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  • 1. Argaw, Atelach Alemu
    et al.
    Asker, Lars
    Cöster, Rickard
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Dictionary-based Amharic-French Information Retrieval2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Bigert, Johnny
    et al.
    Sjöbergh, Jonas
    Knutsson, Ola
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Unsupervised Evaluation of Parser Robustness2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 3.
    Boman, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Forsell, Erik
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Gillblad, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Görnerup, Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Isacsson, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Stockholm County Council, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Learning machines in Internet-delivered psychological treatment2019In: Progress in Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 2192-6352, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 475-485Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A learning machine, in the form of a gating network that governs a finite number of different machine learning methods, is described at the conceptual level with examples of concrete prediction subtasks. A historical data set with data from over 5000 patients in Internet-based psychological treatment will be used to equip healthcare staff with decision support for questions pertaining to ongoing and future cases in clinical care for depression, social anxiety, and panic disorder. The organizational knowledge graph is used to inform the weight adjustment of the gating network and for routing subtasks to the different methods employed locally for prediction. The result is an operational model for assisting therapists in their clinical work, about to be subjected to validation in a clinical trial.

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  • 4.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Gogoulou, Evangelina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Ylipää, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Cuba Gyllensten, Amaru
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Semantic Re-tuning with Contrastive Tension2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracting semantically useful natural language sentence representations frompre-trained deep neural networks such as Transformers remains a challenge. Wefirst demonstrate that pre-training objectives impose a significant task bias ontothe final layers of models, with a layer-wise survey of the Semantic Textual Similarity (STS) correlations for multiple common Transformer language models. Wethen propose a new self-supervised method called Contrastive Tension (CT) tocounter such biases. CT frames the training objective as a noise-contrastive taskbetween the final layer representations of two independent models, in turn makingthe final layer representations suitable for feature extraction. Results from multiple common unsupervised and supervised STS tasks indicate that CT outperformsprevious State Of The Art (SOTA), and when combining CT with supervised datawe improve upon previous SOTA results with large margins.

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  • 5.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Öhman, Joey
    Liu, Fangyu
    Verlinden, Severine
    Nirve, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    Fine-Grained Controllable Text Generation Using Non-Residual Prompting2022In: Proceedings of the 60th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics (Volume 1: Long Papers), 2022, p. 6837-6857Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of immensely large Causal Language Models (CLMs) has rejuvenated the interest in open-ended text generation. However, controlling the generative process for these Transformer-based models is at large an unsolved problem. Earlier work has explored either plug-and-play decoding strategies, or more powerful but blunt approaches such as prompting. There hence currently exists a trade-off between fine-grained control, and the capability for more expressive high-level instructions. To alleviate this trade-off, we propose an encoder-decoder architecture that enables intermediate text prompts at arbitrary time steps. We propose a resource-efficient method for converting a pre-trained CLM into this architecture, and demonstrate its potential on various experiments, including the novel task of contextualized word inclusion. Our method provides strong results on multiple experimental settings, proving itself to be both expressive and versatile.

  • 6.
    Cöster, Rickard
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Selective compound splitting of Swedish queries for boolean combination of truncated terms2003Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In compounding languages such as Swedish, it is often neccessary to split compound words when indexing documents or queries. One of the problems is that it is difficult to find constituents that express a concept similar to that expressed by the compound. The approach taken here is to expand a query with the leading constituents of the compound words. Every query term is truncated so as to increase recall by hopefully finding other compounds with the leading constituent as prefix. This approach increase recall in a rather uncontrolled way, so we use a Boolean quorum-level type of search to rank documents both according to a tf-idf factor but also to the number of matching Boolean combinations. The Boolean combinations performed relatively well, taken into consideration that the queries were very short (maximum five search terms). Also included in this paper are the results of two other methods we are currently working on in our lab; one for re-ranking search results on the basis of stylistic analysis of documents, and one for dimensionality reduction using Random Indexing.

