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  • 1. Ayer, N.W.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Co-product allocation in life cycle assessments of seafood production systems: Review of problems and strategies2007Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 480-487Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, Aim and Scope. As Life Cycle Assessment is being increasingly applied to study fisheries and aquaculture systems, the LCA methodology must be adapted to address the unique aspects of these systems. The focus of this methodological paper is the specific allocation problems faced in studying seafood production systems and how they have been addressed to date. Main Features. The paper begins with a literature review of existing LCA research of fishing and aquaculture systems with a specific focus on 1) identifying the key allocation problems; 2) describing the choice of allocation procedures; and 3) providing insight on the rationale for those choices where available. The allocation procedures are then discussed in the context of ISO recommendations and other published guidance on allocation, followed by a discussion of the key lessons to be learned from the reviewed studies and recommendations for future LCAs of seafood production systems. Literature Review. The literature review suggests that allocation problems are most likely to arise when dealing with: landed by-catch within the context of capture fisheries, the use of co-product feed ingredients in aquaculture feeds, multiple outputs from fish farms, and the generation of by-products when seafood is processed. System expansion and allocation according to physical causality were not applied in most cases, while economic allocation was the most widely used approach. It was also observed that the level of detail and justification provided for allocation decisions in most published reports was inconsistent and incomplete. Discussion. The results of this literature review are consistent with other reviews of allocation in LCA in that allocation according to economic value was found to be the most frequently applied approach. The application of economic allocation when system expansion is not feasible is consistent with ISO guidance. However, economic allocation is not the most appropriate method in seafood production LCAs because it does not reflect the biophysical flows of material and energy between the inputs and outputs of the production system. Conclusions, Recommendations and Perspectives. More effort needs to be invested in developing allocation procedures appropriate to seafood production systems. Allocation based on gross energy content is proposed as one potential alternative means of allocating environmental burdens in some instances in seafood production LCAs. A standard set of requirements for how to describe and justify allocation decisions in published reports is needed to make these studies more robust and transparent. © 2007 ecorried publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 2. Bengtsson, Kenneth
    et al.
    Kristoffer, Gunnartz
    Bergman, Annika
    Domeij, Åsa
    Eksvärd, Jan
    Larshans, Per
    Lindroth, Erik
    Lindvall, Kerstin
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Throne Holst, Alexander
    Nilsson, Björn O
    Ankarcrona, Carolina
    Ökad hållbarhet i hela livsmedelskedjan, Debattartikel SvD2016Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Minimising environmental impact by sequencing cultured dairy products: two case studies2008Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 483-498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased production of cultured milk products has environmental consequences. To counteract the environmental impact from the dairy industry, it is important to process the products in a sequence designed to minimise waste. In a previous study a model was constructed to minimise the waste caused by a sequence for a given set of products and to calculate the environmental impact of a waste minimised sequence. This study applies successfully the model in case studies at two dairies. The number of products to be sequenced varied: Dairy A had 34 products and Dairy B had 16. The sequenced products were yoghurt, sour cream, cold sauce and crème fraiche, all with multiple flavours. The difference in number of products to be sequenced offered the opportunity to use both of the two model sequencing solutions: the heuristic and the optimised. The role of frequency of each product to be sequenced was investigated. Scenarios with differing frequencies were used in the case studies. The result showed clearly that the waste caused by a sequence decreased when product frequency was reduced. From a life cycle perspective, the environmental impact of processing cultured milk products can be greatly reduced by adopting sequences with fewer changes of product. © 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    A life cycle based method to minimise environmental impact of dairy production through product sequencing.2007Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 15, s. 347-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    A life cycle based method to minimise environmental impact of dairy production through product sequencing2006Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 347-356Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The trend of increasing the number of dairy products for sale affects their environmental impact in a life cycle perspective. During dairy processing, the production schedule is affected by more frequent product changes, hence also cleaning operations. This causes more milk waste, use of cleaning agents and water. The amount of milk waste depends on the product change technique used, which is determined by the characteristics of the product. A method was designed to calculate the sequence, which, for a given set of yoghurt products, minimises milk waste. A heuristic method, based on the strive to minimise production waste combined with production rules, was worked out. To determine whether the heuristic solution gives the best possible sequence from an environmental perspective, an optimisation was also made. The analytical method used for optimisation was able to handle 21 products and verified the heuristic method for a waste minimised sequence up to that level. It is also highly probable that for sequences including a greater number of items waste can be minimised with the same heuristic method. A successful demonstration of the possibility to make a more complete environmental assessment was fulfilled by connecting the sequencing model to conventional life cycle assessment methodology. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 6.
    Berlin, Johanna
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tillman, A.-M.
    Product chain actors' potential for greening the product life cycle: The case of the Swedish postfarm milk chain2008Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 12, nr 1, s. 95-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The challenge in working with environmental improvements is to select the action offering the most substantial progress. However, not all actions are open to all actors in a product chain. This study demonstrates how life cycle assessment (LCA) may be used with an actor perspective in the Swedish postfarm milk chain. The potential measures were identified, applied by the dairy, retailer, and household, that gave the most environmental improvement in a life cycle perspective. Improved energy efficiency, more efficient transport patterns, reduced milk and product losses, and organic labeling were investigated. Milk, yogurt and cheese were considered. After LCAs of the products were established, improvement potentials of the actors were identified and quantified. The quantification was based mostly on literature studies but also on assumptions. Then the LCAs were recalculated to include the estimated improvement potential. To find the action with the greatest potential, the environmental impacts of the modified and original LCAs were compared for each actor. No action was superior to any other from the dairy perspective, but reduced wastage lowered most impacts for all three products. For retailers, using less energy is the most efficient improvement. From the household perspective, reducing wastage gives unambiguously positive results. When households choose organic products, reductions in energy use and greenhouse gases are even larger, but eutrophication increases. Overall, households have greatest potential for improvement while yogurt is the product offering the most improvement potential. © 2008 by Yale University.

  • 7. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, U.K.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, A
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, T
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, annika
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    Cederberg, Christel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hedenus, F.
    Wirsenius, S.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products: Implications for long-Term climate targets2013Inngår i: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 330-340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-Thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-Third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature-increase target of 2 might imply a severe constraint on the long-Term global consumption of animal food. Due to the relatively limited potential for reducing food-related emissions by higher productivity and technological means, structural changes in food consumption towards less emission-intensive food might be required for meeting the 2 target. © The Animal Consortium 2012.

