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  • 1.
    Aalberg, Asbjørn Lein
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Læring etter branner i Norge – forutsetninger, barrierer og fremmende faktorer2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denne rapporten presenterer resultater fra et prosjekt som er utført av Fire Research and Innovation Centre - FRIC fra 2020 til 2022. Første versjon av rapporten ble publisert på engelsk i mars 2022. Denne norske versjonen er oversatt av SINTEF Digital og RISE Fire Research i samarbeid. En spesiell takk til Caroline Kristensen for arbeidet med oversettelsen. Rapporten er også oppdatert på enkelte punkter, uten at fokus og konklusjoner skal være endret.

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  • 2.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    LEARNING FROM FIRE INCIDENTS : Analysis of a devastating fire in a building with municipal housing in Norway2022In: Proceedings of the 32nd European Safety and Reliability Conference (ESREL 2022), 2022, p. 1156-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis of a fire in a municipal apartment building used as housing for people with challenges connected to drug addiction. The fire took place in Norway 7th of August 2021. The incident happened during the night and the fire was spreading quickly and intensely via the external wooden balconies. The combination of risk factors both connected to the fire development and the characteristics of the occupants raises the potential for fire fatalities. This analysis seeks to understand why the fire spread with such a speed, and how everyone in the building survived without injuries. The analysis identified both technical and human factors that may help to answer these questions. The findings suggest that there were deficiencies connected to the technical fire safety design that if improved could have reduced the fire damage. Factors promoting the fire spread and fire intensity include the choice of wood material used in the construction of the balconies, no sprinkler system installed on the balconies and a large fire load on the balconies caused by the occupants’ tendency to accumulate possessions on the balconies. Factors contributing to the outcome of no injuries or fatalities included occupants being awake during these late hours, and the strong social network between them. Such a network should be seen as a positive factor regarding robustness against fire and should be encouraged.

  • 3.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olsen, Vegard E
    Multiconsult, Norway.
    Hermansen, Anna-Karin
    TBRT, Norway.
    Hermansen, Arild
    TBRT, Norway.
    Log, Torgrim
    Gassco, Norway.
    Opstad, Kristen K
    NTNU, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne C
    HVL, Norway.
    Analyse av brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Bergen 7. august 20212023Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Aspnes, Espen H.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Ausen, Dag
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Høyland, Karin
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Mikalsen, Marius
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Schjølberg, Ingrid
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Svagård, Ingrid
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Walderhaug, Ståle
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Velferdsteknologi i boliger: Muligheter og utfordringer2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Målsettingen med denne rapporten er å belyse og diskutere muligheter og utfordringer med implementering av velferdsteknologi knyttet til boligløsninger og det å klare seg godt i egen bolig. Utvikling og implementering av velferdsteknologi forventes å være et viktig grep for å møte de kommende samfunnsutfordringene med en aldrende befolkning, endret sykdomsbilde og knapphet på helse- og omsorgspersonell.

    Etter å ha presentert nåværende og fremtidige teknologiske muligheter og utfordringer og drøftet disse i forhold til konkrete delmål med implementering av velferdsteknologi i boliger, avsluttes rapporten med å gi noen anbefalinger knyttet til Husbankens ulike roller som pådriver, kompetanseutvikler og kvalitetssikrer.

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  • 5.
    Baker, Greg
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Utstrand, John
    COWI AS, Denmark.
    Winberg, David
    Sweco AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Poulsen, Annemarie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Probabilistic Fire Risk Analysis in the Nordic Region2016In: SFPE 11th Conference On Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods / [ed] P. Tofilo, 2016, p. 137-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Bøe, Andreas Sæter
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, article id 103869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

  • 7.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Baker, Greg
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Ulfsnes, Mette Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brannsikkerhet i bygg med massivtre2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I dette prosjektet er det gjennomført et litteraturstudie på brannsikkerhet ved bruk av massivtre i bygninger.   Problemstillingene det ble jobbet med var temperaturforløp i en naturlig brann, selvslokking og forkullingshastighet. Ut fra litteraturstudiet konkluderer vi med at kunnskapen om brannsikkerhet i forbindelse med massivtre i bygninger er mangelfull.  Det er spesielt rundt problemstillinger knyttet til ubeskyttet massivtre, forkullingshastigheter, delaminering og selvslokking det er flere ubesvarte spørsmål, og dette er forhold som kan ha stor innvirkning på brannsikkerheten i bygninger.   Vi anbefaler at det utarbeides retningslinjer for hvordan anvendelse av massivtre skal håndteres i prosjektering og risikoanalyse for nye bygg

