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  • 1.
    Holmberg, Per-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Collado, Magda
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Williander, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Mobility as a Service - MaaS: Describing the framework2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a Service is a quite novel term and has not a commonly agreed definition yet. In this report we use the term Combined mobility services to describe a service offering, including public transport in combination with other transport modes such as taxi, car-sharing, bike-sharing etc.

    The drivers for the change in how we will consume mobility are multiple, but the report discusses Societal trends such as Urbanisation ad climate change and sharing economy, Economical trends such as excess capacity and new payment systems together with technological development as enabler for the transition.

     

    New mobility services are constantly entering the market, and one of the most well-known is UBER. The limousine brokering service that, based on a technological platform have expanded around the world and also in terms of the service offering, now offering services covering the taxi-segment and now starting to offer services very close to public transport.

    The auto-makers are starting to grasp a possible different future, and are launching mobility services such as car-pool, free-floating car-pools and simplified car-owning schemes.

    Especially in the Nordic countries, the concept of MaaS is taking of, with services like Ubigo, which was piloted in Goteborg during 2014 and MaaS.fi, a Finnish MaaS-service to be started in 2016 in Finland with the goal of a global expansion. Telecom actors like Ericsson and Sonera are also active in this area. In Sweden, the public transport sector is analysing which role they should take in the MaaS-actor-ecosystem, and in Västra Götaland, a pre-commercial procurement of combined mobility services is scheduled for 2016. On a European level, the MaaS-alliance, supported by ERTICO[1], was formed during 2015 with the aim to stimulate the implementation of MaaS in Europe. EU also supports the concept by issuing a specific topic for MaaS in the 2016 H2020 mobility call.

    There are also a series of research-project ongoing, especially in Sweden and Finland, studying MaaS from a institutional, business and technical perspective. However, few studies are currently researching the sustainability effects of MaaS, even though initial studies indicates that MaaS, if designed bad, also can have negative environmental effects.

     

    Mobility as a Service can be designed in different ways and with different types of actors as the lead. If the public transport should be the coordinator of MaaS or a facilitating collaborator is discussed in the report. The report argues that public transport can provide a better stability of such a service (compared to a commercial MaaS operator), but also that public transport do not have the same flexibility in service offering as an external actor, and that they may attract more public transport users than car-owners to the service, in which case the environmental effects can be negative. The report also argues that if MaaS-service is subsidized (other than the services provided by PT), it can also lead to negative rebound effects, and if it is NOT subsidized, there are less reasons why public transport should organise the MaaS-service.

    UITP, the international organisation for public transport, have an active process for combined mobility services, CMS,(as MaaS is named in the PT sector) and promotes PT to take an active or even leading role in the establishment of this.

     

    In the report, some models are introduced for describing different types of mobility services emerging, and the most important distinction of what the report describes as MaaS, is that a Combined Mobility Service provides a subscription of some kind and possibly also a re-packaging of included services, while integrated public transport mainly gives the user the possibility to plan, book, and pay for the whole journey with several transport modes in one service (app). CMS is therefore both a business model and a technical platform which draws its profitability on the reduction of privately owned cars, whilst integrated public transport represents mainly a technical integration which mainly simplifies the shift between modes for a single trip. Both these versions are often referred as MaaS-services.

     

    The eco-system of MaaS, and different actor roles are introduced in the report, showing that there are business opportunities for Maas-operators, platform providers, mobility service providers as well as for public transport if the MaaS-service is designed in a right way.

     

    Several institutional barriers are identified in the report, which if addressed, could facilitate a faster introduction of MaaS. The Swedish transport subsidy system is discussed, where subsidizing of cars is allowed, but not the subsidizing of mobility services. The role of public transport and the importance of PT (brand) facing the customer, or if a neutral actor is better in attracting private car-owners to exchange the car for mobility services. The technical matureness of public transport is addressed, while a digitized business process (buying, paying and distributing electronic tickets) is a prerequisite for a commercial MaaS-operator to be able to include public transport in the service offering. Technically, Swedish public transport has a very good position through the work done at X2AB/Samtrafiken, but the policy issues around the possibility for third-party actors to use this, is not yet addressed, especially not on a national level.