  • 9.
    Dalemo, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Björklund, Anna
    Oostra, Huibert
    Sonesson, Ulf
    Systems Analysis of Nutrient Recycling from Organic Waste1998Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Davis, Jennifer
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden2007Inngår i: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, ISSN 1750-2683, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 1-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Life cycle assessment of integrated food chains: A Swedish case study of two chicken meals2008Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. 574-584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background, aims, and scope: Food is a vital human need that not only provides essential nutrition but is also a key part of our social life as well as being a valued sensory experience. However, food, or rather the production chain of food, from primary production (agriculture/aquaculture/fishing) to consumer and beyond, also results in some form of environmental impact, as does transport between steps. There are several life cycle assessment studies of food products, most of them analysing the impact of the food chain of single food items. Still, detailed studies of complete meals are less frequent in the literature. In the Swedish study presented in this article, the environmental impacts of two different chicken meals (homemade and semi-prepared) were analysed. The aim of the study was to gain knowledge of the environmental impact of integrated food chains and also to explore the effect of improvement measures in the post-farm systems. To this end, two chicken meals were chosen for analysis, with two scenarios for each meal; the first scenario reflects the present conditions of the food chain, and the second scenario incorporates a number of improvement actions in the stages after the farm. Materials and methods: Input data to the model were based mainly on previous life cycle assessment (LCA) studies of Swedish food products and studies on wastage and consumer transport. Food engineering data and information from producing companies were used for modelling the industries. The improvement scenario was constructed using insight from a preceding LCA study of a meatball meal (Sonesson et al., Ambio, 34:411-418, 2005a) along with goals set out by a Swedish agreement between representatives from national and regional government, food industry sectors and retailers. The impact assessment was conducted according to Lindfors et al. (Nordic guidelines on life cycle assessment, The Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1995), and the following environmental effects were included: global warming potential, eutrophication potential, acidification potential, photochemical ozone creation potential, and use of primary energy carriers and secondary energy. Results: In terms of energy use, the largest part is used in the steps after the farm for both meal types. Hence, the changes made in the improvement scenario have a significant impact on the total energy use. For the homemade and semi-prepared meal, the reduction is 15% and 20% respectively, not only due to less consumer transport and packaging but also reduction in industry (semi-prepared). Agriculture is also a significant contributor to emissions of greenhouse gases and eutrophying emissions; for the homemade meal, around 40% of the greenhouse gases originate from agriculture, and for the semi-prepared meal, the figure is 50%. The improvement actions with the greatest reduction in greenhouse gases are, again, less consumer transport and, in the case of the semi-prepared meal, the reduction in energy use in industry. Regarding eutrophication, more than 90% of the emissions originate from agriculture. Hence, the only improvement action that has an effect here is the utilisation of raw material downstream in the production chain; a slight reduction in waste still gives a notable reduction in overall eutrophic emissions. Discussion: There are two significant areas of research to reduce the impact of meals that are not explored in this study: choice of meal components and production methods in agriculture. However, the aim with this study was to explore if there are further ways of reducing the impact without going into these very complex areas, and our conclusion is that there are effective ways in the post-farm chain to cut emissions that, together with choices of diet and agricultural research, can significantly reduce the impact of our food consumption. Conclusions: Actions in the post-farm chain that can significantly reduce the environmental impact of a meal are less food thrown away in the household, fewer car trips to the supermarket (e.g. only once a week) and, for semi-prepared food products, more efficient energy use in the food industry. The study shows that consumer actions prove just as important as industrial actions. Recommendations and perspectives: Further research is needed to understand the mechanism for the disposal of food, i.e. the reasons for food being wasted, and the relationship between shopping frequency, retail location, size of packaging, etc. in order to reduce the impact of waste and consumer transport. © 2008 Springer-Verlag.

  • 12.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Baumgartner, D.U.
    Nemecek, T.
    Environmental impact of four meals with different protein sources: Case studies in Spain and Sweden2010Inngår i: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 43, nr 7, s. 1874-1884Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Davis, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Development of an LCA methodology to assess the environmental impacts of process changes: two case studies in Sweden.2007Inngår i: Food Manufacturing Efficiency, Vol. 1, nr 2, s. 42017-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Emanuelsson, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Pihl, L.
    Skold, M.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Accounting for overfishing in life cycle assessment: New impact categories for biotic resource use2014Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 1156-1168Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Overfishing is a relevant issue to include in all life cycle assessments (LCAs) involving wild caught fish, as overfishing of fish stocks clearly targets the LCA safeguard objects of natural resources and natural ecosystems. Yet no robust method for assessing overfishing has been available. We propose lost potential yield (LPY) as a midpoint impact category to quantify overfishing, comparing the outcome of current with target fisheries management. This category primarily reflects the impact on biotic resource availability, but also serves as a proxy for ecosystem impacts within each stock. Methods: LPY represents average lost catches owing to ongoing overfishing, assessed by simplified biomass projections covering different fishing mortality scenarios. It is based on the maximum sustainable yield concept and complemented by two alternative methods, overfishing though fishing mortality (OF) and overfishedness of biomass (OB), that are less data-demanding. Results and discussion: Characterization factors are provided for 31 European commercial fish stocks in 2010, representing 74 % of European and 7 % of global landings. However, large spatial and temporal variations were observed, requiring novel approaches for the LCA practitioner. The methodology is considered compliant with the International Reference Life Cycle Data System (ILCD) standard in most relevant aspects, although harmonization through normalization and endpoint characterization is only briefly discussed. Conclusions: Seafood LCAs including any of the three approaches can be a powerful communicative tool for the food industry, seafood certification programmes, and for fisheries management. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  • 15.
    Eustachio Colombo, Patricia
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Patterson, Emma
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Schäfer Elinder, Liselotte
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Lindroos, Anna Karin
    Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Darmon, Nicole
    Univ Montpellier, France.
    Parlesak, Alexandr
    University College Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Optimizing School Food Supply: Integrating Environmental, Health, Economic, and Cultural Dimensions of Diet Sustainability with Linear Programming2019Inngår i: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, nr 17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is great potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) from public-sector meals. This paper aimed to develop a strategy for reducing GHGE in the Swedish school food supply while ensuring nutritional adequacy, affordability, and cultural acceptability. Amounts, prices and GHGE-values for all foods and drinks supplied to three schools over one year were gathered. The amounts were optimized by linear programming. Four nutritionally adequate models were developed: Model 1 minimized GHGE while constraining the relative deviation (RD) from the observed food supply, Model 2 minimized total RD while imposing stepwise GHGE reductions, Model 3 additionally constrained RD for individual foods to an upper and lower limit, and Model 4 further controlled how pair-wise ratios of 15 food groups could deviate. Models 1 and 2 reduced GHGE by up to 95% but omitted entire food categories or increased the supply of some individual foods by more than 800% and were deemed unfeasible. Model 3 reduced GHGE by up to 60%, excluded no foods, avoided high RDs of individual foods, but resulted in large changes in food-group ratios. Model 4 limited the changes in food-group ratios but resulted in a higher number of foods deviating from the observed supply and limited the potential of reducing GHGE in one school to 20%. Cost was reduced in almost all solutions. An omnivorous, nutritionally adequate, and affordable school food supply with considerably lower GHGE is achievable with moderate changes to the observed food supply; i.e., with Models 3 and 4. Trade-offs will always have to be made between achieving GHGE reductions and preserving similarity to the current supply.