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  • 8.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway .
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    The effect of fire retardants on smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Building insulation products produced from renewable biomass is becoming increasingly common in buildings due to environmental lifecycle requirements. Biomass insulation products are combustible and can contribute to fires through flaming and smouldering combustion. Incidents have been reported where insufficient spacing between combustible insulation and heat-producing electrical appliances has led to smouldering and subsequent development of flaming fires. Insulation materials often contain fire retardants, though their performance with regard to smouldering fire is not well understood. [1, 2] This study investigates the temperature exposure needed to initiate self-sustaining smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation, focusing on the effect of fire retardant content and fibre size. The study is a part of the EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires) project. The test set-up is shown in Fig 1a [3]. The tested material was 100 grams, 34 kg/m3 spruce wood fibre loose-fill insulation with 4 and 9 % added ammonium polyphosphate fire retardant. Tests with short, fine fibres (Fig 1b) were compared to testst with long, thin fibres. The sample was heated from below until a given temperature was obtained 20 mm above the heater. Temperature and mass loss measurements as well as visual observations of the residue after test (Fig 1c) were used to characterize the onset of self-sustained smouldering. An iterative process was used, with 5 to 8 tests per product. It was found that a high level (9 %) of fire retardant gave an onset of smoldering at lower temperatures (225 °C) compared to a low level (4 %) of fire retardant (290 °C). The lower onset temperature indicates that the insulation with the highest fire retardant content is more prone to smouldering, which is contradictory to the expected performance of the fire retardant. For the same fire retardant content, the onset of self-sustained smouldering combustion was obtained at lower temperatures in insulation materials with smaller fiber sizes than in insulation with larger fiber size (225 vs 280 °C). This study is indicative, the absolute temperatures relate to the given test set-up. Further studies should include a range of fire retardant types and content, to obtain knowledge on their effect on smouldering fires.

  • 9.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Development of smouldering combustion in loose-fill wood fibre building insulation2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 7-7Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Extinguishing smoldering fires in wood pellets through cooling2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Extinguishing smoldering fires is a severe challenge for fire brigades, and has proven to be difficult even on the lab scale. In this study, the influence of a closed water cooling loop located within the fuel bed was investigated experimentally. Increasing the cooling led to a system less prone to intense combustion at an early stage, and eventually to complete extinguishment of self-sustained smoldering fires. Extinguishment was obtained in half of the cases with maximum cooling. Extinguishment occurred soon after smoldering had been established, giving a significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to the self-sustained smoldering fires that continued to complete burn-out.

  • 11.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smoldering combustion- from pulsations to extinguishment2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering is known as a slow, but unpredictable form of combustion. In this study we have looked at how smoldering is affected by water cooling of the fuel bed without direct contact between fuel and water flow. The study is a part of the EMRIS project, and its findings have possible implications for preventing and suppressing fires in industrial storage units.

  • 12.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Krause, Ulrich
    Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study2019In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 257-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires in stored or transported solid biofuels are very difficult to extinguish. The current study has explored heat extraction from the combustion zone as a method for extinguishing such flameless fires. Heat extraction from the sample was made feasible using water flowing through a metal pipe located inside the sample. The fuel container was a steel cylinder with insulated side walls, open at the top and heated from below. Wood pellets (1.25 kg, 1.8 l) was used as fuel. Results from small-scale experiments provide proof-of-concept of cooling as a new extinguishing method for smoldering fires. During self-sustained smoldering with heat production in the range 0 W to 60 W, the heat loss to the cooling unit was in the range 5 W to 20 W. There were only marginal differences between non-extinguished and extinguished cases. Up-scaling is discussed, cooling could be feasible for preventing smoldering fires in silos.

