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  • 1.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Aström, Mats E.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg-August University, Germany.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Aström, Jan
    CSC-IT Center for Science, Finland.
    Whitehouse, Martin
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Extreme 13 C depletion of carbonates formed during oxidation of biogenic methane in fractured granite2015In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 6, article id 7020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitation of exceptionally 13C-depleted authigenic carbonate is a result of, and thus a tracer for, sulphate-dependent anaerobic methane oxidation, particularly in marine sediments. Although these carbonates typically are less depleted in 13C than in the source methane, because of incorporation of C also from other sources, they are far more depleted in 13C (δ13C as light as -69% V-PDB) than in carbonates formed where no methane is involved. Here we show that oxidation of biogenic methane in carbon-poor deep groundwater in fractured granitoid rocks has resulted in fracture-wall precipitation of the most extremely 13Cdepleted carbonates ever reported, δ13C down to -125% V-PDB. A microbial consortium of sulphate reducers and methane oxidizers has been involved, as revealed by biomarker signatures in the carbonates and S-isotope compositions of co-genetic sulphide. Methane formed at shallow depths has been oxidized at several hundred metres depth at the transition to a deep-seated sulphate-rich saline water. This process is so far an unrecognized terrestrial sink of methane.

  • 2.
    Drake, Henrik
    et al.
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Heim, Christine
    Georg-August University, Germany.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Whitehouse, Martin J.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Broman, Curt
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Åström, Mats E.
    Linnæus University, Sweden.
    Anaerobic consortia of fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria in deep granite fractures2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deep biosphere is one of the least understood ecosystems on Earth. Although most microbiological studies in this system have focused on prokaryotes and neglected microeukaryotes, recent discoveries have revealed existence of fossil and active fungi in marine sediments and sub-seafloor basalts, with proposed importance for the subsurface energy cycle. However, studies of fungi in deep continental crystalline rocks are surprisingly few. Consequently, the characteristics and processes of fungi and fungus-prokaryote interactions in this vast environment remain enigmatic. Here we report the first findings of partly organically preserved and partly mineralized fungi at great depth in fractured crystalline rock (-740 m). Based on environmental parameters and mineralogy the fungi are interpreted as anaerobic. Synchrotron-based techniques and stable isotope microanalysis confirm a coupling between the fungi and sulfate reducing bacteria. The cryptoendolithic fungi have significantly weathered neighboring zeolite crystals and thus have implications for storage of toxic wastes using zeolite barriers. © 2017 The Author(s).

  • 3.
    Fornaro, Teresa
    et al.
    Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution for Science, USA; NAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy.
    Boosman, Arjen
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Brucato, John R.
    NAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy.
    ten Kate, Inge Loes
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Poggiali, Giovanni
    NAF-Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Steele, Andrew
    Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    Hazen, Robert M.
    Geophysical Laboratory of the Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    UV irradiation of biomarkers adsorbed on minerals under Martian-like conditions: Hints for life detection on Mars2018In: Icarus (New York, N.Y. 1962), ISSN 0019-1035, E-ISSN 1090-2643, Vol. 313, p. 38-60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory simulations of Martian conditions are essential to develop quantitative models for the survival of organic biomarkers for future Mars exploration missions. In this work, we report the results of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation processing of biomarkers adsorbed on minerals under Martian-like conditions. Specifically, we prepared Mars soil analogues by doping forsterite, lizardite, antigorite, labradorite, natrolite, apatite and hematite minerals with organic compounds considered as potential biomarkers of extant terrestrial life such as the nucleotides adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and uridine monophosphate (UMP). We characterized such Mars soil analogues by means of Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and Confocal Raman Imaging Spectroscopy (CRIS), in order to get insights into the specific molecule-mineral interactions and explore the capabilities of different techniques to reveal diagnostic features of these biomarkers. Then, we performed irradiation experiments in the mid-UV spectral region under simulated Martian conditions and under terrestrial ambient conditions for comparison, monitoring the degradation process through DRIFTS. We observed that degradation under Martian-like conditions occurs much slower than in terrestrial ambient conditions. The minerals labradorite and natrolite mainly promote photodegradation of nucleotides, hematite and forsterite exhibit an intermediate degrading effect, while apatite, lizardite and antigorite do not show any significant catalytic effect on the degradation of the target organic species.