  • 16.
    Florén, Britta
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Sund, Veronica
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Krewer, Christoffer
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Berglund, Maria
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Lätt att välja rätt – Klimatdata för medvetna val av livsmedelsråvaror i storkök2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17. Ford, J.S.
    et al.
    Pelletier, N.L.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.J.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Proposed Local Ecological Impact Categories and Indicators for Life Cycle Assessment of Aquaculture: A Salmon Aquaculture Case Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 16, nr 2, s. 254-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we discuss impact categories and indicators to incorporate local ecological impacts into life cycle assessment (LCA) for aquaculture. We focus on the production stages of salmon farming-freshwater hatcheries used to produce smolts and marine grow-out sites using open netpens. Specifically, we propose two impact categories: impacts of nutrient release and impacts on biodiversity. Proposed indicators for impacts of nutrient release are (1) the area altered by farm waste, (2) changes in nutrient concentration in the water column, (3) the percent of carrying capacity reached, (4) the percent of total anthropogenic nutrient release, and (5) release of wastes into freshwater. Proposed indicators for impacts on biodiversity are (1) the number of escaped salmon, (2) the number of reported disease outbreaks, (3) parasite abundance on farms, and (4) the percent reduction in wild salmon survival. For each proposed indicator, an example of how the indicator could be estimated is given and the strengths and weaknesses of that indicator are discussed. We propose that including local environmental impacts as well as global-scale ones in LCA allows us to better identify potential trade-offs, where actions that are beneficial at one scale are harmful at another, and synchronicities, where actions have desirable or undesirable effects at both spatial scales. We also discuss the potential applicability of meta-analytic statistical techniques to LCA. © 2012 by Yale University.

  • 18.
    Gontard, Natalie
    et al.
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Birkved, Morten
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Majone, Mauro
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Bolzonella, David
    University of Verona, Italy.
    Celli, Annamaria
    University of Bologna, Italy.
    Angellier-Coussy, Helene
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Jang, Guang Way
    Industry Technology Research Institute, Taiwan.
    Verniquet, Anne
    SOFIES Solutions for Industrial Ecosystems, Switzerland.
    Broeze, Jan
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Schaer, Burkhard
    ECOZEPT, Germany.
    Batista, Ana Paula
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Sebok, Andras
    Campden BRI, Hungary.
    A research challenge vision regarding management of agricultural waste in a circular bio-based economy2018Inngår i: Critical reviews in environmental science and technology, ISSN 1064-3389, E-ISSN 1547-6537, Vol. 48, nr 6, s. 614-654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural waste is a huge pool of untapped biomass resources that may even represent economic and environmental burdens. They can be converted into bioenergy and bio-based products by cascading conversion processes, within circular economy, and should be considered residual resources. Major challenges are discussed from a transdisciplinary perspective, focused on Europe situation. Environmental and economic consequences of agricultural residue management chains are difficult to assess due to their complexity, seasonality and regionality. Designing multi-criteria decision support tools, applicable at an early-stage of research, is discussed. Improvement of Anaerobic Digestion (AD), one of the most mature conversion technologies, is discussed from a technological point of view and waste feedstock geographical and seasonal variations. Using agricultural residual resources for producing high-value chemicals is a considerable challenge analysed here, taking into account innovative eco-efficient and cost-effective cascading conversion processes (bio-refinery concept). Moreover, the promotion of agricultural residues-based business is discussed through industrial ecology, to promote synergy, on a local basis, between different agricultural and industrial value chains. Finally, to facilitate a holistic approach and optimise materials and knowledge flows management, the connection of stakeholders is discussed to promote cross-sectorial collaboration and resource exchange at appropriate geographic scales. © 2018, © 2018 Nathalie Gontard, Ulf Sonesson, Morten Birkved, Mauro Majone, David Bolzonella, Annamaria Celli, Hélène Angellier-Coussy, Guang-Way Jang, Anne Verniquet, Jan Broeze, Burkhard Schaer, Ana Paula Batista, and András Sebok.

  • 19.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Using dietary quality scores to assess sustainability of food products and human diets: A systematic review2018Inngår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 93, s. 219-230Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased recognition of inter-relationships between the environmental and health effects of food has resulted in a new fast-growing research area. Development of methods for integrated analysis of environmental and nutritional impacts is essential to facilitate policy decisions and actions for sustainable food systems. Dietary quality scores is one of the methods suggested to combine environmental and nutritional assessments of foods, meals and diets. This systematic review provides an overview of how dietary quality scores are used in environmental sustainability studies of food products and diets. The review includes 24 articles applying 20 different types of dietary quality scores. We describe current approaches used to combine environmental and nutritional assessments, discuss methodological choices of importance and their impact on results, and identify research gaps that require further efforts to push the current frontier of knowledge. Based on our analysis we identify two different categories of dietary quality scores and four approaches used to integrate environmental and nutritional assessments. There is a large number of methods available to quantify a dietary quality score: which one is chosen as well as how they are combined with environmental assessments can affect the results, and hence also the conclusions of which foods that are more sustainable to eat. This is critical to understand for the set-up of studies and for the interpretation of results and drawing conclusions. Our categorization of existing methods used, how they differ, what applications they are suited for, and which methodological challenges they involve increases the understanding of what analyzes are possible today and point out areas where methods are lacking and where more research is required. Continued efforts are needed to bring about a transition to sustainable food systems that do not exceed the planets ecological limits and promote healthy populations. This systematic review provides guidance for future use and development of methods within the field of sustainable nutrition.

  • 20.
    Hallström, Elinor
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Håkansson, N.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Åkesson, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Wolk, A.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Climate impact of alcohol consumption in Sweden2018Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 201, s. 287-294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the environmental impact of alcohol is limited and as an effect alcohol is often excluded from environmental studies of diets or included in incomplete ways. This paper describes the climate impact of beer, wine and liquor by using life cycle assessment. The climate impact is quantified per litre of specific alcoholic beverages and per total amount of alcohol consumed based on self-reported data of 50 000 individuals from 2009 within two population-based cohorts in Sweden. The results show that alcoholic beverages generate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 0.73–2.38 kg carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) per litre. Alcohol consumption in the population studied generates on average 52 kg CO2e per person and year. Within the 10% of the population with the highest intake of alcohol GHG emissions are up to 202 kg CO2e per person and year. Consumption of wine is responsible for the largest share of GHG emissions from alcoholic beverages (61%) followed by beer (33%), while liquor and strong wine account for a smaller share (6%). Alcohol consumption among men generates 90% higher GHG emissions than among women. Alcohol consumption and in consequence alcohol-related emissions are decreasing with increasing age of men and women. Our results indicate that alcohol consumption in Swedish men and women is responsible for an average of 3% of total diet-related GHG emissions and in sub-populations with the highest consumption up to 6–11%. Limiting alcohol could be an effective option to reduce the climate impact of diets, especially among men.