  • 13.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Haraldseid, Ingunn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Villacorta, Edmundo
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hagen, Bjarne C.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    FRIC - General Introduction2022Other (Other academic)
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  • 15.
    Fufa, Selamawit Mamo
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Jelle, Bjørn Petter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hovde, Per Jostein
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Reaction to fire and water vapour resistance performance of treated wood specimens containing TiO2 and clay nanoparticles.2013In: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 38, no 7, p. 717-724Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Post, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Sundström, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Johansson, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    STATUS SUMMARY OF CABLE REACTION TO FIRE REGULATIONS IN EUROPE2013In: Proceedings of the 62nd IWCS Conference, International Wire & Cable Symposium, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Försth, Michael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Post, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Sundström, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Johansson, Patrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    Storesund, Karolina
    Status summary of cable reaction to fire regulations in Europe2013In: Proceedings of the 62nd IWCS Conference, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18. Hakkarainen, Tuula
    et al.
    Messerschmidt, Birgitte
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Thureson, Per
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Comparison of the present Nordic classification system for surface linings and floor coverings with the EU euroclasses for surface linings and floor coverings. Nordtest project 1349-97.1998Report (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Hansen, Per Arne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    Drangsholt, Geir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Tåleevne til brannvegger2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Petroleumstilsynet (Ptil). Bakgrunnen for rapporten er at Ptil har sett eksempler på tilfeller i bransjen der brannmotstanden til brannvegger reduseres, ved at det benyttes en risikobasert beslutningsmodell som er svært avhengig av hvilke frekvenser som tillegges forskjellige branner. Det finnes eksempler på at brannvegger med brannmotstand A-60 benyttes der disse grenser mot områder der det kan oppstå en hydrokarbonbrann. I dagens NORSOK S-001 benyttes en grenseverdi på 100 kW/m2.Hvis varmeflukstettheten til den dimensjonerende brannen overstiger 100 kW/m2, skal det anvendes skiller med minst klasse H-60. Opphavet til denne verdien er gammel. Kunnskapen om relevante brannpåkjenninger må oppdateres. Det er behov for en vurdering utført av brannfaglig ekspertise som kan fastslå dagens beste kunnskap innenfor temaet tåleevne for forskjellige veggtyper.

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  • 20.
    Heskestad, Atle William
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Landrø, Harald
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Experiences on introducing functional fire safety requirements in the building regulations of Norway.2010In: Conference Proceedings 8th International Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lein Aalberg, Asbjørn
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Learning from fires in Norway : Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires are devastating events that may harm humans, properties and the environment. Authorities, organisations, companies and societies should be able to learn from fire incidents to reduce the probability and impact of future fires. To achieve a reduction in fires and their consequences, an effort is needed from multiple actors and both technical, organisational and individual changes would be necessary. Importantly, we therefore consider change as a prerequisite for learning. So how can we as a society change or modify our efforts for prevention and mitigation of fires? A learning approach often starts with some form of inquiry about the occurred accidents – an investigation. This investigation can take many forms: the fire services’ own evaluations of the response to a fire, an authority’s assessments of the compliance and fit of their regulations, a company’s analysis of internal rules and organisation, and the police’s investigation of criminal issues. Investigations require highly skilled professionals using often multidisciplinary skills such as knowledge in human behaviour, fire dynamics, electrical systems, mechanical processes and many more. A fire investigator may use many different techniques and tactics, to figure out how the fire started, what fault led to the fire, what made the fire develop the way it did and, also what factors and measures that worked well in the fire. The investigator can work for the fire service, the police, insurance companies, hired private fire investigators or in larger companies, to mention a few. However, not all fires are investigated in Norway, and there is also a large number of incidents that is concluded with an unknown fire cause. The aim of our research has been to increase the society’s capacity to learn from fires. We have two main objectives contributing to the aim: 1. Obtain knowledge on the preconditions for learning from fires in Norway. 2. Provide recommendations to increase learning from fires in Norway. Leading to these main objectives, we shed light on investigations, examinations, databases and routines related to the different actors, and importantly, the actors’ beliefs, collaboration and practices related to fire prevention and learning. The main corpus of material in this study is interviews with actors relevant for learning from fires in Norway. The informants were from the fire service, the police, educational system, insurance, authorities and organisations with interest in fire safety. The interviews were related to themes like cooperation inside and outside the organisation, resources and databases, how the interviewees see the fire investigation area today and how it should be improved. The findings were then divided into the Pentagon model’s five categories: • formal structure • technology and infrastructure • culture • interaction • relations and network The findings from the interviews and the reasons behind them are extensive and are elaborated upon in the report, but the main points are summarised here. Generally, we see clearly that learning from fires is a complex issue. It does not only encompass obtaining the correct technical insights from a fire scene, but also informal aspects like the personal relations and how the fire services are organised. Further, we see that fire investigation in Norway lack both the quality and quantity needed to obtain sufficient knowledge on fires that occur. The approaches, mandates and focus vary greatly with each actor, and this affects the coordination, cooperation, and systematic work of learning from investigations. High variation can also be found in the fire services’ own evaluations of their own fire-fighting efforts, which leads to regionally different methodology and terminology. This has an additional negative impact on the cooperative work even between fire departments. The cooperation is also varying when it comes to the sharing of knowledge which is prevalent between all actors involved in fire investigation. Little cooperation is formalised and therefore most cooperation on investigation and learning, as well as the sharing of knowledge and experiences, are done through individual and personal relations. This is also true inside the fire services where personal experiences and social learning is preferred to more systematic evaluation of fires and formal education. This creates a potential conflict with efforts of standardising work and learning processes. Lastly the lack of resources in preventive work in fire and rescue services and the police, especially in the investigation phase, hinders the possibility to learn effectively from fires and to convey the experiences from them. The difference in status between preventive and preparedness efforts in these public services is still relevant today.