  • 4.
    Fray, Nicolas
    et al.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Altwegg, Kathrin
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Colangeli, Luigi
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, Albrecht
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, Eberhard
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, Elmar K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    Von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Krüger, Harald
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, Kirsi
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, François
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, Karl-Peter
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    High-molecular-weight organic matter in the particles of comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 538, no 7623, p. 72-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of solid carbonaceous matter in cometary dust was established by the detection of elements such as carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen in particles from comet 1P/Halley1, 2. Such matter is generally thought to have originated in the interstellar medium3, but it might have formed in the solar nebula—the cloud of gas and dust that was left over after the Sun formed4. This solid carbonaceous material cannot be observed from Earth, so it has eluded unambiguous characterization5. Many gaseous organic molecules, however, have been observed6, 7, 8, 9; they come mostly from the sublimation of ices at the surface or in the subsurface of cometary nuclei8. These ices could have been formed from material inherited from the interstellar medium that suffered little processing in the solar nebula10. Here we report the in situ detection of solid organic matter in the dust particles emitted by comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko; the carbon in this organic material is bound in very large macromolecular compounds, analogous to the insoluble organic matter found in the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites11, 12. The organic matter in meteorites might have formed in the interstellar medium and/or the solar nebula, but was almost certainly modified in the meteorites’ parent bodies11. We conclude that the observed cometary carbonaceous solid matter could have the same origin as the meteoritic insoluble organic matter, but suffered less modification before and/or after being incorporated into the comet.

  • 5.
    Goesmann, Fred
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, William B.
    NASA GSFC, USA.
    Raulin, Francoise
    CNRS, France.
    Goetz, Walter
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Danell, Ryan M.
    Danell Consulting, USA.
    Getty, Stephanie A.
    NASA GSFC, USA.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Mißbach, Helge
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Steininger, Harald
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Arevalo, Ricardo D.
    NASA GSFC, USA.
    Buch, Arnaud
    École Centrale Paris, France.
    Freissinet, Caroline
    LATMOS IPSL, France.
    Grubisic, Andrei
    NASA GSFC, USA; University of Maryland, USA.
    Meierhenrich, Uwe J.
    Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, France.
    Pinnick, Veronica T.
    NASA GSFC, USA.
    Stalport, Fabien
    CNRS, France.
    Szopa, Cyriel
    LATMOS IPSL, France; Institut Universitaire de France, France.
    Vago, Jorge L.
    ESA, The Netherlands.
    Lindner, Robert
    ESA, The Netherlands.
    Schulte, Mitchell D.
    NASA Headquarters, USA.
    Brucato, John R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy.
    Glavin, Danil P.
    NASA GSFC, USA.
    Grand, Noel
    CNRS, France.
    Li, Xiang
    NASA GSFC, USA; University of Maryland, USA.
    Van Amerom, Frisco H. W.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, USA.
    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) Instrument: Characterization of Organic Material in Martian Sediments2017In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 17, no 6-7, p. 655-685Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) instrument onboard the ESA/Roscosmos ExoMars rover (to launch in July, 2020) will analyze volatile and refractory organic compounds in martian surface and subsurface sediments. In this study, we describe the design, current status of development, and analytical capabilities of the instrument. Data acquired on preliminary MOMA flight-like hardware and experimental setups are also presented, illustrating their contribution to the overall science return of the mission..

  • 6.
    Goetz, W.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Brinckerhoff, W. B.
    NASA, US.
    Arevalo, R.
    NASA, US.
    Freissinet, C.
    NASA, US.
    Getty, S.
    NASA, US.
    Glavin, D. P.
    NASA, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Buch, A.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Stalport, F.
    Ecole Centrale Paris, France.
    Grubisic, A.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Li, X.
    NASA, US.
    Pinnick, V.
    NASA, US.
    Danell, R.
    NASA, US.
    Van Amerom, F. H. W.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France; Danell Consulting, US.
    Goesmann, F.
    Mini-Mass Consulting, US.
    Steininger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Grand, N.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Raulin, F.
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France, France.
    Szopa, C.
    LATMOS, France.
    Meierhenrich, U.
    University of Nice, France.
    Brucato, J. R.
    INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Arcetri, Italy; University of Bremen, Germany.
    MOMA: The challenge to search for organics and biosignatures on Mars2016In: International Journal of Astrobiology, ISSN 1473-5504, E-ISSN 1475-3006, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 239-250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes strategies to search for, detect, and identify organic material on the surface and subsurface of Mars. The strategies described include those applied by landed missions in the past and those that will be applied in the future. The value and role of ESA's ExoMars rover and of her key science instrument Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) are critically assessed.

  • 7.
    Grady, Moniqa M
    et al.
    Open University, UK ; The Natural History Museum, UK.
    Wright, Ian
    Open University, UK.
    Engrand, Cecile
    University Paris Sud, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    The Rosetta mission and the chemistry of organic species in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko2018In: Elements, ISSN 1811-5209, E-ISSN 1811-5217, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 95-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comets are regarded as probably the most primitive of solar system objects, preserving a record of the materials from which the solar system aggregated. Key amongst their components are organic compounds - molecules that may trace their heritage to the interstellar medium from which the protosolar nebula eventually emerged. The most recent cometary space mission, Rosetta, carried instruments designed to characterize, in unprecedented detail, the organic species in comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (67P). Rosetta was the first mission to match orbits with a comet and follow its evolution over time, and also the first mission to land scientific instruments on a comet surface. Results from the mission revealed a greater variety of molecules than previously identified and indicated that 67P contained both primitive and processed organic entities. 

