Change search
Refine search result
1 - 31 of 31
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Brunklaus, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Molnar, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Torén, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Mangold, Mikael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Choice of social indicators within technology development – the case of mobile biorefineries in Europe2018In: Social LCA: People and Places for Partnership, 2018, p. 162-166Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Goldsworthy, Kate
    et al.
    University of the Arts London, UK.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Towards a Quantified Design Process: Bridging Design and Life Cycle Assessment2016In: Circular Transitions Proceedings, 2016, p. 208-221Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we describe how design researchers and environmental researchers are making a joint effort in overcoming the disciplinary barriers for collaboration. By comparing existing processes and identifying potential opportunities arising from inter-disciplinary collaboration the aim is to propose methods for building a bridge between disciplines. A model for “quantified design” is generated, and explored, relevant for designers, design researchers as well as LCA researchers.

  • 3.
    Haeggman, Marika
    et al.
    Albaeco, Sweden.
    Moberg, Fredrik
    Albaeco, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Planetary Boundaries analysis for Houdini Sportswear – a Pilot Study: Assessment of company performance from a planetary boundaries perspective2018In: Planetary Boundaries Assessment 2018 – This is Houdini, Houdini Sportswear , 2018, p. 37-66Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This is to our knowledge the first ever corporate Planetary Boundaries analysis. It is an explorative collaboration between Houdini Sportswear, Albaeco and Mistra Future Fashion with the long-term ambition to create an open-source approach that will provide Houdini and other similar companies with a more holistic view on their sustainability efforts. Albaeco is closely tied to the Stockholm Resilience Centre (SRC), an international research centre for sustainability science at Stockholm University, known among other things for its work on planetary boundaries, resilience and ecosystem services.

    This report aims to operationalize the Planetary Boundaries framework in a business context. The framework was established in 2009 when a group of scientists (Rockström and others, 2009) identified nine global environmental boundaries we should remain within so that our societies can continue to develop in a positive way. As such the Planetary Boundaries provide a holistic way of analysing sustainability that has acquired international recognition and contributed to the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Rather than a narrow focus on for example water, chemicals or energy use, a planetary boundaries approach implies covering a larger set of critical environmental factors.

    The manufacturing and consumption of clothes, like every other industry, plays a role in relation to all of the nine boundaries. For example, cotton is one of the most pesticide and water demanding crops grown; chemicals used when treating fabrics risk polluting water downstream from factories; and shell layer garments are often produced using compounds that stay in the environmental indefinitely and accumulate in the fatty tissues of wildlife and humans

    Albaeco, Houdini and Mistra Future Fashion believe that analysing the textile industry from a Planetary Boundaries perspective is an important part of a larger ambition to integrate scientific analysis and resilience thinking into projects focused on accelerating business solution for sustainability.

  • 4.
    Peters, Greg
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Spak, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Environmental Prospects for Mixed Textile Recycling in Sweden2019In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering, E-ISSN 2168-0485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production of cotton and other fibers causes excessive resource use and environmental impacts, and the deployment of these fibers in “fast fashion” is creating large masses of textile waste. Therefore, various industrial researchers are attempting to develop systems to recycle cellulosic materials. This is a challenging undertaking because of the need to handle mixed waste streams. Alkaline hydrolysis has been suggested as a useful textile recycling process, but its sustainability credentials have not been fully examined via life cycle assessment. The aim of this article is to provide such an examination and to guide process developers by scaling up results from recent laboratory work to a small-scale industrial facility. The results indicate that the recycling process is promising from an environmental point of view. The key issue controlling the relative environmental performance of the recycling system in comparison to a single-use benchmark is how the process for converting recovered cotton into a cellulosic fiber is performed. A fully integrated viscose production system or a system that makes one of the newer cellulosic fibers (e.g., lyocell) from the recovered cotton will improve the performance of the recycling system relative to its alternatives.

  • 5.
    Peters, Greg
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Spak, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    LCA on fast and slow garment prototypes2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report summarises the environmental assessment work done in the Mistra Future Fashion program focussed on the potential to improve the environmental performance of garments and adapt them to a circular economy. The approaches examined in this report include reducing the environmental impacts from fast-fashion trends by making garments from paper-based materials, or by extending garment life cycles.

    This assessment considers two paper-based garments. One is made primarily from paper pulp but enhanced with a polylactic acid polymer. This garment is worn between two to five times before being recycled as newspaper. The other fast garment is made of paper pulp, polylactic acid and nanocellulose. It has a similar life cycle but is composted after use life. These garments are compared with a standard t-shirt. The report also considers a slow-paced scenario in which a polyester garment passes between several owners and is regularly changed to maintain its appeal. It is updated with a transfer sublimation overprint three times, making the garment darker each time. Later it is joined with an outer shell of new material using laser technology to make a cropped, box-cut jacket.

    The assessment was performed using environmental life cycle assessment. More particularly, the assessment was based on attributional process analysis with cutoff allocation procedures and comparison with a traditional reference garment life cycle. Key environmental effect categories considered here include climate change (greenhouse gas emissions), freshwater eutrophication, freshwater ecotoxicity and human toxicity (cancer and non-cancer).