  • 21.
    Hessle, Anna K.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Bertilsson, Jan A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Combining environmentally and economically sustainable dairy and beef production in Sweden2017Inngår i: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 156, s. 105-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To achieve a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. In this study, experts in different areas along supply chains co-operated in an interactive process to define future environmentally sustainable supply chains of milk and beef. The basis was to use existing techniques, to have production performance corresponding to the best quartile of today and to consider other sustainability aspects, such as economics. The work resulted in concrete descriptions of alternative product chains for delivered milk and beef. To also permit concrete descriptions of the latter part of the product chains, two consumer-packed end products were selected for monitoring, namely fresh milk and sirloin steak. The production systems investigated comprised cropping, livestock production, industrial processing and production, logistics, packaging and wastage and distribution, but not retailers or consumers. The study area was a Swedish county and the reference level was its production of milk and beef in 2012. The future product chains were assumed to deliver the same amounts of commodities as in 2012, but with reduced environmental impact. Primary production was required to be at least as profitable as today. Beside description of the current situation, three alternative scenarios were created, focusing on delivery of ecosystem services, plant nutrient circulation and minimising climate impact, respectively. Life cycle assessments were performed for these four scenarios (reference plus three alternative scenarios) for single-product chains and county-wide. Furthermore, production costs in primary production were calculated for the four scenarios. The results revealed great potential to reduce the negative environmental impact of Swedish dairy and beef production at current volumes, irrespective of whether ecosystem services, plant nutrient circulation or climate impact is in focus. The single most important factor for decreased environmental impact for livestock production was increased production efficiency. Measures in agriculture, especially concerning feeds, were critical, but actions in processing and distribution also contributed. All alternative scenarios resulted in lower production costs than at present. It was obvious that as dairy and beef systems are connected, the potential for their environmental improvement must be analysed together. In conclusion, increased efficiency can decrease the negative environmental impact of Swedish cattle production and also reduce costs to the farmer.

  • 22. Hospido, A.
    et al.
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    A review of methodological issues affecting LCA of novel food products2010Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 44-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 23. Hospido, A.
    et al.
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Erratum: A review of methodological issues affecting LCA of novel food products (International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment (2010) 15 (44-52) DOI: 10.1007/s11367-009-0130-4)2010Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 424-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24. Hospido, A.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The environmental impact of mastitis: A case study of dairy herds2005Inngår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 343, nr 42007, s. 71-82Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Mastitis is defined as an inflammatory reaction of udder tissue to bacterial, chemical, thermal or mechanical injury, which causes heavy financial losses and milk wastage throughout the world. Until now, studies have focused on the economic aspects from which perspective mastitis can generally be considered as the most serious disease in dairy cows; however, costs are not the only negative consequence resulting from the infection. The environmental impact is also significant; milk is discarded, which means lower efficiency and hence a greater environmental impact per produced liter of milk. Less milk is produced, which leads to an increased need for calf feed, and meat production is also affected. The main aim of this paper was to quantify the environmental impact of mastitis incidence. A standard scenario (representative of present-day reality in Galicia, Spain) and an improved scenario (in which mastitis incidence rate is reduced by diverse actions) have been defined and compared using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Among the impact categories studied, acidification, eutrophication and global warming were found to be the most significant environmental impacts. In all these categories, it was revealed that a decrease in mastitis incidence has a positive influence as the environmental impact is reduced. Even if the quantitative results cannot show a considerable decrease in the environmental burden, the impact cannot be regarded as negligible when the total consumption or total production of a region is considered. For example, the outcome of the proposed improvement measures for Spain's greenhouse gas emissions can be quantified as 0.06% of total emissions and 0.56% of emissions by the agricultural sector. © 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Huseinovic, E.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ohlin, M.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Winkvist, A.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bertz, F.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Brekke, H. K.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Does diet intervention in line with nutrition recommendations affect dietary carbon footprint?: Results from a weight loss trial among lactating women2017Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 71, nr 10, s. 1241-1245Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Objectives:Results from studies evaluating the sustainability of diets combining environmental and nutritional aspects have been diverse; thus, greenhouse gas emissions (that is, carbon footprint (CF)) of diets in line with dietary recommendations in free-living individuals warrants further examination. Here, changes in dietary CF related to changes in food choice during a weight loss trial among lactating women who received a 12-week diet intervention based on the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) 2004 were analyzed. The objective of this study was to examine if a diet intervention based on NNR 2004 results in reduced dietary CF.Subjects/Methods:Changes in dietary CF were analyzed among 61 lactating women participating in a weight loss trial. Food intake data from 4-day weighed diet records and results from life cycle analyses were used to examine changes in dietary CF across eight food groups during the intervention, specified in the unit carbon dioxide equivalent (CO"2eq/day). Differences in changes in dietary CF between women receiving diet treatment (D-group) and women not receiving it (ND-group) were compared.Results:There was no difference in change in dietary CF of the overall diet between D- and ND-group (P>0.05). As for the eight food groups, D-group increased their dietary CF from fruit and vegetables (+0.06±0.13 kg CO"2eq/day) compared with a decrease in ND-group (-0.01±0.01 kg CO"2eq/day) during the intervention, P=0.01.Conclusions:A diet intervention in line with NNR 2004 produced clinically relevant weight loss, but did not reduce dietary CF among lactating women with overweight and obesity. Dietary interventions especially designed to decrease dietary CF and their coherence with dietary recommendations need further exploration. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved.