  • 8.
    Greenwalt, Dale E.
    et al.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Rose, Tim R.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Goreva, Yulia S.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Constenius, Kurt N.
    Carnegie Museum of Natural History, US.
    Wingerath, Jonathan G.
    Smithsonian Institution, US.
    Taphonomic studies of the fossil insects of the Middle Eocene Kishenehn Formation2015In: Acta Palaeontologica Polonica, ISSN 0567-7920, E-ISSN 1732-2421, Vol. 60, no 4, p. 931-947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lacustrine oil shales of the Coal Creek Member of the Kishenehn Formation in northwestern Montana comprise a relatively unstudied Middle Eocene fossil insect locality. Herein, we detail the stratigraphic position of the fossiliferous unit, describe the insect fauna of the Coal Creek locality and document its bias towards very small but remarkably preserved insects. In addition, the depositional environment is examined and the mineral constituents of the laminations that comprise the varves of the Kishenehn oil shale are defined. Fifteen orders of insects have been recorded with the majority of all insects identified as aquatic with the families Chironomidae (Diptera) and Corixidae (Hemiptera) dominant. The presence of small aquatic insects, many of which are immature, the intact nature of >90% of the fossil insects and the presence of Daphnia ephippia, all indicate that the depositional environment was the shallow margin of a large freshwater lake. The fossil insects occur within fossilized microbial mat layers that comprise the bedding planes of the oil shale. Unlike the fossiliferous shales of the Florissant and Okanagan Highlands, the mats are not a product of diatomaceous algae nor are diatom frustules a component of the sediments or the varve structure. Instead, the varves are composed of very fine eolian siliciclastic silt grains overlaid with non-diatomaceous, possibly cyanobacteria-derived microbial mats which contain distinct traces of polyaromatic hydrocarbons. A distinct third layer composed of essentially pure calcite is present in the shale of some exposures and is presumably derived from the seasonal warming-induced precipitation of carbonate from the lake’s waters. The Coal Creek locality presents a unique opportunity to study both very small Middle Eocene insects not often preserved as compression fossils in most Konservat-Lagerstätte and the processes that led to their preservation.

  • 9.
    Hilchenbach, M.
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Y.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Hoerner, H. V.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Koch, A.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, R.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Silén, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altwegg, K.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Colangeli, L.
    ESTEC European Space Research and Technology Centre, Netherlands.
    Cottin, H.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Engrand, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Saclay, France.
    Fischer, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Glasmachers, A.
    University of Wuppertal, Germany.
    Grün, E.
    Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Germany.
    Haerendel, G.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Henkel, H.
    Von Hoerner & Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Höfner, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany.
    Hornung, K.
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Jessberger, E. K.
    University of Münster, Germany.
    Lehto, H.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Lehto, K.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Raulin, F.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Roy, L. L.
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Rynö, J.
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Steiger, W.
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Stephan, T.
    University of Chicago, US.
    Thirkell, L.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Thomas, R.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Torkar, K.
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, K.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Wanczek, K. -P
    University of Bremen, Germany.
    Altobelli, N.
    ESAC European Space Astronomy Centre, Spain.
    Baklouti, D.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, A.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Fray, N.
    CNRS, France; Paris Diderot University, France.
    Krüger, H.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Ligier, N.
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lin, Z.
    NCU National Central University, Taiwan.
    Martin, P.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Merouane, S.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, F. R.
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, J.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Revillet, C.
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Stenzel, O.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Zaprudin, B.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO: CLOSE-UP on DUST PARTICLE FRAGMENTS2016In: Astrophysical Journal Letters, ISSN 2041-8205, E-ISSN 2041-8213, Vol. 816, no 2, article id L32Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser instrument on board ESA's Rosetta mission has collected dust particles in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. During the early-orbit phase of the Rosetta mission, particles and particle agglomerates have been imaged and analyzed in the inner coma at distances between 100 km and 10 km off the cometary nucleus and at more than 3 AU from the Sun. We identified 585 particles of more than 14 μm in size. The particles are collected at low impact speeds and constitute a sample of the dust particles in the inner coma impacting and fragmenting on the targets. The sizes of the particles range from 14 μm up to sub-millimeter sizes and the differential dust flux size distribution is fitted with a power law exponent of -3.1. After impact, the larger particles tend to stick together, spread out or consist of single or a group of clumps, and the flocculent morphology of the fragmented particles is revealed. The elemental composition of the dust particles is heterogeneous and the particles could contain typical silicates like olivine and pyroxenes, as well as iron sulfides. The sodium to iron elemental ratio is enriched with regard to abundances in CI carbonaceous chondrites by a factor from ∼1.5 to ∼15. No clear evidence for organic matter has been identified. The composition and morphology of the collected dust particles appear to be similar to that of interplanetary dust particles.