  • 7.
    Dahlberg, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sweden; University of Bergen, Norway.
    Axelsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gyllensten, Amaru
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Ekgren, Ariel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Holmberg, Sören
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Andersson Schwarz, Jonas
    Södertörn University, Sweden.
    A Distributional Semantic Online Lexicon for Linguistic Explorations of Societies2023In: Social science computer review, ISSN 0894-4393, E-ISSN 1552-8286, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 308-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic Explorations of Societies (LES) is an interdisciplinary research project with scholars from the fields of political science, computer science, and computational linguistics. The overarching ambition of LES has been to contribute to the survey-based comparative scholarship by compiling and analyzing online text data within and between languages and countries. To this end, the project has developed an online semantic lexicon, which allows researchers to explore meanings and usages of words in online media across a substantial number of geo-coded languages. The lexicon covers data from approximately 140 language–country combinations and is, to our knowledge, the most extensive free research resource of its kind. Such a resource makes it possible to critically examine survey translations and identify discrepancies in order to modify and improve existing survey methodology, and its unique features further enable Internet researchers to study public debate online from a comparative perspective. In this article, we discuss the social scientific rationale for using online text data as a complement to survey data, and present the natural language processing–based methodology behind the lexicon including its underpinning theory and practical modeling. Finally, we engage in a critical reflection about the challenges of using online text data to gauge public opinion and political behavior across the world. © The Author(s) 2022.

  • 8.
    Dwibedi, C.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg,.
    Mellergård, E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gyllensten, Amaru Cubac
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Nilsson, K.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Axelsson, A. S.
    University of Gothenburg,.
    Bäckman, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Friend, S. H.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Persson, S.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Franzén, S.
    RegisterCentrum Västra Götaland, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, B.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carlsson, K. S.
    Swedish Institute for Health Economics, Sweden.
    Rosengren, A. H.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of self-managed lifestyle treatment on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes2022In: npj Digital Medicine, ISSN 2398-6352, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 60Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of effective, scalable solutions for lifestyle treatment is a global clinical problem, causing severe morbidity and mortality. We developed a method for lifestyle treatment that promotes self-reflection and iterative behavioral change, provided as a digital tool, and evaluated its effect in 370 patients with type 2 diabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT04691973). Users of the tool had reduced blood glucose, both compared with randomized and matched controls (involving 158 and 204 users, respectively), as well as improved systolic blood pressure, body weight and insulin resistance. The improvement was sustained during the entire follow-up (average 730 days). A pathophysiological subgroup of obese insulin-resistant individuals had a pronounced glycemic response, enabling identification of those who would benefit in particular from lifestyle treatment. Natural language processing showed that the metabolic improvement was coupled with the self-reflective element of the tool. The treatment is cost-saving because of improved risk factor control for cardiovascular complications. The findings open an avenue for self-managed lifestyle treatment with long-term metabolic efficacy that is cost-saving and can reach large numbers of people. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 9.
    Espinoza, Fredrik
    et al.
    Gavagai, Sweden .
    Hamfors, Ola
    Gavagai, Sweden .
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Gavagai, Sweden.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Gavagai, Sweden .
    Persson, Per
    Gavagai, Sweden .
    Hamberg, Lars
    Gavagai, Sweden .
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS. Gavagai, Sweden .
    Analysis of Open Answers to Survey Questions through Interactive Clustering and Theme Extraction2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Œis paper describes design principles for and the implementationof Gavagai Explorer—a new application which builds on interactivetext clustering to extract themes from topically coherent text setssuch as open text answers to surveys or questionnaires.An automated system is quick, consistent, and has full coverageover the study material. A system allows an analyst to analyze moreanswers in a given time period; provides the same initial resultsregardless of who does the analysis, reducing the risks of interraterdiscrepancy; and does not risk miss responses due to fatige orboredom. Œese factors reduce the cost and increase the reliabilityof the service. Œe most important feature, however, is relievingthe human analyst from the frustrating aspects of the coding task,freeing the e‚ort to the central challenge of understanding themes.Gavagai Explorer is available on-line at hŠp://explorer.gavagai.se