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  • 22.
    Lein Aalberg, Asbjørn
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Holen, Siri Mariane
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    FRIC webinar: LEARNING FROM FIRES IN NORWAY: Preconditions, barriers and enabling factors2022Other (Other academic)
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  • 23.
    Mårvik, Roger
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    SP Fire Research AS tilbyr testing av komfyrvakter2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 29-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Piechnik, Kira
    et al.
    Otto-von-Guericke-UniversityMagdeburg, Germany.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian Universityof Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fires without flames: fundamentals and fire investigation cases2021Other (Other academic)
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  • 25.
    Rebaque, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norwaay; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft2020In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 264, article id 116806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry wood pellets (diameter 8 mm) of mixed Norwegian spruce and pine were tested in samples of 1.25 kg (1.7 l) in configurations with and without air draft from below. The pellets were placed in a vertical 15 cm diameter cylinder on top of a hot plate. Air draft inlet, when allowed, came through narrow openings in the cylinder bottom periphery. The bulk void of 36% formed channels for gas flows within the pellets bed. Initially, the samples were heated externally from below for 6 h. Time series of distributed temperatures were recorded, together with values of the mass. Smouldering with air draft was observed with two distinct behaviours: Type 1, where the sample after the period of external heating cooled down for several hours, and then increased in temperature to intense smouldering, and Type 2, where the sample went into intense smouldering before the end of external heating. Without draft airflow from below, the sample cooled down after external heating, before developing into intense smouldering about 20 h later. In all cases, the intense period lasted for 2 h. Typical temperatures were in the range 300–450 °C, while higher temperatures occurred in the intense period. Draft flow caused fast oxidation spreading, while slow without draft. Indications of oxidation spreading as a distriäbuted reaction were seen. Circulating air motions in the irregular void between individual pellets is discussed as an explanation for the behaviour. Uneven access to oxygen, with possibilities of locally excess air, can explain the peak temperatures observed. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 26.
    Saeter Böe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar S.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling2023In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, article id 103986Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

  • 27.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Energy storage, energy production and SMART technology in buildings2021In: Proc of Nordic Fire and Safety Days 2021, 2021, p. 63-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern buildings are being built with increasingly complex technical installations and energy systems. The introduction of renewable energy production, like photovoltaic (PV) panels on building roofs and facades and an increasing number of connected electric appliances, changes the way the electric power is distributed from production to end-user. The difference in production and demand for energy over time also gives incentives for installing energy storage systems. Electric energy can be stored in batteries, transferred into hydrogen gas via electrolysis or stored as thermal energy for use later. The current work presents an overview of an ongoing study in the Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC), on fire safety implications related to implementing new technology for energy storage and production. The focus is on the built environment such as dwellings and office buildings situated in the Nordic countries. This study builds on previous studies of related topics