  • 10.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    et al.
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS Université Paris Sud, France.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Paquette, John
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Koch, Andreas
    von Hoerner und Sulger GmbH, Germany.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA-ESTEC, The Netherlands.
    Silen, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Altobelli, Nicolas
    ESA-ESAC, Spain.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS Université Paris Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France; CNRS Université Paris Est Créteil et Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Cottin, Herve
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France.
    Engrand, Cecile
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France.
    Fray, Nicolas
    CNRS Université Paris Est Créteil et Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Haerendel, Gerhard
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Henkel, Hartmut
    CNRS Université d'Orléance, France.
    Höfner, Herwig
    Max-Planck-Institut, Germany.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr LRT-7, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Mellado, Eva M.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Modica, Paola
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France; CNRS Université Paris Est Créteil et Université Paris Diderot, France.
    Le Roy, Lena
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Steiger, Wolfgang
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS Université d'Orléans, France.
    Thomas, Roger
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Torkar, Klaus
    Austrian Academy of Sciences, Austria.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    RC Seibersdorf Research GmbH Business Field Aerospace Technology, Austria.
    Mechanical and electrostatic experiments with dust particles collected in the inner coma of comet 67P by COSIMA onboard Rosetta2017In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 375, no 2097Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The in situ cometary dust particle instrument COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) onboard ESA's Rosetta mission has collected about 31 000 dust particles in the inner coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since August 2014. The particles are identified by optical microscope imaging and analysed by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. After dust particle collection by low speed impact on metal targets, the collected particle morphology points towards four families of cometary dust particles. COSIMA is an in situ laboratory that operates remotely controlled next to the comet nucleus. The particles can be further manipulated within the instrument by mechanical and electrostatic means after their collection by impact. The particles are stored above 0°C in the instrument and the experiments are carried out on the refractory, ice-free matter of the captured cometary dust particles. An interesting particle morphology class, the compact particles, is not fragmented on impact. One of these particles was mechanically pressed and thereby crushed into large fragments. The particles are good electrical insulators and transform into rubble pile agglomerates by the application of an energetic indium ion beam during the secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis. This article is part of the themed issue 'Cometary science after Rosetta'. © 2017 The Authors.

  • 11.
    Ivarsson, M.
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Broman, C.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sturkell, E.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ormö, J.
    Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial, Spain.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Van Zuilen, M.
    Université Sorbonne Paris Cité, France.
    Bengtson, A.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Fungal colonization of an Ordovician impact-induced hydrothermal system2013In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 3, no Dec, p. 3487-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Impacts are common geologic features on the terrestrial planets throughout the solar system, and on at least Earth and Mars impacts have induced hydrothermal convection. Impact-generated hydrothermal systems have been suggested to possess the same life supporting capability as hydrothermal systems associated with volcanic activity. However, evidence of fossil microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal systems is scarce in the literature. Here we report of fossilized microorganisms in association with cavity-grown hydrothermal minerals from the 458â.Ma Lockne impact structure, Sweden. Based on morphological characteristics the fossilized microorganisms are interpreted as fungi. We further infer the kerogenization of the microfossils, and thus the life span of the fungi, to be contemporaneous with the hydrothermal activity and migration of hydrocarbons in the system. Our results from the Lockne impact structure show that hydrothermal systems associated with impact structures can support colonization by microbial life.

  • 12.
    Ivarsson, Magnus
    et al.
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark; Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Skogby, Henrik
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Phichaikamjornwut, Bongkot
    Srinakharinwirot University, Thailand.
    Bengtson, Stefan
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Ounchanum, Prayote
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Boonsoong, Apichet
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Kruachanta, Mingkhwan
    Chiang Mai University, Thailand.
    Marone, Federica
    Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland.
    Belivanova, Veneta
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Holmström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Intricate tunnels in garnets from soils and river sediments in Thailand - Possible endolithic microborings2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 8, article id e0200351Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Garnets from disparate geographical environments and origins such as oxidized soils and river sediments in Thailand host intricate systems of microsized tunnels that significantly decrease the quality and value of the garnets as gems. The origin of such tunneling has previously been attributed to abiotic processes. Here we present physical and chemical remains of endolithic microorganisms within the tunnels and discuss a probable biological origin of the tunnels. Extensive investigations with synchrotron-radiation X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXTM) reveal morphological indications of biogenicity that further support a euendolithic interpretation. We suggest that the production of the tunnels was initiated by a combination of abiotic and biological processes, and that at later stages biological processes came to dominate. In environments such as river sediments and oxidized soils garnets are among the few remaining sources of bio-available Fe2+, thus it is likely that microbially mediated boring of the garnets has trophic reasons. Whatever the reason for garnet boring, the tunnel system represents a new endolithic habitat in a hard silicate mineral otherwise known to be resistant to abrasion and chemical attack.