  • 26. Korsaeth, A.
    et al.
    Jacobsen, A.Z.
    Roer, A.-G.
    Henriksen, T.M.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bonesmo, H.
    Environmental life cycle assessment of cereal and bread production in Norway2012Inngår i: Acta agriculturae Scandinavica. Section A, Animal science, ISSN 0906-4702, E-ISSN 1651-1972, Vol. 62, nr 4, s. 242-253Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed the environmental impacts of producing bread, as delivered to the consumer, assuming the use of Norwegian ingredients only. Ten impact categories, including global warming potential (GWP), were quantified by mixed modelling and life cycle assessment. Firstly, we quantified the impacts of growing barley, oats, winter and spring wheat on 93 farms that were representative of the main cereal production regions in Norway. We used wide system boundaries, which included all relevant processes occurring both pre-farm and on-farm. Secondly, we assessed a representative production chain for bread, including transport, milling, baking and packing processes. On-farm processes accounted for a large share of the environmental impacts attributable to the production of bread (e.g. 50% for GWP). There is thus considerable potential for environmental improvements through changes in farm management. In total, the GWP per kg of bread (freshweight) was 0.95 kg CO2-equivalent. The environmental footprint of transport was small. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 27.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmentally-friendly food processing2003Inngår i: Environmentally-Friendly Food Processing, s. 1-337Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental awareness in the food industry has become increasingly important in recent years, as a result of consumer pressure and increasing regulation. This book addresses how to achieve environmentally-friendly food production, reviewing the assessment of various food products and the ways in which the industry can improve their operations and become more environmentally responsible. Part one evaluates the environmental impact of food processing operations, in such areas as fruit, vegetable, meat and fish processing. Part two moves on to address good practice in food processing reviewing packaging, recycling and waste treatment, as well as methods of improving energy consumption and environmental training for the food industry. © 2003 Woodhead Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.

  • 28.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Introduction2003Inngår i: Environmentally-Friendly Food Processing, s. 1-2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    et al.
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Sala, Serenella
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre. Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    The role of life cycle assessment in supporting sustainable agri-food systems: A review of the challenges2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 399-409Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Life cycle thinking is increasingly seen as a key concept for ensuring a transition towards more sustainable production and consumption patterns. As food production systems and consumption patterns are among the leading drivers of impacts on the environment, it is important to assess and improve food-related supply chains as much as possible. Over the years, life cycle assessment has been used extensively to assess agricultural systems and food processing and manufacturing activities, and compare alternatives “from field to fork” and through to food waste management. Notwithstanding the efforts, several methodological aspects of life cycle assessment still need further improvement in order to ensure adequate and robust support for decision making in both business and policy development contexts. This paper discusses the challenges for life cycle assessment arising from the complexity of food systems, and recommends research priorities for both scientific development and improvements in practical implementation. In summary, the intrinsic variability of food production systems requires dedicated modelling approaches, including addressing issues related to: the distinction between technosphere and ecosphere; the most appropriate functional unit; the multi-functionality of biological systems; and the modelling of the emissions and how this links with life cycle impact assessment. Also, data availability and interpretation of the results are two issues requiring further attention, including how to account for consumer behaviour.

  • 30.
    Patel, M.
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hessle, A.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Upgrading plant amino acids through cattle to improve the nutritional value for humans: effects of different production systems2017Inngår i: Animal, ISSN 1751-7311, E-ISSN 1751-732X, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 519-528Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficiency in animal protein production can be defined in different ways, for example the amount of human-digestible essential amino acids (HDEAA) in the feed ration relative to the amount of HDEAA in the animal products. Cattle production systems are characterised by great diversity and a wide variety of feeds and feed ration compositions, due to ruminants’ ability to digest fibrous materials inedible to humans such as roughage and by-products from the food and biofuel industries. This study examined the upgrading of protein quality through cattle by determining the quantity of HDEAA in feeds and animal products and comparing different milk and beef production systems. Four different systems for milk and beef production were designed, a reference production system for milk and beef representing typical Swedish production systems today and three alternative improved systems: (i) intensive cattle production based on maize silage, (ii) intensive systems based on food industry by-products for dairy cows and high-quality forage for beef cattle, and (iii) extensive systems based on forage with only small amounts of concentrate. In all four production systems, the quantity of HDEAA in the products (milk and meat) generally exceeded the quantity of HDEAA in the feeds. The intensive production models for beef calves generally resulted in output of the same magnitude as input for most HDEAA. However, in beef production based on calves from dairy cows, the intensive rearing systems resulted in lower output than input of HDEAA. For the extensive models, the amounts of HDEAA in meat were of the same magnitude as the amounts in the feeds. The extensive models with beef calves from suckler cows resulted in higher output in meat than input in feeds for all HDEAA. It was concluded that feeding cattle plants for production of milk and meat, instead of using the plants directly as human food, generally results in an upgrading of both the quantity and quality of protein, especially when extensive, forage-based production models are used. The results imply that the key to efficiency is the utilisation of human-inedible protein by cattle and justifies their contribution to food production, especially in regions where grasslands and/or forage production has comparative benefits over plant food production. By fine-tuning estimation of the efficiency of conversion from human-edible protein to HDEAA, comparisons of different sources of protein production may be more complete and the magnitude of amino acid upgrading in plants through cattle more obvious.