    The results indicate that the environmental outcomes of the paper-based garments can be competitive with the reference garment, particularly when the user is assumed to throw away a fully functional reference garment after five uses. This assumption may be true for some users, but the number of uses is considerably lower than the typical or the potential lifespan of the reference garment. The main factor assisting the paper-based garments is the reduction in the impacts per mass associated with material manufacturing (fibres, spinning, knitting), and also their lighter masses. Avoided impacts in the use phase play a secondary role on account of their location in Sweden with its low-carbon energy mix. The long-life garments are also competitive compared with their reference garments. This is primarily a consequence of how extending garment life avoids the production of new garments. The environmental impacts associated with transfer sublimation dye reprinting and laser processing do not significantly impact the overall environmental performance of the extended longlife garments, though confidentiality of data prevents a full assessment of these.

    The garments in this report are pilot products and explorative scenarios rather than attempts to model existing business or behavioural patterns. The reader should therefore take care to keep the results in context when interpreting them. Nevertheless, the results suggest the value of pursuing the potential associated with these garment life cycles. We should also bear in mind that while the reference garments in this assessment are based on typical usage patterns, other more sustainable patterns are feasible.

  • 6.
    Peters, Greg
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Carbon footprints in the textile industry: Chapter 12015In: Handbook of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Textiles and Clothing / [ed] Subramanian Muthu, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2015, 1, p. 3-30Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    The influence of system boundaries and baseline in climate impact assessment of forest products2019In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 160-176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This article aims to explore how different assumptions about system boundaries and setting of baselines for forest growth affect the outcome of climate impact assessments of forest products using life cycle assessment (LCA), regarding the potential for climate impact mitigation from replacing non-forest benchmarks. This article attempts to explore how several assumptions interact and influence results for different products with different service life lengths. Methods: Four products made from forest biomass were analysed and compared to non-forest benchmarks using dynamic LCA with time horizons between 0 and 300 years. The studied products have different service lives: butanol automotive fuel (0 years), viscose textile fibres (2 years), a cross-laminated timber building structure (50 years) and methanol used to produce short-lived (0 years) and long-lived (20 years) products. Five calculation setups were tested featuring different assumptions about how to account for the carbon uptake during forest growth or regrowth. These assumptions relate to the timing of the uptake (before or after harvest), the spatial system boundaries (national, landscape or single stand) and the land-use baseline (zero baseline or natural regeneration). Results and discussion: The implications of using different assumptions depend on the type of product. The choice of time horizon for dynamic LCA and the timing of forest carbon uptake are important for all products, especially long-lived ones where end-of-life biogenic emissions take place in the relatively distant future. The choice of time horizon is less influential when using landscape- or national-level system boundaries than when using stand-level system boundaries and has greater influence on the results for long-lived products. Short-lived products perform worse than their benchmarks with short time horizons whatever spatial system boundaries are chosen, while long-lived products outperform their benchmarks with all methods tested. The approach and data used to model the forest carbon uptake can significantly influence the outcome of the assessment for all products. Conclusions: The choices of spatial system boundaries, temporal system boundaries and land-use baseline have a large influence on the results, and this influence decreases for longer time horizons. Short-lived products are more sensitive to the choice of time horizon than long-lived products. Recommendations are given for LCA practitioners: to be aware of the influence of method choice when carrying out studies, to use case-specific data (for the forest growth) and to communicate clearly how results can be used.

  • 8.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, .
    StarWars and the Environmental Hotspots of Textile Value Chains2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Clarifying sustainable fashion: Life cycle assessment of the Swedish clothing consumption2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, .
    Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion2016In: Textiles and Clothing Sustainability: Implications in Textiles and Fashion / [ed] Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Singapore: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016, p. 1-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Mistra Future Fashion research programme (2011–2019) is a large Swedish investment aimed at reducing the environmental impact of clothing consumption. Midway into the programme, research results and insights were reviewed with the intent to see what picture appears from this interdisciplinary consortium, developed to address the multiple sustainability challenges in clothing consumption and the tools for intervention. Such tools comprise product design, consumer behaviour changes, policy development, business models, technical development, recycling, life cycle assessment (LCA) and social life cycle assessment (SLCA). This chapter quantifies the extent of the sustainability challenge for the apparel sector, via an analysis of five garment archetypes. It also considers to what extent different interventions for impact reduction can contribute in society’s endeavour towards sustainability, in terms of staying within an “environmentally safe and socially just operating space”, inspired by the planetary boundaries approach. In particular, the results show whether commonly proposed interventions are sufficient or not in relation to the impact reduction necessary according to the planetary boundaries. Also, the results clarify which sustainability aspects that the clothing industry are likely to manage sufficiently if the proposed interventions are realised and which sustainability aspects that will require more radical interventions in order to reach the targets.