  • 13.
    Krüger, Harald
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Stephan, Thomas
    University of Chicago, US.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Lehto, Harry
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Orthous-Daunay, Francois-Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Schulz, Rita
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Trieloff, Mario
    Heidelberg University, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds2015In: Planetary and Space Science, ISSN 0032-0633, E-ISSN 1873-5088, Vol. 117, p. 35-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) instrument on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust particles. It has a mass resolution m/Δm of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these minerals, we have calculated relative sensitivity factors for a suite of major and minor elements in order to provide a basis for element quantification for the possible identification of major mineral classes present in the cometary particles.

  • 14.
    Labandeira, Conrad C.
    et al.
    Capital Normal University, China; National Museum of Natural History, US; University of Maryland, US.
    Yang, Qiang
    Capital Normal University, China; Sun Yat-sen University, China; Shijiazhuang University of Economics, China.
    Santiago-Blay, Jorge A.
    National Museum of Natural History, US; University of Puerto Rico, US.
    Hotton, Carol L.
    National Museum of Natural History, US; National Library of Medicine, US.
    Monteiro, Antónia
    Yale University, US; National University of Singapore, Singapore; Yale-NUS College, Singapore.
    Wang, Yong-Jie
    Capital Normal University, China.
    Goreva, Yulia
    National Museum of Natural History, US; NASA, US.
    Shih, ChunKun
    Capital Normal University, China; National Museum of Natural History, US.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik. National Museum of Natural History, US; Carnegie Institution of Washington, US.
    Rose, Tim R.
    National Museum of Natural History, US.
    Dilcher, David L.
    Indiana University, US.
    Ren, Dong
    Capital Normal University, China.
    The evolutionary convergence of mid-mesozoic lacewings and cenozoic butterflies2016In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 283, no 1824, article id 20152893Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mid-Mesozoic kalligrammatid lacewings (Neuroptera) entered the fossil record 165 million years ago (Ma) and disappeared 45 Ma later. Extant papilionoid butterflies (Lepidoptera) probably originated 80–70 Ma, long after kalligrammatids became extinct. Although poor preservation of kalligrammatid fossils previously prevented their detailed morphological and ecological characterization, we examine new, well-preserved, kalligrammatid fossils from Middle Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sites in northeastern China to unravel a surprising array of similar morphological and ecological features in these two, unrelated clades. We used polarized light and epifluorescence photography, SEM imaging, energy dispersive spectrometry and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry to examine kalligrammatid fossils and their environment. We mapped the evolution of specific traits onto a kalligrammatid phylogeny and discovered that these extinct lacewings convergently evolved wing eyespots that possibly contained melanin, and wing scales, elongate tubular proboscides, similar feeding styles, and seed–plant associations, similar to butterflies. Long-proboscid kalligrammatid lacewings lived in ecosystems with gymnosperm–insect relationships and likely accessed bennettitalean pollination drops and pollen. This system later was replaced by mid-Cretaceous angiosperms and their insect pollinators.

  • 15.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hode, Tomas
    Toporski, Jan
    Thiel, Volker
    Detection of organic biomarkers in crude oil using ToF-SIMS2009In: Organic Geochemistry, Vol. 40, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hode, Tomas
    Analysis of single oil-bearing fluid inclusions in mid-Proterozoic sandstones (Roper Group, Australia)2013In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 1872-9533, Vol. 122, p. 448-463Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Maldanis, L.
    et al.
    University of Campinas, Brazil; Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Brazil.
    Carvalho, M.
    Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Brazil; University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Ramos Almeida, M.
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Freitas, F. I.
    Geopark Araripe, Brazil.
    De Andrade, J. A. F. G.
    Ministry of Mines and Energy, Brazil.
    Nunes, R. S.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Brazil.
    Rochitte, C. E.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Poppi, R. J.
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Freitas, R. O.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Brazil.
    Rodrigues, F.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Medicinteknik.
    Alves Lima, F.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Brazil.
    Galante, D.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Brazil.
    Carvalho, I. S.
    Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Perez, C. A.
    Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Brazil.
    de Carvalho, M. R.
    University of São Paulo, Brazil.
    Bettini, J.
    Brazilian Nanotechnology National Laboratory, Brazil.
    Fernandez, V.
    European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, France.
    Xavier-Neto, J.
    Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Brazil.
    Heart fossilization is possible and informs the evolution of cardiac outflow tract in vertebrates2016In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 5, no APRIL2016, article id e14698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Elucidating cardiac evolution has been frustrated by lack of fossils. One celebrated enigma in cardiac evolution involves the transition from a cardiac outflow tract dominated by a Multi-Valved conus arteriosus in basal actinopterygians, to an outflow tract commanded by the Non- Valved, elastic, bulbus arteriosus in higher actinopterygians. We demonstrate that cardiac preservation is possible in the extinct fish Rhacolepis buccalis from the Brazilian Cretaceous. Using X-Ray synchrotron microtomography, we show that Rhacolepis fossils display hearts with a conus arteriosus containing at least five valve rows. This represents a transitional morphology between the primitive, multivalvar, conal condition and the derived, monovalvar, bulbar state of the outflow tract in modern actinopterygians. Our data rescue a Long-Lost cardiac phenotype (119-113 Ma) and suggest that outflow tract simplification in actinopterygians is compatible with a gradual, rather than a drastic saltation event. Overall, our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying cardiac evolution in fossils.