  • 10.
    Gambäck, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Argaw, Atelach Alemu
    Asker, Lars
    Applying machine learning to Amharic text classification2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Gambäck, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Hansen, Preben
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    A spoken Swedish e-mail interface2003In: Proceedings of the 14th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics, 2003, 2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes the Swedish involvement in the EU project DUMAS (Dynamic Universal Mobility for Adaptive Speech Interfaces), a project which aims at developing multilingual speech-based applications, and more specifically, investigating adaptive multilingual interaction techniques to handle both spoken and text input and to provide coordinated linguistic responses to the user. The project has a clear focus on Northern Europe with two of the eight partners coming from Sweden and four from Finland; and the languages we aim at treating are English, Swedish and Finnish. We will construct an agent-based generic framework for multilingual speech applications, supporting adaptivity to both the individual user and the particular domain. Applications based on the general architecture will benefit from the advantages of fault-tolerant semantic analysis, which combined with the dialogue management routines will handle user interaction in a very robust manner. As an initial such application, we are building a mobile phone-based e-mail interface that will deal with multilingual issues in several forms and environments, and whose functionality can be adapted to different users, different situations and tasks. Such a system produces speech output only (in the form of spoken responses and read e-mails) to the user, but gets two types of input: user speech and textual e-mail messages. It must be able to distinguish between languages, both in e-mails and in the user utterances. The contents of a user's inbox must be continuously analysed in order to enable advanced search functions.

  • 12.
    Ghoorchian, Kambiz
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    GDTM: Graph-based Dynamic Topic Models2020In: Progress in Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 2192-6352, Vol. 9, p. 195-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dynamic Topic Modeling (DTM) is the ultimate solution for extracting topics from short texts generated in Online Social Networks (OSNs) like Twitter. It requires to be scalable and to be able to account for sparsity and dynamicity of short texts. Current solutions combine probabilistic mixture models like Dirichlet Multinomial or Pitman-Yor Process with approximate inference approaches like Gibbs Sampling and Stochastic Variational Inference to, respectively, account for dynamicity and scalability of DTM. However, these methods basically rely on weak probabilistic language models, which do not account for sparsity in short texts. In addition, their inference is based on iterative optimizations, which have scalability issues when it comes to DTM. We present GDTM, a single-pass graph-based DTM algorithm, to solve the problem. GDTM combines a context-rich and incremental feature representation method with graph partitioning to address scalability and dynamicity and uses a rich language model to account for sparsity. We run multiple experiments over a large-scale Twitter dataset to analyze the accuracy and scalability of GDTM and compare the results with four state-of-the-art models. In result, GDTM outperforms the best model by 11 % on accuracy and performs by an order of magnitude faster while creating four times better topic quality over standard evaluation metrics. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Gogoulou, Evangelia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Boman, M
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Isacsson, Nils
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Kaldo, Viktor
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Predicting treatment outcome from patient texts: The case of internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy2021In: EACL 2021 - 16th Conference of the European Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics, Proceedings of the Conference, Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL) , 2021, p. 575-580Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the feasibility of applying standard text categorisation methods to patient text in order to predict treatment outcome in Internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy. The data set is unique in its detail and size for regular care for depression, social anxiety, and panic disorder. Our results indicate that there is a signal in the depression data, albeit a weak one. We also perform terminological and sentiment analysis, which confirm those results. 

  • 14.
    Gogoulou, Evangelia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Ekgren, Ariel
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Isbister, Tim
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Cross-lingual Transfer of Monolingual Models2022In: 2022 Language Resources and Evaluation Conference, LREC 2022, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2022, p. 948-955Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies in cross-lingual learning using multilingual models have cast doubt on the previous hypothesis that shared vocabulary and joint pre-training are the keys to cross-lingual generalization. We introduce a method for transferring monolingual models to other languages through continuous pre-training and study the effects of such transfer from four different languages to English. Our experimental results on GLUE show that the transferred models outperform an English model trained from scratch, independently of the source language. After probing the model representations, we find that model knowledge from the source language enhances the learning of syntactic and semantic knowledge in English. ©  licensed under CC-BY-NC-4.0.

  • 15.
    Gyllensten, Amaru Cuba
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Gogoulou, Evangelia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Ekgren, Ariel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    SenseCluster at SemEval-2020 Task 1: Unsupervised lexical semantic change detection2020In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth Workshop on Semantic Evaluation, 2020, p. 112-118Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Gyllensten, Amaru Cuba
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Distributional term set expansion2018In: LREC 2018 - 11th International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, 2018, p. 2554-2558Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a short empirical study of the performance of centrality and classification based iterative term set expansion methods for distributional semantic models. Iterative term set expansion is an interactive process using distributional semantics models where a user labels terms as belonging to some sought after term set, and a system uses this labeling to supply the user with new, candidate, terms to label, trying to maximize the number of positive examples found. While centrality based methods have a long history in term set expansion (Sarmento et al., 2007; Pantel et al., 2009), we compare them to classification methods based on the the Simple Margin method, an Active Learning approach to classification using Support Vector Machines (Tong and Koller, 2002). Examining the performance of various centrality and classification based methods for a variety of distributional models over five different term sets, we can show that active learning based methods consistently outperform centrality based methods.