  • 11.
    Roos, Sandra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahare
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A life cycle assessment (LCA)-based approach to guiding an industry sector towards sustainability: the case of the Swedish apparel sector2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 133, p. 691-700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The environmental challenges associated with consumption of textiles have generally been investigated on product level in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies. For social sustainability aspects, social hotspot analysis has instead been applied on the textile sector level. The aim with the industry sector approach developed by the authors was to enable assessment of different interventions in terms of how they contribute to reaching targets for environmental and social sustainability, on the sector level. The approach was tested in a case study on the Swedish apparel sector. The industry sector approach consists of three steps that address three different questions: 1) What is the current sustainability performance of the sector? 2) What is an acceptable sustainability performance for the sector? 3) Are proposed interventions enough to reach an acceptable sustainability performance? By answering these questions, it is possible to measure performance in relation to sector level targets and learn which types of interventions (technical improvements, behavioral changes, new business models, etc.), and which actors (manufacturers, retailers, consumers, authorities, etc.) that can potentially provide the greatest improvements. By applying the approach in the case study, conclusions could be drawn on whether specific interventions appear to be sufficient or not in relation to the set environmental targets. The influence of the interventions in relation to reaching targets for social sustainability was found to be the most difficult to measure due to lack of data. To spur the industry sector's stakeholders to actualize the full potential of the most effective environmental interventions, a scheme for structured evaluation of LCA results directed towards these prospective actors was developed. Based on the results from the study, actor-oriented advice could be provided.

  • 12.
    Røyne, Frida
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Climate impact assessment in life cycle assessments of forest products: Implications of method choice for results and decision-making2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 116, p. 90-99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As life cycle assessments are often conducted to provide decision support, it is important that impact assessment methodology is consistent with the intended decision context. The currently most used climate impact assessment metric, the global warming potential, and how it is applied in life cycle assessments, has for example been criticised for insufficiently accounting for carbon sequestration, carbon stored in long-lived products and timing of emission. The aim of this study is to evaluate how practitioners assess the climate impact of forest products and the implications of method choice for results and decision-making. To identify current common practices, we reviewed climate impact assessment practices in 101 life cycle assessments of forest products. We then applied identified common practices in case studies comparing the climate impact of a forest-based and a non-forest-based fuel and building, respectively, and compared the outcomes with outcomes of applying alternative, non-established practices. Results indicate that current common practices exclude most of the dynamic features of carbon uptake and storage as well as the climate impact from indirect land use change, aerosols and changed albedo. The case studies demonstrate that the inclusion of such aspects could influence results considerably, both positively and negatively. Ignoring aspects could thus have important implications for the decision support. The product life cycle stages with greatest climate impact reduction potential might not be identified, product comparisons might favour the less preferable product and policy instruments might support the development and use of inefficient climate impact reduction strategies.

  • 13.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Integrating sustainability considerations into product development: a practical tool for prioritising social sustainability indicators and experiences from real case application2011In: Towards life cycle sustainability management / [ed] Matthias Finkbeiner, Springer Netherlands, 2011, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a tool for prioritising social sustainability parameters in product development is described. The tool's core element is a two-step Delphi exercise carried out in the product development team. The purpose of the tool is to (i) select critical social impact indicators suitable for guiding the product development process, (ii) enhance the product development team’s understanding in the field of social sustainability and (iii) engage the team in the sustainability assessment, with the further aim of ensuring the assessment’s influence on the product development process. Applied in a real product development project, the tool proved successful for selecting indicators and increase understanding of social sustainability within the product development team. Selected indicators' usefulness for the product development process remains an open question to be addressed later on as the project evolves.

  • 14.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Life cycle assessment in the development of forest products: Contributions to improved methods and practices2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The prospect of reducing environmental impacts is a key driver for the research and development (R&D) of new forest products. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is often used for assessing the environmental impact of such products, e.g. for the purpose of guiding R&D. The aim of this thesis is to improve the methods and practices of LCA work carried out in the R&D of forest products. Six research questions were formulated from research needs identified in LCA work in five technical inter-organisational R&D projects. These projects also provided contexts for the case studies that were used to address the research questions. The main contributions of the research are as follows:

    Regarding the planning of LCA work in inter-organisational R&D projects, the research identified four characteristics that appear to be important to consider when selecting the roles of LCAs in such projects: (i) the project’s potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project’s potential to provide required input to the LCA, and (iv) access to relevant audiences for the LCA results.

    Regarding the modelling of future forest product systems, it was found that (i) it is important to capture uncertainties related to the technologies of end-of-life processes, the location of processes and the occurrence of land use change; and (ii) the choice of method for handling multi-functionality can strongly influence results in LCAs of forest products, particularly in consequential studies and in studies of relatively small co-product flows.

    Regarding the assessment of environmental impacts of particular relevance for forest products, it was found that using established climate impact assessment practices can cause LCA practitioners to miss environmental hot-spots and make erroneous conclusions about the performance of forest products vis-à-vis non-forest alternatives, particularly in studies aimed at short-term impact mitigation. Also, a new approach for inventorying water cycle alterations was developed, which made it possible to capture catchment-scale effects of forestry never captured before.

    To connect the LCA results to global challenges, a procedure was proposed for translating the planetary boundaries into absolute product-scale targets for impact reduction, e.g. to be used for evaluating interventions for product improvements or for managing trade-offs between impact categories.