  • 18.
    Schulz, Rita
    et al.
    ESA European Space Agency, Netherlands.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Langevin, Yves
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Briois, Christelle
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Engrand, Cécile
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Hornung, Klaus
    Universität der Bundeswehr, Germany.
    Baklouti, Donia
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Bardyn, Anaïs
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France; LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Cottin, Hervé
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Fischer, Henning
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Fray, Nicolas
    LISA Laboratoire Interuniversitaire des Systèmes Atmosphériques, France.
    Godard, Marie
    CNRS, France; University of Paris-Sud, France.
    Lehto, Harry J.
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Le Roy, Léna
    University of Bern, Switzerland.
    Merouane, Sihane
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Orthous-Daunay, François Régis
    CNRS, France; Université Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Paquette, John A.
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Rynö, Jouni
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Thirkell, Laurent
    CNRS, France; University of Orléans, France.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Zaprudin, Boris
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko sheds dust coat accumulated over the past four years2015In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 518, no 7538, p. 216-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comets are composed of dust and frozen gases. The ices are mixed with the refractory material either as an icy conglomerate, or as an aggregate of pre-solar grains (grains that existed prior to the formation of the Solar System), mantled by an ice layer. The presence of water-ice grains in periodic comets is now well established. Modelling of infrared spectra obtained about ten kilometres from the nucleus of comet Hartley 2 suggests that larger dust particles are being physically decoupled from fine-grained water-ice particles that may be aggregates, which supports the icy-conglomerate model. It is known that comets build up crusts of dust that are subsequently shed as they approach perihelion. Micrometre-sized interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere and certain micrometeorites are assumed to be of cometary origin. Here we report that grains collected from the Jupiter-family comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko come from a dusty crust that quenches the material outflow activity at the comet surface. The larger grains (exceeding 50 micrometres across) are fluffy (with porosity over 50 per cent), and many shattered when collected on the target plate, suggesting that they are agglomerates of entities in the size range of interplanetary dust particles. Their surfaces are generally rich in sodium, which explains the high sodium abundance in cometary meteoroids. The particles collected to date therefore probably represent parent material of interplanetary dust particles. This argues against comet dust being composed of a silicate core mantled by organic refractory material and then by a mixture of water-dominated ices. At its previous recurrence (orbital period 6.5 years), the comet's dust production doubled when it was between 2.7 and 2.5 astronomical units from the Sun, indicating that this was when the nucleus shed its mantle. Once the mantle is shed, unprocessed material starts to supply the developing coma, radically changing its dust component, which then also contains icy grains, as detected during encounters with other comets closer to the Sun.

  • 19.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    A reduced organic carbon component in martian basalts2012In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 337, no 6091, p. 212-215Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hemoglobin-derived porphyrins preserved in a Middle Eocene blood-engorged mosquito2013In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 110, no 46, p. 18496-18500Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf). Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Freissinet, C.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA; NASA Postdoctoral Program, USA.
    Goesmann, F.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Steininger, H.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Goez, W.
    Max-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, Germany.
    Steele, A.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Amundsen, H.
    Earth and Planetary Exploration Services, Norway.
    Comparison of prototype and laboratory experiments on MOMA GCMS: Results from the AMASE11 campaign2014In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 780-797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characterization of any organic molecules on Mars is a top-priority objective for the ExoMars European Space Agency-Russian Federal Space Agency joint mission. The main instrument for organic analysis on the ExoMars rover is the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA). In preparation for the upcoming mission in 2018, different Mars analog samples are studied with MOMA and include samples collected during the Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) to Svalbard, Norway. In this paper, we present results obtained from two different Mars analog sites visited during AMASE11, Colletthøgda and Botniahalvøya. Measurements were performed on the samples during AMASE11 with a MOMA gas chromatograph (GC) prototype connected to a commercial mass spectrometer (MS) and later in home institutions with commercial pyrolysis-GCMS instruments. In addition, derivatization experiments were performed on the samples during AMASE11 and in the laboratory. Three different samples were studied from the Colletthøgda that included one evaporite and two carbonate-bearing samples. Only a single sample was studied from the Botniahalvøya site, a weathered basalt covered by a shiny surface consisting of manganese and iron oxides. Organic molecules were detected in all four samples and included aromatics, long-chained hydrocarbons, amino acids, nucleobases, sugars, and carboxylic acids. Both pyrolysis and derivatization indicated the presence of extinct biota by the detection of carboxylic acids in the samples from Colletthøgda, while the presence of amino acids, nucleobases, carboxylic acids, and sugars indicated an active biota in the sample from Botniahalvøya. The results obtained with the prototype flight model in the field coupled with repeat measurements with commercial instruments within the laboratory were reassuringly similar. This demonstrates the performance of the MOMA instrument and validates that the instrument will aid researchers in their efforts to answer fundamental questions regarding the speciation and possible source of organic content on Mars.

