl; Sa = ~0.5 µm) surfaces were inserted in Sprague Dawley rat tibia and followed for 28 days. Both surfaces showed similar bone area, while the bone-implant contact was 73 % higher for the acid-etched surface. By resin cast etching, osteocytes were observed to maintain a direct intimate contact with the acid-etched surface. Although well mineralised, the interfacial tissue showed lower Ca/P and apatite-to-collagen ratios at the acid-etched surface, while mineral crystallinity and the carbonate-to-phosphate ratios were comparable for both implant surfaces. The interfacial tissue composition may therefore vary with changes in implant surface topography, independently of the amount of bone formed. Implant surfaces that influence bone to have higher amounts of organic matrix without affecting the crystallinity or the carbonate content of the mineral phase presumably result in a more resilient interfacial tissue, better able to resist crack development during functional loading than densely mineralised bone.

  • 7.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia2012In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 8, no 9, p. 3532-3540Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Kulbacka-Ortiz, Katarzyna
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Stewe
    Kungsbacka Hospital, Sweden.
    Brånemark, Rickard
    Gothenburg University, Sweden; MIT Massachusetts Institute of Technology, US.
    Loads on Transhumeral Amputees Using Osseointegrated Prostheses2019In: Annals of Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 0090-6964, E-ISSN 1573-9686, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 1369-1377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of the upper extremities is not as prevalent as that of the lower limbs, but it is nonetheless equally important. Today, there are no load data relating to upper extremity bone-anchored prosthesis users in the literature, but they are important in order to improve the rehabilitation protocol, design aspects and confidence of the user when it comes to loading the prosthesis in daily life. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a population of eleven transhumeral amputees with osseointegrated implants, the load levels reached during specific prosthetic movements at maximum voluntary effort and during daily activities. The data showed a wide range of maximum load levels throughout the different activities. Furthermore, the data indicate that some test subjects felt apprehensive about loading the prosthesis, resulting in relatively low loads compared with the group as a whole. Within the limits of the present study, it was concluded that loading the implant system was subject specific, which resulted in large subject-to-subject variability. Moreover, some subjects exhibited uncertainty about the levels that could damage the fixation or the implant system. The study illustrates the diversity and uncertainty that exist in a population of transhumeral amputees treated with bone-anchored prostheses in terms of loading in daily life.

  • 9.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kurosu, Shingo
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Koizumi, Yuichiro
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Suska, Felicia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Matsumoto, Hiroaki
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Chiba, Akihiko
    Tohoku University, Japan.
    Palmquist, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Osseointegration Enhancement by Zr doping of Co-Cr-Mo Implants Fabricated by Electron Beam Melting2015In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 6, p. 6-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct osseous healing to prosthetic components is a prerequisite for the clinical success of uncemented treatment in total hip replacements (THR). The demands imposed on the material properties are constantly being stepped up to withstand the impact of an active lifestyle and ensure lifelong integration. Cobalt–chromium–molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) materials are interesting for their excellent mechanical stability, corrosion resistance and possibility to be produced by additive manufacturing into complex designs with modifiable stiffness. The bone response to Co-Cr-Mo is regarded as inferior to that of titanium and are usually cemented in THR. The hypothesis in the present study was that a low amount of Zr in the Co-Cr-Mo alloy would improve the bone response and biomechanical anchorage. The results showed significantly higher implant stability for the Co-Cr-Mo alloy with an addition of 0.04% Zr after eight weeks of healing in rabbits, while no major differences were observed in the amount of bone formed around the implants. Further, bone tissue grew into surface irregularities and in direct contact with the implant surfaces. It is concluded that additively manufactured Co-Cr-Mo alloy implants osseointegrate and that the addition of a low amount of Zr to the bulk Co-Cr-Mo further improves the bone anchorage.

  • 10.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Omar, Omar
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Brohede, Ulrika
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sandvik Coromant R&D, Sweden.
    Norgren, Susanne
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sandvik Coromant R&D, Sweden; Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Norlindh, Birgitta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Johansson, Anna
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf). University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bone response to a novel Ti-Ta-Nb-Zr alloy2015In: Acta Biomaterialia, ISSN 1742-7061, E-ISSN 1878-7568, Vol. 20, p. 165-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) is regarded as the state-of-the-art material for bone-anchored dental devices, whereas the mechanically stronger alloy (Ti–6Al–4V), made of titanium, aluminum (Al) and vanadium (V), is regarded as the material of choice for high-load applications. There is a call for the development of new alloys, not only to eliminate the potential toxic effect of Al and V but also to meet the challenges imposed on dental and maxillofacial reconstructive devices, for example. The present work evaluates a novel, dual-stage, acid-etched, Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy implant, consisting of elements that create low toxicity, with the potential to promote osseointegration in vivo. The alloy implants (denoted Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr) were evaluated after 7 days and 28 days in a rat tibia model, with reference to commercially pure titanium grade 4 (denoted Ti). Analyses were performed with respect to removal torque, histomorphometry and gene expression. The Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr showed a significant increase in implant stability over time in contrast to the Ti. Further, the histological and gene expression analyses suggested faster healing around the Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr, as judged by the enhanced remodeling, and mineralization, of the early-formed woven bone and the multiple positive correlations between genes denoting inflammation, bone formation and remodeling. Based on the present experiments, it is concluded that the Ti–Ta–Nb–Zr alloy becomes osseointegrated to at least a similar degree to that of pure titanium implants. This alloy is therefore emerging as a novel implant material for clinical evaluation.

  • 11.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Trobos, Margarita
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden .
    Brånemark, Rickard
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Thomsen, Peter
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Palmquist, Anders
    BIOMATCELL VINN Excellence Center of Biomaterials Cell Therapy, Sweden ; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Effect of load on the bone around bone-anchored amputation prostheses2017In: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, E-ISSN 1554-527X, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1113-1122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegrated transfemoral amputation prostheses have proven successful as an alternative method to the conventional socket-type prostheses. The method improves prosthetic use and thus increases the demands imposed on the bone-implant system. The hypothesis of the present study was that the loads applied to the bone-anchored implant system of amputees would result in locations of high stress and strain transfer to the bone tissue and thus contribute to complications such as unfavourable bone remodeling and/or elevated inflammatory response and/or compromised sealing function at the tissue-abutment interface. In the study, site-specific loading measurements were made on amputees and used as input data in finite element analyses to predict the stress and strain distribution in the bone tissue. Furthermore, a tissue sample retrieved from a patient undergoing implant revision was characterized in order to evaluate the long-term tissue response around the abutment. Within the limit of the evaluated bone properties in the present experiments, it is concluded that the loads applied to the implant system may compromise the sealing function between the bone and the abutment, contributing to resorption of the bone in direct contact with the abutment at the most distal end. This was supported by observations in the retrieved clinical sample of bone resorption and the formation of a soft tissue lining along the abutment interface. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1113–1122, 2017.

  • 12.
    Yoshimatsu, K.
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ye, L.
    Lund University.
    Stenlund, Patrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Chronakis, Ioannis
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    A simple method for preparation of molecularly imprinted nanofiber materials with signal transduction ability2008In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, no 17, p. 2022-2024Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A simple electrospinning method is developed to introduce signal transduction ability into molecularly imprinted nanofibers. © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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