    Finally several areas are identified where more research is needed to fully understand and take advantage of the possibilities with MaaS. The foremost area, where few initiatives have been identified, is the sustainability effects of MaaS. If wrongly designed, MaaS can give environmental effects of the service are negative (e.g making PT users to use more car-pools), and positive effects are gained if citizens are exchanging the owning of a car with subscription of mobility services.

    Other identified research areas are social factors like accessibility are effected by less car-ownership and the introduction of MaaS, how MaaS can contribute to resource efficiency, how MaaS can be supported by policy integration and other institutional issues.

     

    [1] European network for ITS deployment. www.ertico.com

  • 2.
    Karlson, Marianne
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Koglin, Till
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lund, Emma
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Wendle, Björn
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Smith, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; VGR Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden; K2 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Understanding institutional enablers and barriers to thedissemination of MaaS: A tentative framework2017In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a continued global urbanisation trend and increasing demand for transportation with consequences interms of, for example, congestion, emissions, and noise, urban mobility is a major challenge for the future.Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution by contributing to reducing the use ofprivate cars and increasing the use of public transport and ride sharing services: “MaaS has the potentialto fundamentally change the behaviour of people in and beyond cities, hence it is regarded as the biggestparadigm change in transport since affordable cars came into the market” (maas-alliance.eu). However,even though a number of initiatives have been taken, including pilots which have shown positive outcomes(see e.g., Karlsson et al., 2016), the implementation of MaaS has been slow.Different sources refer to different challenges. The purpose of the project ‘Institutional Frameworks forIntegrated Mobility Services in Future Cities’ (IRIMS) is to determine how, and to what extent, existinginstitutional factors affect the further development of MaaS. The project aims to provide suggestions for howinstitutions can be modified to enable the implementation of MaaS to contribute to sustainable mobility. Thispaper presents part of the work: a tentative framework, intended to support the analysis of the institutionalfactors that facilitate or create barriers to the further development and dissemination of MaaS (see alsoMukhtar-Landgren et al., 2016).

  • 3.
    Karlsson, I. C. M.
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Smith, Göran
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Västra Götaland, Sweden; K2 Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Koglin, Till
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kronsell, Annica
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Lund, E.
    Trivector, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Development and implementation of Mobility-as-a-Service: A qualitative study of barriers and enabling factors2019In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS) has been argued as part of the solution to prevalent transport problems. However, progress from pilots to large-scale implementation has hitherto been slow. The aim of the research reported in this paper was to empirically and in-depth investigate how, and to what extent, different factors affect the development and implementation of MaaS. A framework was developed, with a basis in institutional theory and the postulation that formal as well informal factors on different analytical levels (macro, meso and micro) must be considered. The research was organised as a multiple case study in Finland and Sweden and a qualitative approach was chosen for data collection and analysis. A number of factors with a claimed impact on the development and implementation of MaaS was revealed. At the macro level, these factors included legislation concerning transport, innovation and public administration, and the presence (or not) of a shared vision for MaaS. At the meso level, (the lack of) appropriate business models, cultures of collaboration, and assumed roles and responsibilities within the MaaS ecosystem were identified as significant factors. At the micro level, people’s attitudes and habits were recognised as important factors to be considered. However, how the ‘S’ in MaaS fits (or not) the transport needs of the individual/household appears to play a more important role in adoption or rejection of MaaS than what has often been acknowledged in previous papers on MaaS. The findings presented in this paper provide several implications for public and private sector actors. Law-making authorities can facilitate MaaS developments by adjusting relevant regulations and policies such as transport-related subsidies, taxation policies and the definition of public transport. Regional and local authorities could additionally contribute to creating conducive conditions for MaaS by, for example, planning urban designs and transport infrastructures to support service-based travelling. Moreover, private actors have key roles to play in future MaaS developments, as both public and private transport services are needed if MaaS is to become a viable alternative to privately owned cars. Thus, the advance of MaaS business models that benefit all involved actors is vital for the prosperity of the emerging MaaS ecosystem.