  • 22.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hode, Tomas
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Toporski, Jan
    Thiel, Volker
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Detection of biomarkers in oils using ToF-SIMS2007In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 71, no 15, p. A937-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Hode, T
    Sundin, Mikael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Structural effects of C-60(+) bombardment on various natural mineral samples - Application to analysis of organic phases in geological samples2011In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 257, no 21, p. 9199-9206Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic phases trapped inside natural mineral samples are of considerable interest in astrobiology, geochemistry and geobiology. Examples of such organic phases are microfossils, kerogen and oil. Information about these phases is usually retrieved through bulk crushing of the rock which means both a risk of contamination and that the composition and spatial distribution of the organics to its host mineral is lost. An attractive of way to retrieve information about the organics in the rock is depth profiling using a focused ion beam. Recently, it was shown that it is possible to obtain detailed mass spectrometric information from oil-bearing fluid inclusions, i.e. small amounts of oil trapped inside a mineral matrix, using ToF-SIMS. Using a 10 keV C-60(+) sputter beam and a 25 keV Bi-3(+) analysis beam, oil-bearing inclusions in different minerals were opened and analysed individually. However, sputtering with a C-60(+) beam also induced other changes to the mineral surface, such as formation of topographic features and carbon deposition. In this paper, the cause of these changes is explored and the consequences of the sputter-induced features on the analysis of organic phases in natural mineral samples (quartz, calcite and fluorite) in general and fluid inclusions in particular are discussed. The dominating topographical features that were observed when a several micrometers deep crater is sputtered with 10 keV C-60(+) ions on a natural mineral surface are conical-shaped and ridge-like structures that may rise several micrometers, pointing in the direction of the incident C-60(+) ion beam, on an otherwise flat crater bottom. The sputter-induced structures were found to appear at places with different chemistry than the host mineral, including other minerals phases and fluid inclusions, while structural defects in the host material, such as polishing marks or scratches, did not necessarily result in sputter-induced structures. The ridge-like structures were often covered by a thick layer of deposited carbon. Despite the appearance of the sputter-induced structures and carbon deposition, most oil-bearing inclusions could successfully be opened and analysed. However, smaller inclusion (

  • 24.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hode, Tomas
    Thiel, Volker
    Heim, Christine
    ToF-SIMS possibilities in geobiology2008In: Astrobiology, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 329-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Thiel, Volker
    Hode, Tomas
    Heim, Christine
    Detection of organic biomarkers in crude oils using ToF-SIMS2008In: Organic Chemistry, Vol. 40, no 1, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Parenteau, Mary
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Jahnke, Linda
    NASA Ames Research Center, USA.
    Cady, Sherry
    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, USA.
    A comparative ToF-SIMS and GC–MS analysis of phototrophic communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hotspring2017In: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 109, p. 14-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of few techniques that is able to spatially resolve chemical data, including organic molecules, to morphologicalfeatures in modern and ancient geological samples, is time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry(ToF-SIMS). The ability to connect chemical data to morphology is key for interpreting thebiogenicity of preserved remains in ancient samples. However, due to the lack of reference data for geologicallyrelevant samples and the ease with which samples can be contaminated, ToF-SIMS data may bedifficult to interpret. In this project, we aimed to build a ToF-SIMS spectral database by performing parallelToF-SIMS and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analyses of extant photosyntheticmicrobial communities collected from an alkaline silica-depositing hot spring in Yellowstone NationalPark, USA. We built the library by analyzing samples of increasing complexity: pure lipid standards commonlyfound in thermophilic phototrophs, solvent extracts of specific lipid fractions, total lipid extracts,pure cultures of dominant phototrophic community members, and unsilicified phototrophic streamercommunities.The results showed that important lipids and pigments originating from phototrophs were detected byToF-SIMS (e.g., wax esters, monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, sufloquinovosyldiaglycerol,alkanes, etc.) in the streamer lipid extracts. Many of the lipids were also detected in situin the unsilicified streamer, and could even be spatially resolved to individual cells within the streamercommunity. Together with the ToF-SIMS database, this mapping ability will be used to further exploreother microbial mats and their fossilized counterparts in the geological record. This is likely to expandthe geochemical understanding of these types of samples.