  • 31. Pelletier, N.
    et al.
    Tyedmers, P.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Scholz, A.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Not all salmon are created equal: Life cycle assessment (LCA) of global salmon farming systems2009Inngår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, nr 23, s. 8730-8736Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a global-scale life cycle assessment of a major food commodity, farmed salmon. Specifically, we report the cumulative energy use, biotic resource use, and greenhouse gas, acidifying, and eutrophying emissions associated with producing farmed salmon in Norway, the UK, British Columbia (Canada), and Chile, as well as a production-weighted global average. We found marked differences in the nature and quantity of material/energy resource use and associated emissions per unit production across regions. This suggests significant scope for improved environmental performance in the industry as a whole. We identify key leverage points for improving performance, most notably the critical importance of least-environmental cost feed sourcing patterns and continued improvements in feed conversion efficiency. Overall, impacts were lowest for Norwegian production in most impact categories, and highest for UK farmed salmon. Our results are of direct relevance to industry, policy makers, eco-labeling programs, and consumers seeking to further sustainability objectives in salmon aquaculture. © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  • 32. Pelletier, N.L.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tyedmers, P.H.
    Kruse, S.A.
    Flysjö, Anna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Impact categories for life cycle assessment research of seafood production systems: Review and prospectus2007Inngår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 12, nr 6, s. 414-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Goal, Scope and Background. In face of continued declines in global fisheries landings and concurrent rapid aquaculture development, the sustainability of seafood production is of increasing concern. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) offers a convenient means of quantifying the impacts associated with many of the energetic and material inputs and outputs in these industries. However, the relevant but limited suite of impact categories currently used in most LCA research fails to capture a number of important environmental and social burdens unique to fisheries and aquaculture. This article reviews the impact categories used in published LCA research of seafood production to date, reports on a number of methodological innovations, and discusses the challenges to and opportunities for further impact category developments. Main Features. The range of environmental and socio-economic impacts associated with fisheries and aquaculture production are introduced, and both the commonly used and innovative impact categories employed in published LCA research of seafood production are discussed. Methodological innovations reported in agricultural LCAs are also reviewed for possible applications to seafood LCA research. Challenges and options for including additional environmental and socioeconomic impact categories are explored. Results. A review of published LCA research in fisheries and aquaculture indicates the frequent use of traditional environmental impact categories as well as a number of interesting departures from the standard suite of categories employed in LCA studies in other sectors. Notable examples include the modeling of benthic impacts, by-catch, emissions from anti-fouling paints, and the use of Net Primary Productivity appropriation to characterize biotic resource use. Socio-economic impacts have not been quantified, nor does a generally accepted methodology for their consideration exist. However, a number of potential frameworks for the integration of such impacts into LCA have been proposed. Discussion. LCA analyses of fisheries and aquaculture call attention to an important range of environmental interactions that are usually not considered in discussions of sustainability in the seafood sector. These include energy use, biotic resource use, and the toxicity of anti-fouling paints. However, certain important impacts are also currently overlooked in such research. While prospects clearly exist for improving and expanding on recent additions to environmental impact categories, the nature of the LCA framework may preclude treatment of some of these impacts. Socio-economic impact categories have only been described in a qualitative manner. Despite a number of challenges, significant opportunities exist to quantify several important socio-economic impacts. Conclusion. The limited but increasing volume of LCA research of industrial fisheries and aquaculture indicates a growing interest in the use of LCA methodology to understand and improve the sustainability performance of seafood production systems. Recent impact category innovations, and the potential for further impact category developments that account for several of the unique interactions characteristic of fisheries and aquaculture will significantly improve the usefulness of LCA in this context, although quantitative analysis of certain types of impacts may remain beyond the scope of the LCA framework. The desirability of incorporating socio-economic impacts is clear, but such integration will require considerable methodological development. Recommendations and Perspectives. While the quantity of published LCA research for seafood production systems is clearly increasing, the influence this research will have on the ground remains to be seen. In part, this will depend on the ability of LCA researchers to advance methodological innovations that enable consideration of a broader range of impacts specific to seafood production. It will also depend on the ability of researchers to communicate with a broader audience than the currently narrow LCA community. © 2007 ecomed publishers (Verlagsgruppe Hüthig Jehle Rehm GmbH).

  • 33.
    Sala, Serenella
    et al.
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Assumpcio, Anton
    IRTA Institute for Food and Agricultural Research and Technology, Spain.
    McLaren, Sarah J.
    Massey University, New Zealand.
    Notarnicola, Bruno
    University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy.
    Saouter, Erwan
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    In quest of reducing the environmental impacts of food production and consumption2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, s. 387-398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food supply chains are increasingly associated with environmental and socio-economic impacts. An increasing global population, an evolution in consumers’ needs, and changes in consumption models pose serious challenges to the overall sustainability of food production and consumption. Life cycle thinking (LCT) and assessment (LCA) are key elements in identifying more sustainable solutions for global food challenges. In defining solutions to major global challenges, it is fundamentally important to avoid burden shifting amongst supply chain stages and amongst typologies of impacts, and LCA should, therefore, be regarded as a reference method for the assessment of agri-food supply chains. Hence, this special volume has been prepared to present the role of life cycle thinking and life cycle assessment in: i) the identification of hotspots of impacts along food supply chains with a focus on major global challenges; ii) food supply chain optimisation (e.g. productivity increase, food loss reduction, etc.) that delivers sustainable solutions; and iii) assessment of future scenarios arising from both technological improvements and behavioural changes, and under different environmental conditions (e.g. climate change). This special volume consists of a collection of papers from a conference organized within the last Universal Exposition (EXPO2015) “LCA for Feeding the planet and energy for life” in Milan (Italy) in 2015 as well as other contributions that were submitted in the year after the conference that addressed the same key challenges presented at the conference. The papers in the special volume address some of the key challenges for optimizing food-related supply chains by using LCA as a reference method for environmental impact assessment. Beyond specific methodological improvements to better tailor LCA studies to food systems, there is a clear need for the LCA community to “think outside the box”, exploring complementarity with other methods and domains. The concepts and the case studies presented in this special volume demonstrate how cross-fertilization among difference science domains (such as environmental, technological, social and economic ones) may be key elements of a sustainable “today and tomorrow” for feeding the planet.

  • 34.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    A window on.... The Swedish institute for food and biotechnology2011Inngår i: Food Science and Technology, ISSN 1475-3324, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 42289-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    SIK conducts applied research within food science, provides training for food sector companies and runs consultancy projects. SIK has a long tradition of international collaboration. Even before Sweden became a member of the EU, SIK participated in early Framework Programs and this has continued. In 2011, SIK will be active in 13 FP projects. SIK's research is guided by the research strategies. These strategies are developed in close collaboration with our Industrial Committee. The main area of competence is the relationship between process and product. Understanding these interactions facilitates the control of sensory and other quality attributes and thus paves the way for innovative products. Sustainable food production cannot be achieved by environmental research alone; it needs to be combined with research into how production, distribution and consumption can take place more effectively.

  • 35.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – arbetsmetodik och utgångsscenarier2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Modelling of waste collection - A general approach to calculate fuel consumption and time2000Inngår i: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 18, nr 2, s. 115-123Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A model for calculating time and energy consumption during the collection of waste with compacting trucks is presented. The model uses common statistics from a number of households in three different categories of residential area: the average distance from the residential area to treatment facility/transfer station, fuel consumption per km for the truck and average load and speed. This common and easily accessible information is completed with figures for time and energy consumption related to the extra work that is performed on account of stopping and emptying bins. Default values for those parameters are presented in this paper, estimated using data from a Swedish municipality. Data from four areas in Sweden were used for verification. The model predicts the real outcome relatively well: between 5 and 14% deviation for energy consumption and between 10 and 24% deviation for time consumption.A model for calculating time and energy consumption during the collection of waste with compacting trucks is presented. The model uses common statistics from a number of households in three different categories of residential area: the average distance from the residential area to treatment facility/transfer station, fuel consumption per km for the truck and average load and speed. This common and easily accessible information is completed with figures for time and energy consumption related to the extra work that is performed on account of stopping and emptying bins. Default values for those parameters are presented in this paper, estimated using data from a Swedish municipality. Data from four areas in Sweden were used for verification. The model predicts the real outcome relatively well: between 5 and 14% deviation for energy consumption and between 10 and 24% deviation for time consumption.The consumption of time and energy in a waste collection cycle using compacting trucks is expressed in a model. The model is based on residential data in three areas: the average distance from the neighborhood to the treatment or transfer facility, truck fuel consumption, and average load and speed. Additional calculations are made for time and energy consumption relative to the work required for stopping and emptying the waste bins. Defaults are calculated from a study on waste collection in a Swedish municipality, and verified with data from four other municipalities. The model predictions were relatively accurate, at 5-15% deviation for energy consumption, and 10-24% deviation for time consumption.