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  • 28.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analyse av dødsbranner i Norge i perioden 2005 - 20142017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne studien er informasjon fra brannstatistikk og andre kilder fra perioden 2005 – 2014 analysert, for å få mer detaljert kunnskap om hvem som omkommer i brann og hvorfor de omkommer. Dermed kan tiltak iverksettes mer målrettet for å redusere antall omkomne.  Følgende spørsmål er forsøkt besvart i studien: 1. Hvilke risikofaktorer forbindes med de som omkommer i branner i Norge? 2. Hva er årsakene til dødsbranner i Norge? 3. Hvordan kan dødsbranner best forebygges?  I den aktuelle perioden er det registrert 517 branner med 571 omkomne. Vi har kartlagt informasjon fra 347 politirapporter, identifisert 387 omkomne og trukket ut informasjon fra pasientjournalene til 248 av de omkomne.

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  • 29.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil- and gas production on the Norwegian shelf2018In: Safety and Reliability: Safe Societies in a Changing World / [ed] Stein Haugen, Anne Barros, Coen van Gulijk, Trond Kongsvik, Jan Erik Vinnem, 2018, Vol. 1, p. 1847-1854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997 - 2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly in-volved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

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  • 30.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of 985 fire incidents related to oil-and gas production on the Norwegian continental shelf2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 1847-1854Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire is a major threat in the petroleum industry. However, little has been published about the fire related incidents that have occurred in the Norwegian petroleum sector. To gain more knowledge, data from 985 incidents in the 1997–2014 period has been analysed. Examples of factors studied are type of facility involved, involved area or system, consequences and severity level. The analysis of the fire incidents reveals that even though many incidents are reported, the large majority of these have not imposed risks for severe fire accidents. It has also provided valuable information regarding possible dangerous situations, commonly involved areas, types of equipment as well as types of activity that were involved. Twenty-nine percent of the incidents were false alarms, which must be regarded as a high number in an industry where any production stop could be extremely costly.

  • 31.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of fatal fires in Norway in the 2005 – 2014 period2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, information from fire statistics and other sources has been analyzed to get more detailed knowledge than before about who dies in fires and why. This will help to implement more targeted measures in order to reduce the number of people perishing in fires.  The study attempted to answer the following questions: 1. What risk factors are associated with those who perish in fires in Norway? 2. What are the causes of fatal fires in Norway? 3. How can fatal fires best be prevented?  A total of 517 fires with 571 fatalities are registered in the official fire statistics in the 2005 – 2014 period. We have examined 347 police investigation reports, identified 387 deceased and  extracted information from 248 medical records.

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  • 32.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Analysis of fatal fires in Norway over a decade, – A retrospective observational study2018In: Safety and Reliability - Safe Societies in a Changing World - Proceedings of the 28th International European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2018, 2018, p. 2837-2844Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five-hundred-and-seventy-one fatalities were registered in the official fire statistics in Norway between 2005–2014. However, little is known about the victims. This study collected information from several sources to build a holistic database and gain more knowledge about the technical and social aspects of the incidents, forming a basis for more targeted measures. Human behaviour greatly affects the risk of fire, which supports why social aspects of incidents should be considered when identifying risk factors associated with the victims. The results showed a clear distinction between victims above and below the age of 67 with respect to risk factors. For the elderly, reduced mobility, impaired cognitive ability, mental disorders and smoking were observed risk factors. For the younger victims known substance abuse, mental illness, alcoholic influence and smoking were observed, mostly in combination. This shows that fire is a social problem, and should be prevented by initiating customised measures

  • 33.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Evaluation of an industrial building inferno – A case study2019In: Interflam 2019: Conference Proceedings, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Evaluering av brannen i BASA-Huset, Tønsberg2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [no]

    Torsdag 23. juli 2015 brøt det ut brann i BASA-Huset i Tønsberg. BASA-Huset var et næringsbygg hvor ca. 70 firma hadde tilhold. Størsteparten av bygget brant ned, og forsikringserstatningene er anslått til å være i størrelsesorden flere hundre millioner kroner. Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap og Direktoratet for byggkvalitet har bedt SP Fire Research om å evaluere brannen med tanke på hvorfor brannen ble så stor som den ble, og hvilke nasjonale læringspunkt som kan dras ut av hendelsen.