  • 15.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    Fornara, Andrea
    Peters, Greg
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Xu, Yingqian
    Environmental Evaluation of a Clear Coating for Exterior Wood Products: Toxicological Testing of Nanoparticles and Life Cycle Assessment2012In: 8th International Woodcoatings Congress: Science and Technology for Sustainable Design, Paint Research Association , 2012, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Clancy, Gunilla
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    ten Hoeve, Marieke
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Making the most of LCA in technical inter-organisational R&D projects2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 70, p. 97–104-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In technical Research and Development (R&D) projects, a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the technology under development is sometimes carried out. Particularly in inter-organisational R&D projects, the roles of LCAs tend to be unclear and arbitrary, and as a consequence, LCA work is not adequately designed for the needs of the project. There is a need for research on how to choose an appropriate role for LCA in such projects and how to plan LCA work accordingly. We have identified some possible roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and used experiences from LCA work in different such projects to identify four project characteristics that are decisive for what roles the LCA can have. The project characteristics are: (i) the project's potential influence on environmental impacts, (ii) the degrees of freedom available for the technical direction of the project, (iii) the project's potential to provide required input to the LCA, and (iv) access to relevant audiences for the LCA results. We discuss how evaluation of these project characteristics can help project commissioners, project managers and LCA practitioners to deliberately choose appropriate roles of LCA in inter-organisational R&D projects and plan projects for efficient use of LCA.

  • 17.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Recycling is good, right? A review of environmental assessments of textile reuse and recycling2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling – A review2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 184, p. 353-365Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews studies of the environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling, to provide a summary of the current knowledge and point out areas for further research. Forty-one studies were reviewed, whereof 85% deal with recycling and 41% with reuse (27% cover both reuse and recycling). Fibre recycling is the most studied recycling type (57%), followed by polymer/oligomer recycling (37%), monomer recycling (29%), and fabric recycling (14%). Cotton (76%) and polyester (63%) are the most studied materials.

    The reviewed publications provide strong support for claims that textile reuse and recycling in general reduce environmental impact compared to incineration and landfilling, and that reuse is more beneficial than recycling. The studies do, however, expose scenarios under which reuse and recycling are not beneficial for certain environmental impacts. For example, as benefits mainly arise due to the avoided production of new products, benefits may not occur in cases with low replacement rates or if the avoided production processes are relatively clean. Also, for reuse, induced customer transport may cause environmental impact that exceeds the benefits of avoided production, unless the use phase is sufficiently extended.

    In terms of critical methodological assumptions, authors most often assume that textiles sent to recycling are wastes free of environmental burden, and that reused products and products made from recycled materials replace products made from virgin fibres. Examples of other content mapped in the review are: trends of publications over time, common aims and geographical scopes, commonly included and omitted impact categories, available sources of primary inventory data, knowledge gaps and future research needs. The latter include the need to study cascade systems, to explore the potential of combining various reuse and recycling routes.

  • 19.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries framework for setting impact-reduction targets in LCA contexts2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1684-1700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The planetary boundaries (PBs) framework suggests global limits for environmental interventions which could be used to set global goals for reducing environmental impacts. This paper proposes a procedure for using such global goals for setting impact-reduction targets at the scale of products for use, for example, in life cycle assessment (LCA) contexts, e.g. as a basis for evaluating the potential of interventions to reduce the environmental impact of products.

    Methods

    The procedure consists of four steps: (i) identifying the PBs quantified in literature that correspond to an impact category which is studied in the product assessment context in question; (ii) interpreting what the identified PBs imply in terms of global impact-reduction targets; (iii) translating the outcome of (ii) to reduction targets for the particular global market segment to which the studied product belongs; and (iv) translating the outcome of (iii) to reduction targets for the studied product. The procedure requires some assumptions and value-based choices—the influence of these is tested by applying the procedure in a specific LCA context: a study of Swedish clothing consumption.

    Results and discussion

    The application of the procedure in an LCA context suggested the need for eliminating all or nearly all impact of Swedish clothing consumption for most impact categories. Thus, it is improbable that a single type of impact-reduction intervention (e.g. technological development or changed user behaviour) is sufficient. The outcome’s strong dependence on impact category suggests that the procedure can help in prioritising among impact categories. Furthermore, the outcome exhibited a strong dependence on the chosen method for allocating the globally allowed impact between regions—this was tested by applying different principles identified in a literature review on the allocation of emissions rights. The outcome also strongly depended on the geographical scope—this was tested by changing the geographical scope from Sweden to Nigeria.

    Conclusions

    The proposed procedure is feasible to use for LCA practitioners and other environmental analysts, and data is available to apply the procedure in contexts with different geographical scopes. Value-based choices are, however, unavoidable and significantly influence the outcome, which accentuates the subjectivity and potentially controversial nature of allocating a finite impact space to certain regions, market segments and products. How to match PBs with appropriate LCA impact categories is an important area for future research.