  • 4.
    Linder, Marcus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    van Loon, Patricia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    A Metric for Quantifying Product-Level Circularity2017In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 545-558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circularity metrics are useful for empirically assessing the effects of a circular economy in terms of profitability, job creation, and environmental impacts. At present, however, there is no standardized method for measuring the circularity of products. We start by reviewing existing product-level metrics in terms of validity and reliability, taking note of theoretically justified principles for aggregating different types of material flows and cycles into a single value. We then argue that the economic value of product parts may constitute a useful basis for such aggregation; describe a set of principles for using economic value as a basis for measuring product circularity; and outline a metric that utilizes this approach. Our recommendation is to use the ratio of recirculated economic value to total product value as a circularity metric, using value chain costs as an estimator. In order to protect value chain actors’ sensitive financial data and facilitate neutrality regarding outsourcing or insourcing, we suggest a means to calculate product-level circularity based on sequential approximations of adding one product part and activity at a time. We conclude by suggesting potential avenues for further research, including ways in which the proposed metric can be used in wider assessments of the circular economy, and ways in which it may be further refined.

  • 5.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    (Failing to) create eco-innovation networks: The Nordic Climate Cluster2015In: Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, ISSN 0953-7325, E-ISSN 1465-3990, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 283-299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic Climate Cluster (NOCC) was an innovation network composed of large Norwegian and Swedish companies from different industries with common interests in climate-friendly eco-innovations. The network was initiated in 2008, but was disbanded just two years later. This study treats the NOCC as a special case (an eco-innovation network) and examines factors that influenced its failure. The study shows that the network failed for a variety of reasons, including a lack of stability, a lack of social capital and inadequate market demands for eco-innovations. The study concludes with implications for policy-makers who are keen to promote eco-innovation via networking.

  • 6.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Langeland, Ove
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Norway.
    Business model innovation for car sharing andsustainable urban mobility2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Langeland, Ove
    Transport Economics Institute, Sweden.
    Providing alternatives to the private car: the dynamics of businessmodel innovation2017In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 21-42Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the potential for business model innovations in the field of car sharing to bring abouta sustainable reorientation of the road transport system. On the basis of interviews with different types ofcar sharing organisations in four Nordic countries (Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Norway), we identifydifferent types of car sharing business models. We also examine the ways in which organisations are currentlyinnovating these business models, focusing on the role of digital technologies, environment-friendly vehicledrivetrains, and linkages to new innovative concepts such as Mobility as a Service. We then extrapolate threetransition pathways, entitled technological substitution, shared mobility and integrated mobility, discussingtheir potential and governance implications

  • 8.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Integrating a business model perspective into transition theory: The example of new mobility services2018In: Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, ISSN 2210-4224, E-ISSN 2210-4232, Vol. 27, p. 16-31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business model innovation is increasingly seen as a means to promote sustainable forms of production and consumption, having been linked to technological innovations in electric vehicles and the circular economy. Business models are an organisational phenomenon that concern focal firms and their networks. However, there is no theory of the firm in transition theory, such that the role of business model innovation in wider transformative processes is unclear. This paper aims to redress this issue by combining a business model perspective with core concepts and constructs from transition theory. We elucidate sources of change and inertia that issue from new and existing business models, illustrating our arguments by focusing on mobility services, which have the potential to radically transform road transportation via new business models. We derive new lines of inquiry that can be used to examine the dynamics of business model innovation in the context of sustainability transitions.