  • 37.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Protein quality as functional unit – a methodological framework for inclusion in LCA2015Inngår i: Proceeding of “LCA for feeding the planet, energy for life, a conference within EXPO 2015”, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Anteson, F.
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoden, P.-O.
    Home transport and wastage: Environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 371-375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 39.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Anteson, F
    Davis, Jenny
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoden, P.-O.
    Home transport and wastage: Environmentally relevant household activities in the life cycle of food2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 371-375Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In environmental systems analysis of food production systems, the consumer phase (home transport, cooking, storing, and wastage) is an important contributor to the total life-cycle environmental impact. However, households are the least investigated part of the food chain. Information gathering about households involves difficulties; the number of households is large, and food-related activities are embedded in other household activities. In cooperation between researchers from environmental systems analysis and consumer research, Swedish households were surveyed by questionnaire, diary, and interviews. Data on home transport of food and wastage were collected. The average weekly driving distance was 28 to 63 km per household, depending on how trips made in conjunction with other errands are allocated. The wastage of prepared food ranged between 0 and 34% for different food categories, and wastage from storing between 0 and 164% (more food was discarded, e.g. by cleaning out a cupboard, than consumed). In both cases dairy products scored highest. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 40.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Calculating the cost2003Inngår i: Dairy industries international, ISSN 0308-8197, Vol. 68, nr 3, s. 29-32Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Environmental impact of future milk supply chains in Sweden: A scenario study2003Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 11, nr 3, s. 253-266Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to analyse the environmental impact of future supply chains for dairy products. A scenario technique was chosen because scenarios can yield information about the environmental consequences of certain lines of action or developments in a system. To quantify the effects of future systems, a mathematical model of the milk supply chain was constructed and used to simulate possible scenarios. The model was based mainly on life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. The results show that any consideration of the environmental effects of the milk supply chain must consider the entire chain. The amount of packaging materials used is an important factor, as is the transportation of the dairy products to households. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 42.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Flysjö, Anna
    Arla Foods amba, Denmark.
    Gustavsson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Witthöft, Cornelia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Protein quality as functional unit – A methodological framework for inclusion in life cycle assessment of food2017Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, nr Part 2, s. 470-478Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to develop more sustainable food systems, there is a need to find methods that simultaneously consider environmental impacts and nutritional benefits. The purpose of this study was to develop a functional unit to be used in LCA of foods that builds on the nutritional value of food products. We used the content and quality of proteins as a basis, and included dietary context as part of our method, since the nutritional value of a nutrient depends on the total dietary intake. Our method uses the digestible intake of the nine essential amino acids in the product and relates these values to the equivalent total dietary intake of the same amino acids. We also employed simpler functional units such as “gram (g) protein” and “g digestible protein.” We quantified the functional units for three dietary contexts and applied it on LCA results for bread, chicken fillet, minced pork, minced beef, milk and pea soup. The results showed that the relative differences between products changed when using a protein-based functional unit, with the largest change occurring when going from mass as the functional unit to g protein. By introducing protein digestibility, the systematic under-valuation of the animal products was partly avoided with little additional effort. The most advanced functional unit affected the results compared to the mass-based functional unit most, but required significantly more data. The impact of dietary context was smaller than expected; hence, it might be possible to simplify the inclusion of dietary context by using aggregated descriptions of diets. The method presented is valuable for adding an important aspect of nutrition (protein quality and content) to the LCA results of single products, but there is a large scope for development.

  • 43.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Davis, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Woodhouse, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Dietary-dependent nutrient quality indexes as a complementary functional unit in LCA: A feasible option?2019Inngår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, s. 620-627Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Although food production is a main driver of environmental pressure and resource use globally, food delivers critical nutrition to humans. In life cycle assessment (LCA) of foods, the dominant functional unit is mass, despite the ISO requirement that the LCA unit should reflect the actual function. Studies have used various dietary quality scores in environmental assessments of foods, but the consideration of the dietary context is largely missing. The main function, i.e., nutrient supply, is complex since the nutritional value of a food item depends on its dietary context. Moreover, overall nutritional value is a combination of multiple nutrients. The aim was to combine scientific knowledge from the fields of nutrition and LCA to generate a basis for further research. The long-term aim was to help develop methods to support sustainability-based planning and decision making by food chain stakeholders. The proposed functional unit expresses the nutrient content of individual foods in relation to the nutritional supply of the complete diet, to create a single score reflecting the nutrient quality in a given dietary context. The nutrient quality index developed was evaluated by analyzing how relationships in global warming potential (GWP) between single products differed when using as functional unit either the mass of the food product, a nutrient quality index not considering the dietary context (the Nutrient Rich Foods Index 9.3, NRF9.3) and the new dietary dependent nutrient quality index (NQI) proposed. Two dietary scenarios were explored, an average Swedish diet and a typical unhealthy diet. The products considered were: bread, apples, tomatoes, milk, hard cheese, spread and chicken fillets. The results, calculated using bread as the reference, indicated that in both dietary contexts apples, tomatoes, and hard cheese had lower NQIadjusted GWPs compared to when GWPs were calculated using mass as the functional unit. Milk's NQI-adjusted and mass-calculated GWPs differed little, while the chicken fillet GWPs were the same in the unhealthy diet and performed better in the average diet. The NRF9.3-adjusted GWPs differed from the NQI-adjusted ones for all analysed foods. The main conclusions were: 1) considering nutritional value in the LCA of foods improves our understanding of how the environmental impacts and nutritional functions of food are related; 2) the environmental performance of different products varies with dietary context; and 3) application of the NQI could help industry, authorities, and consumers improve products and diets.

  • 44.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Jonsson, H.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Postconsumption sewage treatment in environmental systems analysis of foods: A method for including potential eutrophication2004Inngår i: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 51-64Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Food in general has a high nutrient content, which essentially passes through the human organism and ends up in the sewage system. This high nutrient content in sewage, however; is rarely included in environmental systems analyses of food products or production systems. At the same time, several studies on sewage systems have shown the significance of plant nutrients in sewage system outlets. This means that important environmental effects may be neglected in environmental systems studies of food. We present a method for including emissions that occur after food consumption in environmental systems analyses of foods. The method uses easily accessible input data to calculate the postconsumption emissions caused by certain food products. The method was tested by completing the results for eutrophication from seven life-cycle assessments (LCAs) on food products with the corresponding emissions caused by outlets from a sewage plant. The results showed that postconsumption eutrophication was a significant part of the products' total life-cycle impact, ranging from 5.5% (beef) to 86% (apples). The conclusion is that including postconsumption emissions is important for studies aiming at mapping a product's life cycle to find the most environmentally relevant parts, as well as for eco-labeling purposes. If the purpose of the study is decision support, the postconsumption phase should be included where the decision affects this part of the system, otherwise not. When products are compared, postconsumption emissions should be included if their nutrient contents differ.