  • 20.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Life cycle assessment of construction materials: the influence of assumptions in end-of-life modelling2014In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 723-731Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The nature of end-of-life (EoL) processes is highly uncertain for constructions built today. This uncertainty is often neglected in life cycle assessments (LCAs) of construction materials. This paper tests how EoL assumptions influence LCA comparisons of two alternative roof construction elements: glue-laminated wooden beams and steel frames. The assumptions tested include the type of technology and the use of attributional or consequential modelling approaches. Methods: The study covers impact categories often considered in the construction industry: total and non-renewable primary energy demand, water depletion, global warming, eutrophication and photo-chemical oxidant creation. The following elements of the EoL processes are tested: energy source used in demolition, fuel type used for transportation to the disposal site, means of disposal and method for handling allocation problems of the EoL modelling. Two assumptions regarding technology development are tested: no development from today's technologies and that today's low-impact technologies have become representative for the average future technologies. For allocating environmental impacts of the waste handling to by-products (heat or recycled material), an attributional cut-off approach is compared with a consequential substitution approach. A scenario excluding all EoL processes is also considered. Results and discussion: In all comparable scenarios, glulam beams have clear environmental benefits compared to steel frames, except for in a scenario in which steel frames are recycled and today's average steel production is substituted, in which impacts are similar. The choice of methodological approach (attributional, consequential or fully disregarding EoL processes) does not seem to influence the relative performance of the compared construction elements. In absolute terms, four factors are shown to be critical for the results: whether EoL phases are considered at all, whether recycling or incineration is assumed in the disposal of glulam beams, whether a consequential or attributional approach is used in modelling the disposal processes and whether today's average technology or a low-impact technology is assumed for the substituted technology. Conclusions: The results suggest that EoL assumptions can be highly important for LCA comparisons of construction materials, particularly in absolute terms. Therefore, we recommend that EoL uncertainties are taken into consideration in any LCA of long-lived products. For the studied product type, LCA practitioners should particularly consider EoL assumptions regarding the means of disposal, the expected technology development of disposal processes and any substituted technology and the choice between attributional and consequential approaches.

  • 21.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Peters, Greg
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Life Cycle Assessment of Forest Products: Challenges and Solutions2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing environmental degradation and our dependency of finite resources are important motivations for developing a more bio-based society. In such a society, the most abundant renewable resource on the planet – forest biomass – will play a much more prominent role than in our current fossil-based society. To guide this transformation and obtain the potential environmental benefits of a more bio-based society, there is a need for high-quality, context-adapted environmental assessments.

    Different types of environmental assessments are needed for decision-making concerned with different types of entities: sites, products, organisations, industry sectors, regions, nations, etc. For studies of products and services, life cycle assessment (LCA) is the most commonly used assessment tool worldwide. LCA is capable of assessing a wide range of environmental impacts over the entire life cycle of products and services, from resource extraction (the “cradle”), via production, transportation and use, to waste management (the “grave”).

    Although there is an array of useful consensus documents guiding the LCA practitioner – the 14040/14044 International Organisation for Standardisation’s (ISO) standard, the EN 16760 standard, the international reference life cycle data system (ILCD) handbook, the product environmental footprint (PEF) guide, to name a few – it can be rather challenging to carry out an LCA. Key challenges include the modelling of the product system and its interaction with the environment, the translation of emissions and resource use into quantified environmental impacts, and the interpretation and use of the results in various contexts. For example, how should one allocate environmental impacts between the many outputs of a biorefinery? How can one assess the climate, biodiversity and water cycle impacts of forestry operations? How can one get the most out of LCA in research and development projects? What do LCA results say in relation to the global challenges, for example as expressed by the planetary boundaries?

    The purpose of this book, belonging to the series “SpringerBriefs in Biobased Polymers”, is to provide an introduction to some of the key challenges of carrying out LCAs of forest products, and to suggest some means for handling them. The book can function as a gateway into the literature on LCA of forest products, as it is rich with references to technical reports and scientific papers. The book is written primarily for LCA practitioners with some previous experience of LCA work, but also less experienced LCA practitioners and others interested in environmental aspects of forests products – such as decision makers confronted with LCA results – can hopefully find it interesting and useful.

  • 22.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Peters, Greg
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Moving down the cause-effect chain of water and land use impacts: An LCA case study of textile fibres2013In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 73, p. 104–113-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peñaloza, Diego
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Röyne, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Staffas, Louise
    IVL, Sweden.
    The method’s influence on climate impact assessment of biofuels and other uses of forest biomass: Report from an f3 project2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Towards a bio-economy: the role of the forest

    Biomass has an increasingly important role in replacing fossil and mineral resources, and it is central in environmental impact-reduction strategies in companies and governments, locally, nationally and internationally. The European Union (EU) has recently taken action to strengthen the bio-economy, defined as “…the sustainable production and conversion of biomass into a range of food, health, fibre and industrial products and energy”.

    Two thirds of the land area in Sweden is covered by forests, and forestry has been an important industry for centuries. Increased and/or more efficient use of forest biomass thus has a great potential for replacing the use of fossil and mineral resources in Sweden.

    There are two main reasons for why forest- and other bio-based products are seen as environmentally beneficial. Biomass is (most often) a renewable resource, in contrast to finite fossil and mineral resources, and there is often a balance between CO2 captured when the biomass grows, and CO2 released when the bio-based product is incinerated.

    The challenge: calculate carbon footprints

    Moving towards a bio-economy means replacing non-renewable fuels and materials with bio-based fuels and materials. This is a transition on many levels: technology, business models, infrastructure, political priorities, etc. To guide such a grand transition, there is a need to understand the environmental implications of new bio-based products. This includes assessing their climate impact, so-called carbon footprinting.