  • 9.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Collado, Magda
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Governing the transition to a circular economy: A multidimensional approach2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Sarasini, Steven
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arby, Hans
    UbiGo Innovation, Sweden.
    What characterises a sustainable MaaS business model?2017In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Generally, business models are increasingly recognised as a vital component of transitions towardssustainability (Bocken et al., 2014; Bocken and Short, 2016; Boons and Lüdeke-Freund, 2013a; Schaltegger etal., 2016, 2012; Stubbs and Cocklin, 2008). For example, several works have noted that new business modelsmay unlock the economic potential of electric vehicle technology and assist in its adoption (e.g. BuddeChristensen et al., 2012; Costain et al., 2012; Weiller et al., 2015), but there exists no such work on Mobilityas a Service (MaaS), although it can, in principal, revolutionise the way we travel and has a huge potential toimprove the sustainability of the transport system. Whilst is not presently clear which business model/s willunderpin the development and adoption of Mobility as a Service, it is possible to outline the characteristicsof a sustainable MaaS business model. This paper aims to address the following research question:“What characterises MaaS business models that deliver improvements in the economic, environmental andsocial sustainability dimensions?In order to address this question, we must first tackle the sticky problem of understanding how to treat MaaSas a concept that currently lacks a formal and robust definition. MaaS is often described as an alternativeto private vehicle ownership that combines different types of mobility services as part of a single, seamlessoffering made available to users via subscription-based smartphone applications (Beutel et al., 2014; Goldmanand Gorham, 2006; Sochor et al., 2015), and is also referred to using the rubrics ‘combined’ or ‘integrated’mobility services. However, the MaaS concept can refer to different types of services, and there are several‘things’ that can be integrated within any MaaS initiative. Also, at the current, pre-commercial phase, itmakes little sense to attempt to define MaaS as the field is in a state of fluidity, with several innovativeconcepts being tested. Hence any pre-emptive definition would run the risk of quickly becoming redundant,especially given the current level of hype around the MaaS concept. Instead, it is better to treat MaaS in topological terms by classifying different elements in terms of what may be integrated in a single service.A business model is commonly referred to as a device for creating, delivering and capturing value (Chesbrough,2010; Johnson et al., 2008; Osterwalder and Pigneur, 2010; Teece, 2010; Zott et al., 2011; Zott and Amit,2010). Hence in order to examine what characterises sustainable MaaS business models, it is important toconsider: 1) the concept of sustainable value; and 2) the ways in which MaaS, as a topological phenomenon,can be translated into a set of business models that create, deliver and capture sustainable value. These twopoints underpin the structure of this paper, which consists of four sections, of which this is the first. The nextsection outlines the methods deployed, focusing on an integrative literature review. Section three presentsour main findings, outlining a set of principled arguments regarding sustainable MaaS business models,supported by practical examples. The last section concludes with a set of implications for practitioners andfurther research.

  • 11.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; K2 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden; Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Karlsson, I. C. MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Mukhtar-Landgren, Dalia
    K2 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Governing Mobility-as-a-Service: Insights from Sweden and Finland2019In: The Governance of Smart Transportation Systems: Towards New Organizational Structures for the Development of Shared, Automated, Electric and Integrated Mobility / [ed] Finger, Matthias; Audouin, Maxime, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2019, p. 169-188Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on a review of recent developments in Sweden and Finland, this chapter analyzes the roles of public organizations in the governance of a transition to Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS). In particular, we draw on insights from transition frameworks to explore what these two pioneering cases can teach us about how the public sector can both enable the development of MaaS and steer the development trajectory toward diffusion of MaaS offerings that contribute to transport policy goals. We propose three main points. Firstly, public sector organizations at national, regional, and local levels have key roles to play in potential transitions to MaaS, regardless of their intended operative roles in the emerging MaaS ecosystem. Secondly, a central task for public sector organizations is to align operational and tactical MaaS governance activities with both an overarching MaaS strategy and with other relevant strategies, such as transport infrastructures investments, programs for economic and industrial growth, city plans, and parking norms. Thirdly, new models and tools for public–private collaboration are needed in order to effectively govern the development and diffusion of sustainable MaaS.