  • 17.
    Gyllensten, Amaru Cuba
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Measuring Issue Ownership using Word Embeddings2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sentiment and topic analysis are commonmethods used for social media monitoring.Essentially, these methods answers questionssuch as, “what is being talked about, regardingX”, and “what do people feel, regarding X”.In this paper, we investigate another venue forsocial media monitoring, namely issue ownership and agenda setting, which are conceptsfrom political science that have been used toexplain voter choice and electoral outcomes.We argue that issue alignment and agenda setting can be seen as a kind of semantic sourcesimilarity of the kind “how similar is sourceA to issue owner P, when talking about issue X”, and as such can be measured usingword/document embedding techniques. Wepresent work in progress towards measuringthat kind of conditioned similarity, and introduce a new notion of similarity for predictive embeddings. We then test this methodby measuring the similarity between politically aligned media and political pparties, conditioned on bloc-specific issues.

  • 18.
    Hansen, Preben
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Cooperation, bookmarking, and thesaurus in interactive bilingual question answering2004In: Multilingual Information Access for Text, Speech and Images (5th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum, CLEF 2004, Bath, UK, September 15-17, 2004, Revised Selected Papers), Springer , 2004, 1, , p. 5p. 343-347Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented involves several different contextual aspects and is the latest in a continuing series of exploratory experiments on information access behaviour in a multi-lingual context [1, 2]. This year’s interactive cross-lingual information access experiment was designed to measure three parameters we expected would affect the performance of users in cross-lingual tasks in languages in which the users are less than fluent. Firstly, introducing new technology, we measure the effect of topic-tailored term expansion on query formulation. Secondly, introducing a new component in the interactive interface, we investigate - without measuring by using a control group - the effect of a bookmark panel on user confidence in the reported result. Thirdly, we ran subjects pair-wise and allowed them to communicate verbally, to investigate how people may cooperate and collaborate with a partner during a search session performing a similar but non-identical search task.

  • 19. Holmlund, Jon
    et al.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Creating Bilingual Lexica Using Reference Wordlists for Alignment of Monolingual Semantic Vector Spaces2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a novel method for automatically acquiring multi-lingual lexica from non-parallel data and reports some initial experiments to prove the viability of the approach. Using established techniques for building mono-lingual vector spaces two independent semantic vector spaces are built from textual data. These vector spaces are related to each other using a small {\em reference word list} of manually chosen reference points taken from available bi-lingual dictionaries. Other words can then be related to these reference points first in the one language and then in the other. In the present experiments, we apply the proposed method to comparable but non-parallel English-German data. The resulting bi-lingual lexicon is evaluated using an online English-German lexicon as gold standard. The results clearly demonstrate the viability of the proposed methodology.

  • 20.
    Holst, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Dispersing the conceptual confusion2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In few subjects it is as easy to talk past each other as when discussing consciousness. Not only is the subject elusive and everyone has their own opinion of what it is all about; different people also make quite different use of words and language when discussing consciousness. This contribution tries to exemplify some common misunderstanding between people with different starting points and different use of language. The suggestion is that 'the problem of consciousness' is after all quite similar to all of us, although this is muddled by the way we talk about it, and the way we have locked ourselves into our different slogans and world views.

  • 21.
    Kanerva, Pentti
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sjödin, Gunnar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Kristoferson, Jan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlsson, R.
    Levin, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Holst, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Computing with large random patterns2001In: Foundations of Real-World Intelligence, Stanford, California: CSLI Publications , 2001, 1, p. 251-311Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a style of computing that differs from traditional numeric and symbolic computing and is suited for modeling neural networks. We focus on one aspect of ``neurocomputing,'' namely, computing with large random patterns, or high-dimensional random vectors, and ask what kind of computing they perform and whether they can help us understand how the brain processes information and how the mind works. Rapidly developing hardware technology will soon be able to produce the massive circuits that this style of computing requires. This chapter develops a theory on which the computing could be based.