  • 27.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Biomarker imaging of single diatom cells in a microbial mat using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)2013In: Organic Geochemistry, ISSN 0146-6380, E-ISSN 1873-5290, Vol. 57, no Apr, p. 23-33Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Sjövall, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Spectral characterization of ten cyclic lipids using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry2013In: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 0951-4198, E-ISSN 1097-0231, Vol. 27, no 5, p. 565-581Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29. Silén, J
    et al.
    Cottin, H
    Hilchenbach, M
    Kissel, J
    Lehto, H
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    COSIMA data analysis using multivariate techniques2014In: Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems, ISSN 2193-0856, E-ISSN 2193-0864, Vol. 4, p. 455-489Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe how to use multivariate analysis of complex TOF-SIMS spectra introducing the method of random projections. The technique allows us to do full clustering and classification of the measured mass spectra. In this paper we use the tool for classification purposes. The presentation describes calibration experiments of 19 minerals on Ag and Au substrates using positive mode ion spectra. The discrimination between individual minerals gives a crossvalidation Cohen κ for classification of typically about 80%. We intend to use the method as a fast tool to deduce a qualitative similarity of measurements.

  • 30.
    Sjövall, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Hode, Thomas
    Toporski, Jan
    Thiel, Volker
    Detection of organic biomarkers in crude oils using ToF-SIMS2009In: Organic Geochemistry, Vol. 40, p. 135-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we show that time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) can be used to detect organic biomarkers, such as hopanes and steranes, in non-fractionated crude oils, without extraction and chemical preparation. Hopanes and steranes may provide valuable information on the history of life on early Earth, particularly if they are present in fluid inclusions in ancient rocks. Due to the presence of different generations of inclusions in even very small rock samples, it would be advantageous to find a method capable of detecting biomarkers in single oil rich fluid inclusions. The capability of ToF-SIMS for detailed chemical analysis of very small sample amounts makes it a potential technique for such analysis, and in this work this possibility is explored.

  • 31.
    Sjövall, Peter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Thiel, Volker
    Heim, Christine
    Hode, Tomas
    Organic geochemical microanalysis by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS).2008In: Geostandards and Geoanalytical Research, Vol. 32, no 3, p. 267-277Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Steele, A.
    et al.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    Benning, L. G.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany; Free University of Berlin, Germany; University of Leeds, UK.
    Wirth, R.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Fries, M. D.
    NASA, USA.
    Hauri, E.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Conrad, P. G.
    Carnegie Institution for Science, USA.
    Rogers, K.
    Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA.
    Eigenbrode, J.
    NASA, USA.
    Schreiber, A.
    German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany.
    Needham, A.
    USRA, USA.
    Wang, J. H.
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    McCubbin, F. M.
    NASA, USA.
    Kilcoyne, D.
    Advanced Light Source, USA.
    Rodriguez Blanco, Juan Diego
    University of Leeds, UK.
    Organic synthesis on Mars by electrochemical reduction of CO<sub>2</sub>2018In: Science Advances, Vol. 4, no 10, article id eaat5118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sources and nature of organic carbon on Mars have been a subject of intense research. Steele et al. (2012) showed that 10 martian meteorites contain macromolecular carbon phases contained within pyroxene- and olivine-hosted melt inclusions. Here, we show that martian meteorites Tissint, Nakhla, and NWA 1950 have an inventory of organic carbon species associated with fluid-mineral reactions that are remarkably consistent with those detected by the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission. We advance the hypothesis that interactions among spinel-group minerals, sulfides, and a brine enable the electrochemical reduction of aqueous CO2 to organic molecules. Although documented here in martian samples, a similar process likely occurs wherever igneous rocks containing spinel-group minerals and/or sulfides encounter brines.

  • 33.
    Varmuza, Kurt
    et al.
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Filzmoser, Peter
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Hoffmann, Irene
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Walach, Jan
    Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
    Cottin, Herve
    Université Paris‐Est Créteil et Université Paris, France.
    Fray, Nicolas
    Université Paris‐Est Créteil et Université Paris, France.
    Briois, Christelle
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Modica, Paola
    Université d'Orléans, France.
    Bardyn, Anais
    Carnegie Institution of Washington, USA.
    Silén, Johan
    Finnish Meteorological Institute, Finland.
    Siljeström, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Stenzel, Oliver
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Kissel, Jochen
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Hilchenbach, Martin
    Max-Planck-Institute for Solar System Research, Germany.
    Significance of variables for discrimination: Applied to the search of organic ions in mass spectra measured on cometary particles2018In: Journal of Chemometrics, ISSN 0886-9383, E-ISSN 1099-128X, Vol. 32, no 4, article id e3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The instrument Cometary Secondary Ion Mass Analyzer (COSIMA) on board of the European Space Agency mission Rosetta to the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko is a secondary ion mass spectrometer with a time-of-flight mass analyzer. It collected near the comet several thousand particles, imaged them, and analyzed the elemental and chemical compositions of their surfaces. In this study, variables have been generated from the spectral data covering the mass ranges of potential C-, H-, N-, and O-containing ions. The variable importance in binary discriminations between spectra measured on cometary particles and those measured on the target background has been estimated by the univariate t test and the multivariate methods discriminant partial least squares, random forest, and a robust method based on the log ratios of all variable pairs. The results confirm the presence of organic substances in cometary matter-probably a complex macromolecular mixture.

1 - 33 of 33
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