  • 45.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Addressing the complexity in LCM of food systems – an integrated approach2015Inngår i: Life Cycle Management Conference 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nybrant, T.
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Industrial processing versus home cooking: An environmental comparison between three ways to prepare a meal2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 414-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a strong trend in Sweden for industrially processed meals to replace homemade meals. In the public debate this is often claimed to increase the environmental impact from foods. In the study presented in this article, we used life-cycle assessment to quantify the environmental impact of three meals: homemade, semiprepared, and ready-to-eat. The differences in environmental impact between the meals were small; the ready-to-eat meal used the most energy, whereas the homemade meal had higher emissions causing eutrophication and global warming. The dominating contributor to the environmental impact was agriculture, accounting for 30% of the impact related to energy and 95% of that related to eutrophication. Industry, packaging, and consumer home transport and food preparation also contributed significantly. Important factors were raw material use, energy efficiency in industry and households, packaging, and residue treatment. To decrease the overall environmental impact of food consumption, improvements in agriculture are very important, together with raw-material use within industry and households. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 47.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Mattsson, Berit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nybrant, T
    Ohlsson, Tomas
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Industrial processing versus home cooking: An environmental comparison between three ways to prepare a meal2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 414-421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is a strong trend in Sweden for industrially processed meals to replace homemade meals. In the public debate this is often claimed to increase the environmental impact from foods. In the study presented in this article, we used life-cycle assessment to quantify the environmental impact of three meals: homemade, semiprepared, and ready-to-eat. The differences in environmental impact between the meals were small; the ready-to-eat meal used the most energy, whereas the homemade meal had higher emissions causing eutrophication and global warming. The dominating contributor to the environmental impact was agriculture, accounting for 30% of the impact related to energy and 95% of that related to eutrophication. Industry, packaging, and consumer home transport and food preparation also contributed significantly. Important factors were raw material use, energy efficiency in industry and households, packaging, and residue treatment. To decrease the overall environmental impact of food consumption, improvements in agriculture are very important, together with raw-material use within industry and households. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 48.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Jordbruk och livsmedel.
    Underlag till Färdplan för en väsentligt mer hållbar livsmedelskedja2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med rapporten är att skapa ett underlag för mer operativa, eller konkreta, hållbarhetsmål för aktörerna i livsmedelskedjan. Dessa mål ska i möjligaste mån vara kopplade till kvantifieringar av en hållbar nivå för resursförbrukning och miljöpåverkan globalt.

    Rapporten beskriver en process som startar med att identifiera de relevanta hållbarhetsaspekterna för livsmedelsystemet och baserat på litteratur kvantifiera dessa på global nivå, nedbrutet till en globalt hållbar nivå per capita. Som ett komplement till det globala användes också nationella källor för de miljömål som är av mer regional karaktär. Livsmedelssektorns hållbarhetsprestanda är en kombination av konsumtionsmönster och hur effektiva och hållbara produktionssystemen är. Då rapporten syftade till att ge underlag för konkreta mål för alla aktörer i systemet skapades två typer av mål, en typ som berör konsumtionsmönster och en typ som berör produktionskedjornas hållbarhetsprestanda. För att de totala hållbarhetsmålen ska nås måste både konsumtionen och produktionen förändras, och med hjälp av dessa två mål kan båda aspekterna hanteras i samma ramverk. Om produktionssystemen inte förbättrar sin hållbarhetsprestanda krävs större förändringar i konsumtionen och vice versa.

    De mål som sätts för försäljning/tillhandahållning till konsument i rapporten är avsedda att användas av aktörer som säljer eller på annat sätt har möjlighet att påverka konsumtionsmönster, som exempelvis handel, food service och den offentliga måltidssektorn. Dessa mål ger en bild av faktisk slutkonsumtion. De mål som sätts för produktionen, alltså produktionens värdekedjor, är avsedda att användas av aktörer som producerar livsmedel, alltså lantbruk och livsmedelsindustri.

    Det var inte möjligt att sätta kvantitativa mål för alla relevanta hållbarhetsaspekter, för vissa aspekter finns inga vetenskapliga uppskattningar av den hållbara nivån för påverkan. Brist på metodik och data är ett annat allvarligt hinder för att sätta operativa mål. I rapporten har dessa kunskapsluckor identifierats och alternativa mål har föreslagits för att alla aspekter ska kunna hanteras konkret. Med alternativa mål menas mål som kan bygga på indirekta mått på hållbarhet som exempelvis energibesparingsmål istället för ett mål om hur stor den totala energianvändningen kan vara, då detta inte finns kvantifierat.

  • 49. Stern, S.
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, S.
    Oborn, I.
    Kumm, K.-I.
    Nybrant, T.
    Sustainable development of food production: A case study on scenarios for pig production2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 402-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future, sustainable production systems, a stepwise method was used to create three future scenarios for pig production based on different sustainability goals. The first scenario focused on animal welfare and the natural behavior of the animals. The second targeted low impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. The third scenario aimed at product quality and safety. Each scenario fulfilled different aspects of sustainability, but there were goal conflicts because no scenario fulfilled all sustainability goals. The scenarios were then parameterized. The environmental impact was calculated using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and the economic cost was calculated from the same data set. The cost per kilo of pork was highest for the animal welfare scenario and similar for the other two scenarios. The environmental scenario had the lowest environmental impact, and the product-quality scenario the highest. The results are discussed based on different future priorities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

  • 50. Stern, S
    et al.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, S
    Oborn, I
    Kumm, K.-I.
    Nybrant, T
    Sustainable development of food production: A case study on scenarios for pig production2005Inngår i: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 34, nr 42099, s. 402-407Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future, sustainable production systems, a stepwise method was used to create three future scenarios for pig production based on different sustainability goals. The first scenario focused on animal welfare and the natural behavior of the animals. The second targeted low impacts on the environment and the efficient use of natural resources. The third scenario aimed at product quality and safety. Each scenario fulfilled different aspects of sustainability, but there were goal conflicts because no scenario fulfilled all sustainability goals. The scenarios were then parameterized. The environmental impact was calculated using the life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and the economic cost was calculated from the same data set. The cost per kilo of pork was highest for the animal welfare scenario and similar for the other two scenarios. The environmental scenario had the lowest environmental impact, and the product-quality scenario the highest. The results are discussed based on different future priorities. © Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2005.

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