    Carbon footprinting of forest products is not as simple as saying that forest products are carbon and climate neutral by definition. Fossil energy used for producing and transporting the products has a carbon footprint. Also, the carbon balance can differ between forest products, which can influence their carbon footprint. For example, carbon stored in products, while CO2 is captured in the re-growing forest, can mitigate climate change. The modelling of the carbon balance is influenced by the study’s geographical system boundaries – national, regional, landscape and single-stand perspectives often yield different results. Forestry can also lead to positive or negative changes in the levels of carbon stored in the soil, the levels of aerosols emitted by the trees (influencing cloud formation), and the albedo (surface reflectivity) of the forest land. An indirect effect of forestry can be increased competition for land, with expanding or intensified land use elsewhere, with positive or negative climate effects. All these factors are potentially important when calculating carbon footprints.

    There is limited knowledge about how and to which extent the aforementioned factors influence the carbon footprint of forest products. Also, there is a lack of methods for assessing some of these factors. In light of this, can the carbon footprints of today be trusted? And can we ensure that they provide relevant and robust decision support?

    Our approach: testing three different carbon footprint methods in five case studies

    In this study, we have:

    1. Identified different carbon footprint methods.
    2. Used the identified methods to calculate the carbon footprint of different forest products and non-forest benchmarks (using life cycle assessment, LCA).
    3. Compared the results to find out how and why they differ.

    We identified three main categories of carbon footprint methods: (i) the common practice in LCA, (ii) recommendations in standards and directives (we tested the EU sustainability criteria for biofuels and bioliquids and the Product Environmental Footprint (PEF) guide), and (iii) more advanced methods proposed in the scientific literature (we tested dynamic LCA). For dynamic LCA, we tested different time horizons (20 and 100 years) and different geographical system boundaries, based on (a) the national level, assuming a net annual growth of biomass (which is the case in Sweden); (b) the landscape level, assuming a balance between the annual harvesting and growth (the level at which forests are often managed); and (c) the stand level, assuming regrowth during a time period of 80 years (a stand is the part of a landscape that is harvested in one year, a level often used by researchers developing new methods for modelling the dynamics of forest carbon flows).

    These methods were applied to five forest products: two automotive fuels (a lignin-based fuel produced from black liquor and butanol), a textile fibre (viscose), a timber structure building, and a chemical (methanol, used for different end products).

    Our findings

    We found that different carbon footprint methods can give different results. The common practice is close to the recommendation in the EU sustainability criteria and the PEF guide. Results from dynamic LCA differ considerably, as it accounts for the timing of (fossil and biogenic) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and CO2 capture, which is ignored by the other methods. The results of dynamic LCA depend primarily on the geographical system boundaries, but also on the time horizon.

    When applying dynamic LCA with a stand perspective, we assumed that the CO2 uptake occurs after harvest. Alternatively, one could assume that the CO2 uptake occurs before harvest, which would give different (lower) results.

    When comparing the carbon footprints of the forest products with products they could be expected to replace, we see that the results for the forest products could range from being definitely favourable to worse.

    More results can be found in the full report. Results were produced to answer the research questions of this study, and should not be used out of context.

    Conclusions and recommendations

    Because there is (still) limited knowledge about how forest products influence the climate, and as carbon footprints will always depend on value-based assumptions (e.g. regarding geographical system boundaries), it is not possible to recommend one specific method which is suitable regardless of context. As different carbon footprint methods can give very different results, our key message is that we need to increase consciousness on these matters. It is important to be aware of the assumptions made in the study, the effects of those assumptions on results, and how results can and cannot be used for decision support in a certain context. More specific recommendations for decision makers are listed below. Further details and results can be found in the main report, along with recommendations for LCA practitioners and researchers.