  • 12.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden ; K2 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport, Sweden ; Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mobility as a service: Comparing developments in Sweden and Finland2018In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a Service (MaaS) developments have thus far progressed along different trajectories in Sweden and Finland, two pioneering countries in MaaS. Still, little is known about why this is. Addressing this knowledge gap, we investigate the role of institutions as key structures given their capacity to bring about differentiated outcomes. Based on 31 interviews with key stakeholders, we first describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developments in the two countries. Thereafter, through an analysis of similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set of general implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate the importance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders. The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating the right conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levels of the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we assess the utility of the applied theoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structural changes are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

  • 13.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; K2 – The Swedish knowledge center for public transport, Sweden; Västra Götalandsregionen, Sweden.
    Sochor, Jana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mobility as a Service: Comparing Developments in Sweden andFinland2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This paper examines how institutional factors influence developments in the field of Mobility as a Service(MaaS). We draw upon neo-institutional theory in order to describe drivers and barriers of MaaS developmentsin Sweden and Finland. By analyzing similarities and differences across the cases, we identify a set ofgeneral implications for MaaS policymakers and practitioners. Developments in Finland demonstrate theimportance of top-level support, of inter-organizational collaboration and of trust among key stakeholders.The Swedish case reiterates the need for inter-sectorial collaboration, particularly with regard to creating theright conditions for commercialization, and to involving stakeholders on both strategic and operational levelsof the transport sector in developing the vision for MaaS. Lastly, we also assess the utility of the appliedtheoretical framework, and comment on the necessity of recognizing that both practice-based and structuralchanges are needed in order to facilitate institutional change.

  • 14.
    Sochor, Jana
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arby, Hans
    UbiGo Innovation, Sweden.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals2018In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 27, p. 3-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterises a ‘MaaS service’, as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the ‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS' potential effects, and aiding the integration of societal goals into MaaS services. Based on an exploration of existing definitions and descriptions of MaaS, and an expert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resulting proposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterised by different types of integration: 0 no integration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the service offer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are then described in terms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for society, business, users/customers, and technical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4 and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topology adds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along the MaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can help support the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type of MaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linked with the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achieved via the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecological sustainability, and business potential.

  • 15.
    Sochor, Jana
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arby, Hans
    UbiGo Innovation, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Marianne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden .
    Sarasini, Steven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    A topological approach to Mobility as a Service: A proposed tool for understanding requirements and effects, and for aiding the integration of societal goals2017In: ICoMaaS 2017 Proceedings, 2017, p. 187-201Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the concept of MaaS and what characterizes a ‘MaaS service’,as well as to propose a topology of MaaS as a tool for facilitating the discussion of MaaS, enabling the‘comparison of’ different services, understanding MaaS’ potential effects, and aiding the integration ofsocietal goals into MaaS services. Based on a literature review analyzing existing definitions, and anexpert workshop identifying key aspects and ascertaining service differentiations accordingly, the resultingproposed topology consists of MaaS Levels 0 to 4 as characterized by different types of integration: 0 nointegration; 1 integration of information; 2 integration of booking and payment; 3 integration of the serviceoffer, including contracts and responsibilities; 4 integration of societal goals. The levels are described interms of their added value and further discussed regarding implications for business, society, users, andtechnical requirements. Then, a deeper discussion also delves into the potential in expanding upon Level 4and ways by which services and societal goals can become more fully integrated. The proposed topologyadds clarity to the discussion of such a trending topic and enables the positioning of services along theMaaS spectrum. It also deepens the understanding of why MaaS can take time to establish, and can helpsupport the development of action plans in terms of what needs to be done depending on what type ofMaaS one wants to develop. Further analysis is desirable regarding the possibilities and problems linkedwith the different levels of MaaS. Such an analysis is key to understanding which effects can be achievedvia the implementation of different levels of MaaS services in terms of e.g. social, economic and ecologicalsustainability, and business potential.

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