  • 35.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires)2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 29-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fagdag med tema brann hos Direktoratet for byggkvalitet2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 28-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Fire Research and InnovationCentre-FRIC : Status etter to års virksomhet: Møte med Gjensidigestiftelsen og Forskningsrådet (19-04-2021)2021Report (Other academic)
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  • 38.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Metode for evaluering av branner2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    SP Fire Research presenterte analyse av storbrannen i Lærdal for den norske kongen2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 24-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Utredning - branntekniske ytelser for kledninger og overflater2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK) has asked RISE Fire Research to review the preaccepted fire performances for coverings and linings in the guidelines to the Norwegian building regulations. Requirements for both interior and exterior coverings and surfaces(façades) have been evaluated.

    The review is based on a study of previous and existing Norwegian building regulations, and in addition, we have also examined how the classes for coverings and linings are applied and interpreted in the Swedish and Danish building regulations.

    Today's pre-accepted fire performance, class B-s3, d0, for exterior cladding including a cavityon facades is evaluated, based on the British investigations after the fire in Grenfell Tower inLondon in June 2017. A simple assessment of how the façade systems that were tested according to the British standard BS 8414-1 probably would behave if tested according to the method SP FIRE 105.The report concludes with several recommendations on revision of the text in the guidelines to the building regulations TEK17 intended to prevent misunderstandings regarding the fire regulations for coverings and linings.

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  • 41.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Which factors are important for the fire safety in small care facilities?2012Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Fire in a municipal housing in Norway, 7th August 20212023Other (Other academic)
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  • 43.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    FRIC webinar: Brann i kommunalt boligbygg i Norge, 7. august 20212023Other (Other academic)
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  • 44.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    Hva kan vi lære av brannen i Lærdal i januar 2014?: Vurdering av brannspredningen2014Report (Other academic)
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  • 45.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas Gagnat
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Evaluation of Fire Spread in the large Lærdal Fire, January 20142015In: Conference proceedings from Fire and Materials 2015, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety. NTNU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ehrlenspiel, Rupert
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Smouldering fire test methods – Documenting the potential for smouldering fires in thermal insulation2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this FRIC report, fire test methods to document smouldering in thermal insulation are presented. Standardized test methods from Europe, USA and Canada are presented, describing the test principles and assessment criteria. In addition, a selection of non-standardized experimental methods for smouldering fire documentation used in research and investigations are presented. Finally, factors impacting the outcome of tests as well as knowledge gaps are discussed. The overview presented in this report may be used as a guideline to the reader on benefits and challenges with different methods. Industry, researchers, fire investigators and others may benefit from this overview, to ensure that a relevant method is chosen for each end-use.

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  • 47.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    Hansen, Per Arne
    Wighus, Ragnar
    Hva tåler en brannvegg?2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Jensen, Ulla Eidissen
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Smouldering Combustion inLoose-Fill Wood Fibre Thermal Insulation: An Experimental Study2018In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1585-1608Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A bench-scale experimental setup has been used to study the conditions necessary

    for smouldering ignition in four types of loose-fill wood fibre thermal insulation, and

    to study the development of the smouldering process. The products varied with regard to

    wood species, grain size and fire retardant chemical additives. The test material was

    placed in an insulated open top container and heated from below. Temperatures within

    the sample and mass loss were measured during the tests. Both the fibre size and the level

    of added fire retardant seem to influence the smouldering ignition. Two different types of

    smouldering were identified in this study. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 1

    obtained maximum temperatures in the range 380C to 440C and a total mass loss of

    40 wt% to 50 wt%. Materials undergoing smouldering Type 2 obtained maximum temperatures

    in the range 660C to 700C and a total mass loss of 80 wt% to 90 wt%. This

    implies that Type 2 smouldering involves secondary char oxidation, which represents a

    risk for transition to flaming combustion and thereby a considerable fire hazard. This has

    been an exploratory project and the results must therefore be considered as indicative.

    The findings may, however, have implications for fire safety in the practical use of loosefill

    wood fibre insulation in buildings, and further experimental studies should be performed

    with this in mind to obtain more knowledge about the topic.

  • 49.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fjær, Sindre
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Contribution to the investigation of the fire in an avalanche cover and train set at Hallingskeid railway station2013In: Conference Proceedings Interflam 2013, Interscience Communications, 2013, p. 1523-1534Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Fjær, Sindre
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Brann i snøoverbygg på Hallingskeid2012Report (Other academic)
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