    • Decision makers must be aware that the main methodological choices influencing carbon footprints of Swedish forest products are the choice of geographical system boundaries (e.g. national-, landscape- or stand-level system boundaries) and whether the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions is accounted for. This is because Swedish forests are, in general, slow growing.
    • If the aim of the decision is to obtain short-term climate impact reduction – for example, the urgent reduction that is possibly needed for preventing the world average temperature to rise with more than 2°C – the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions should be taken into account. Decision makers must be aware that a particular method for capturing timing (such as dynamic LCA) can be combined with different system boundaries, which can yield different results.
    • When conclusions from existing LCA studies are synthesized for decision support, the decision maker must be aware that most existing studies do not account for the timing of CO2 capture and GHG emissions. This is particularly important when the decision concerns the prioritization of forest products with different service lives (e.g., fuels versus buildings).
    • When timing is considered, decision makers must be aware that there are different views on when the CO2 capture occurs, which will influence the carbon footprint. One could either consider the CO2 captured before the harvest (i.e., the capture of the carbon that goes into the product system), or the CO2 captured after the harvest (i.e., the consequence of the harvest operation). In this study, we tested the second alternative when we applied dynamic LCA with a stand perspective – this does not mean we advocate the use of the second alternative over the first alternative.
    • Decision makers must be aware that the location and management practices of the forestry influence the climate impact of a forest product. For example, growth rates, changes in soil carbon storages and fertilisers (a source of GHGs) differ between locations.
    • Based on our results, we cannot say that the carbon footprints of some product categories are more robust than for others, i.e. less influenced by choice of methodology. However, the more forest biomass use in the product system, the higher the influence of the choice of method.
    • As many interactions between the forest and the climate are still not fully understood, it is important to be open to new knowledge gained in methodology development work.
    • Regarding how to use Swedish forests for the most efficient climate impact reduction, it is impossible to draw a general conclusion on the basis of our results. Factors that influence the “optimal” use are:
      • Which fraction of forest biomass that is used. Various products use different fractions (as was the case in our case studies) and do not necessarily compete for the same biomass. However, a production system may be more or less optimised for a specific output. So there may be situations of competition also when feedstocks are not directly interchangeable.
      • Which non-forest product that is assumed to be replaced by the forest product (if any). The carbon footprint of the non-forest product matters, but also how large the substitution effect is (i.e., does the forest product actually replace the non-forest alternative, or merely add products to the market, and what are the rebound effects from increased production?).
      • If all other factors are identical: the longer the service life of the forest product the better, due to the climate benefit of storing carbon and thereby delaying CO2 emissions. This effect is particularly strong if the aim is to obtain short-term climate impact reduction. Moreover, the effect supports so-called cascade use of forest biomass, e.g. first using wood in a building structure, then reusing the wood in a commodity, and at end-of-life, as late as possible, recovering the energy content of the wood for heat or fuel production.
      • Traditional LCA practice and methods required by the EU sustainability criteria and PEF have limitations in the support they can provide for the transition to a bio-economy, as they cannot capture the variations of different forest products in terms of rotation periods and service lives. Thus, decision makers need to consider studies using more advanced methods to be able to distinguish better or worse uses of forest biomass. We have tested one such advanced method (dynamic LCA), that proved applicable in combination with several different geographical perspectives, but also other methods exist (e.g. GWPbio).
      • Climate change is not the only environmental impact category which is relevant in decision making concerned with how to use forests. Other environmental issues, such as loss of biodiversity and ecosystem services, are also important. There are also non-environmental sustainability issues of potential importance, e.g. related to indigenous rights and job creation.
  • 24.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Johansson, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Circular Economy.
    Environmental impact of textile fibers – what we know and what we don't know: Fiber Bible part 22019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Production of cotton and synthetic fibres are known to cause negative environmental effects. For cotton, pesticide use and irrigation during cultivation contributes to emissions of toxic substances that cause damage to both human health and the ecosystem. Irrigation of cotton fields cause water stress due to large water needs. Synthetic fibres are questionable due to their (mostly) fossil resource origin and the release of microplastics. To mitigate the environmental effects of fibre production, there is an urgent need to improve the production of many of the established fibres and to find new, better fibre alternatives.

    For the first time ever, this reports compiles all currently publicly available data on the environmental impact of fibre production. By doing this, the report illuminates two things:

    • There is a glaring lack of data on the environmental impact of fibres – for several fibres just a few studies were found, and often only one or a few environmental impacts are covered. For new fibres associated with sustainability claims there is often no data available to support such claims.
    • There are no ”sustainable” or ”unsustainable” fibre types, it is the suppliers that differ. The span within each fibre type (different suppliers) is often too large, in relation to differences between fibre types, to draw strong conclusions about differences between fibre types.

    Further, it is essential to use the life cycle perspective when comparing, promoting or selecting (e.g. by designers or buyers) fibres. To achieve best environmental practice, apart from considering the impact of fibre production, one must consider the functional properties of a fibre and how it fits into an environmentally appropriate product life cycle, including the entire production chain, the use phase and the end-of-life management. Selecting the right fibre for the right application is key for optimising the environmental performance of the product life cycle.

    The report is intended to be useful for several purposes:

    • as input to broader studies including later life cycle stages of textile products,
    • as a map over data gaps in relation to supporting claims on the environmental preferability of certain fibres over others, and
    • as a basis for screening fibre alternatives, for example by designers and buyers (e.g. in public procurement).

    For the third use it is important to acknowledge that for a full understanding of the environmental consequences of the choice of fibre, a full cradle-to-grave life cycle assessment (LCA) is recommended.

  • 25.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Roos, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Using the planetary boundaries for evaluating interventions for impact reduction in the clothing industry2015In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Life Cycle Management, 2015, p. 608-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Røyne, Frida
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Energi och Bioekonomi, Systemanalys.
    Peters, Greg M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Allocation in LCAs of biorefinery products: implications for results and decision-making2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 93, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of biorefinery products, a common challenge is the choice of method for allocating environmental burdens of multifunctional processes (feedstock cultivation and biorefinery processes), a choice which can substantially influence LCA results and hence decision-making. The aim of this paper is to explore how this choice influences results and in which decision contexts the choice is particularly important. To do this, we tested six allocation methods in a case study of a biorefinery using pulpwood as feedstock. Tested methods included: main product bears all burden, substitution, traditional partitioning methods (based on economic value and exergy), a hybrid method combining elements of substitution and partitioning, and an alternative hybrid method developed by us, which allocates less environmental burden to co-products with a high potential to mitigate environmental burdens. The methods were tested in relation to decision contexts and LCA questions of relevance for biorefineries.

    The results indicate that the choice of allocation method deserves careful attention, particularly in consequential studies and in studies focussed on co-products representing relatively small flows. Furthermore, the alternative hybrid allocation method is based on a logical rationale – favouring products with higher substitution potential – and has some other potential benefits. However, in cases where the scales of co-product flows are of different orders of magnitude, the method yields extreme results that could be difficult to interpret. Results also show that it can be important with consistent allocation for both cultivation and biorefinery processes, particularly when substitution is applied.