  • 22.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Eriksson, Gunnar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Täckström, Oscar
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Between Bags and Trees - Constructional Patterns in Text Used for Attitude Identification2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes experiments to use non-terminological information to find attitudinal expressions in written English text. The experiments are based on an analysis of text with respect to not only the vocabulary of content terms present in it (which most other approaches use as a basis for analysis) but also with respect to presence of structural features of the text represented by constructional features (typically disregarded by most other analyses). In our analysis, following a construction grammar framework, structural features are treated as occurrences, similarly to the treatment of vocabulary features. The constructional features in play are chosen to potentially signify opinion but are not specific to negative or positive expressions. The framework is used to classify clauses, headlines, and sentences from three different shared collections of attitudinal data. We find that constructional features transfer well across different text collections and that the information couched in them integrates easily with a vocabulary based approach, yielding improvements in classification without complicating the application end of the processing framework.

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  • 23.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Holst, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Filaments of Meaning in Word Space2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Word space models, in the sense of vector space models built on distributional data taken from texts, are used to model semantic relations between words. We argue that the high dimensionality of typical vector space models lead to unintuitive effects on modeling likeness of meaning and that the local structure of word spaces is where interesting semantic relations reside. We show that the local structure of word spaces has substantially different dimensionality and character than the global space and that this structure shows potential to be exploited for further semantic analysis using methods for local analysis of vector space structure rather than globally scoped methods typically in use today such as singular value decomposition or principal component analysis.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    From Words to Understanding2001In: Foundations of Real-World Intelligence, Stanford, California: CSLI Publications , 2001, 1, p. 294-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Vector-based semantic analysis using random indexing and morphological analysis for cross-lingual information retrieval2002In: Revised Papers from the Second Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum on Evaluation of Cross-Language Information Retrieval Systems, Darmstadt, Germany, September 3 - 4, 2001, Springer-Verlag , 2002, 1, p. 169-176Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meaning, the main object of study in information access, is most decidedly situation-dependent. While much of meaning appears to achieve consistency across usage situations -- a term will seem to mean much the same thing in many of its contexts -- most everything can be negotiated on the go. Human processing appears to be flexible in this respect, and oriented towards learning from prototypes rather than learning by definition: learning new words, and adding new meanings or shades of meaning to an existing word does not need a formal re-training process. We have built a query expansion and translation tool for information retrieval systems. When used in one single language it will expand the terms of a query using a thesaurus built for that purpose; when used across languages it will provide numerous translations and near translations for the source language terms. The underlying technology we are testing is that of vector-based semantic analysis, an analysis method related to latent semantic indexing based on stochastic pattern computing. This paper will briefly describe how we acquired training data, aligned it, analyzed it using morphological analysis tools, and finally built a thesaurus using the data, but will concentrate on an overview of vector-based semantic analysis and how stochastic pattern computing differs from latent semantic indexing in its current form.

  • 26.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Cöster, Rickard
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Weighting Query Terms Based on Distributional Statistics2006In: Accessing Multilingual Information Repositories, 6th Workshop of the Cross-Language Evalution Forum, CLEF 2005, Vienna, Austria, 21-23 September, 2005: Revised Papers, 2006, 1, , p. 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This year, the SICS team has concentrated on query processing and on the internal topical structure of the query, specifically compound translation. Compound translation is non-trivial due to dependencies between compound elements. This year, we have investigated topical dependencies between query terms: if a query term happens to be non-topical or noise, it should be discarded or given a low weight when ranking retrieved documents; if a query term shows high topicality its weight should be boosted. The two experiments described here are based on the analysis of the distributional character of query terms: one using similarity of occurrence context between query terms globally across the entire collection; the other using the likelihood of individual terms to appear topically in individual texts. Both -- complementary -- boosting schemes tested delivered improved results.

  • 27.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Järvinen, Timo
    Cöster, Rickard
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Dynamic lexica for query translation2005In: Multilingual Information Access for Text, Speech and Images, Third Workshop of the Cross-Language Evaluation Forum (CLEF), 2005, 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This experiment tests a simple, scalable, and effective approach to building a domain-specific translation lexicon using distributional statistics over parallellized bilingual corpora. A bilingual lexicon is extracted from aligned Swedish-French data, used to translate CLEF topics from Swedish to French, which resulting French queries are then in turn used to retrieve documents from the French language CLEF collection. The results give 34 of fifty queries on or above median for the ``precision at 1000 documents'' recall oriented score; with many of the errors possible to handle by the use of string-matching and cognate search. We conclude that the approach presented here is a simple and efficient component in an automatic query translation system.