  • 27.
    Suttie, Ed
    et al.
    BRE, UK.
    Hill, Callum
    JCH Industrial Ecology Ltd, UK; NIBIO, Norway.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Kutnar, Andreja
    University of Primorska, Slovenia; InnoRenew CoE, Slovenia.
    Ganne-Chédeville, C
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    Lowres, F
    BRE, UK.
    Dias, AC
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Environmental assessment of bio-based building materials: Chapter 92017In: Performance of Bio-based Building Materials / [ed] Dennis Jones and Christian Brischke, Woodhead Publishing Limited, 2017, 1, p. 547-591Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter introduces the environmental assessment methods used to understand the environmental impact of bio-based materials. It highlights the current and future environmental requirement products need to meet in the built environment. Typically, this is based around life cycle assessment (LCA) techniques, and specifically of interest to bio-based products is how stored carbon is accounted for in assessment of the products. It then explains how this fits with models such as the circular economy and the low-carbon economy as the construction industry tackles its substantial contribution to climate change. The final section of the chapter highlights the measurement and certification schemes that exist including eco-labels and environmental product declarations and the whole building assessment schemes used internationally.

  • 28.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Peters, Greg
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; UNSW University of New South Wales, Australia.
    Life cycle assessment of clothing libraries: can collaborative consumption reduce the environmental impact of fast fashion?2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. 1368-1375Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fast fashion is a clothing supply chain model that is intended to respond quickly to the latest fashion trends by frequently updating the clothing products available in stores. The shift towards fast fashion leads to shorter practical service lives for garments. Collaborative consumption is an alternative way of doing business to the conventional model of ownership-based consumption, and one that can potentially reduce the environmental impacts of fashion by prolonging the practical service life of clothes. In this study, we used life cycle assessment to explore the environmental performance of clothing libraries, as one of the possible ways in which collaborative consumption can be implemented, and compared the advantages and disadvantages in relation to conventional business models. Furthermore, the key factors influencing the environmental impact of clothing libraries were investigated. We based our assessment on three key popular garments that are stocked in clothing libraries: jeans, T-shirts and dresses. The results showed the benefits of implementing clothing libraries associated with the garments’ prolonged service lives. Therefore to achieve environmental gains, it is important to substantially increase garment service life. Moreover, the results quantitatively demonstrated the potential risk of problem shifting: increased customer transportation can completely offset the benefits gained from reduced production. This highlighted the need to account for the logistics when implementing collaborative consumption business models.

  • 29.
    Zamani, Bahareh
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Peters, Gregory M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hotspot identification in the clothing industry using social life cycle assessment—opportunities and challenges of input-output modelling2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 536-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: A cradle-to-gate, input/output-based social life cycle assessment (SLCA) was conducted using the Swedish clothing consumption as a case study. The aim was to investigate the influence of the cut-off rule and the definition of “hotspots” in social hotspot assessment. A second aim was to identify social hotspots of Swedish clothing on a national level. Methods: The case study was based on the SLCA methodology provided in the Guidelines for Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products (Benoît and Mazijn 2009). An input/output model was used to define the product system from cradle to gate. The negative social hotspots were evaluated for a set of social indicators that were selected by consumers. The impact assessment was conducted on a sector and country level by using the Social Hotspots Database. The identified sectors of the economy with high and very high levels of risk were listed for each social indicator. Results and discussion: The results pinpointed some hotspots throughout the supply chain for Swedish clothing consumption. Some unexpected sectors such as commerce and business services in Bangladesh were identified as important hotspots as well as main sectors in the production phase such as plant fibres, textiles and garments that would be expected also on the bases of a traditional process analysis. A sensitivity analysis on different cut-off values showed the extent to which the choice of cut-off rule can directly affect the results via influence over the number of country-specific sectors (CSSs) in the product system. The influence of the hotspot definition was investigated by evaluating the working hour intensity for low- and medium-risk levels for three different indicators. The results show that for child labour, 92 % of the share of working hours was associated with low- and medium-risk levels. Therefore, the evaluation of risk levels other than high and very high can provide a more complete picture of the hotspots. Conclusions: The application of input/output-based SLCA on the clothing production supply chain provided a more complete picture of the social hotspots than with traditional process-based SLCA. Some unexpected sectors related to commerce and business appeared as social hotspots in the clothing industry. The study explored some important parameters in applying an input/output-based SLCA. The results show that the cut-off values and definition of hotspots in relation to risk levels can directly influence the results. 

  • 30.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    de la Motte, Hanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Östmark, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Wedin, Helena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Chemical Recycling of Textile Fibres2018In: Sustainable Fibre Toolkit 2018 / [ed] Annie Gullingsrud, Stockholm: Stiftelsen Svensk Textilforskning , 2018, 2, p. 169-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Östlund, Åsa
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Wedin, Helena
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Berlin, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Jönsson, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Posner, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF, Energi och miljö.
    Smuk, Lena
    Eriksson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Biobaserade material och produkter.
    Textilåtervinning: tekniska möjligheter och utmaningar2015Report (Refereed)
1 - 31 of 31
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.7