  • 28.
    Kucher, Kostiantyn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paradis, Carita
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Kerren, Andreas
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Active learning and visual analytics for stance classification with ALVA2017In: ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, ISSN 2160-6455, E-ISSN 2160-6463, Vol. 7, no 3, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automatic detection and classification of stance (e.g., certainty or agreement) in text data using natural language processing and machine-learning methods creates an opportunity to gain insight into the speakers' attitudes toward their own and other people's utterances. However, identifying stance in text presents many challenges related to training data collection and classifier training. To facilitate the entire process of training a stance classifier, we propose a visual analytics approach, called ALVA, for text data annotation and visualization. ALVA's interplay with the stance classifier follows an active learning strategy to select suitable candidate utterances for manual annotaion. Our approach supports annotation process management and provides the annotators with a clean user interface for labeling utterances with multiple stance categories. ALVA also contains a visualization method to help analysts of the annotation and training process gain a better understanding of the categories used by the annotators. The visualization uses a novel visual representation, called CatCombos, which groups individual annotation items by the combination of stance categories. Additionally, our system makes a visualization of a vector space model available that is itself based on utterances. ALVA is already being used by our domain experts in linguistics and computational linguistics to improve the understanding of stance phenomena and to build a st  ance classifier for applications such as social media monitoring.

  • 29.
    Lenci, Alessandro
    et al.
    Università di Pisa, Italy.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Jeuniaux, Patrick
    Institut National de Criminalistique et de Criminologie, Belgium.
    Cuba Gyllensten, Amaru
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Miliani, Martina
    Università per Stranieri di Siena, Italy; Università di Pisa, Italy.
    A comparative evaluation and analysis of three generations of Distributional Semantic Models2022In: Language resources and evaluation, ISSN 1574-020X, E-ISSN 1574-0218, Vol. 56, p. 1219-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Distributional semantics has deeply changed in the last decades. First, predict models stole the thunder from traditional count ones, and more recently both of them were replaced in many NLP applications by contextualized vectors produced by neural language models. Although an extensive body of research has been devoted to Distributional Semantic Model (DSM) evaluation, we still lack a thorough comparison with respect to tested models, semantic tasks, and benchmark datasets. Moreover, previous work has mostly focused on task-driven evaluation, instead of exploring the differences between the way models represent the lexical semantic space. In this paper, we perform a large-scale evaluation of type distributional vectors, either produced by static DSMs or obtained by averaging the contextualized vectors generated by BERT. First of all, we investigate the performance of embeddings in several semantic tasks, carrying out an in-depth statistical analysis to identify the major factors influencing the behavior of DSMs. The results show that (i) the alleged superiority of predict based models is more apparent than real, and surely not ubiquitous and (ii) static DSMs surpass BERT representations in most out-of-context semantic tasks and datasets. Furthermore, we borrow from cognitive neuroscience the methodology of Representational Similarity Analysis (RSA) to inspect the semantic spaces generated by distributional models. RSA reveals important differences related to the frequency and part-of-speech of lexical items. © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 30. Moscoso del Prado Martin, Fermin
    et al.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An integration of vector-based semantic analysis and simple recurrent networks for the automatic acquisition of lexical representations from unlabeled corpora2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an integration of Simple Recurrent Networks to extract grammatical knowledge and Vector-Based Semantic Analysis to acquire semantic information from large corpora. Starting from a large, untagged sample of English text, we use Simple Recurrent Networks to extract morpho-syntactic vectors in an unsupervised way. These vectors are then used in place of random vectors to perform Vector-Based Semantic Analysis. In this way, we obtain rich lexical representations in the form of high-dimensional vectors that integrate morpho-syntactic and semantic information about words. Apart from incorporating data from the different levels, we argue how these vectors can be used to account for the particularities of each different word token of a given word type. The amount of lexical knowledge acquired by the technique is evaluated both by statistical analyses comparing the information contained in the vectors with existing `hand-crafted' lexical resources such as CELEX and WordNet, and by performance in language proficiency tests. We conclude by outlining the cognitive implications of this model and its potential use in the bootstrapping of lexical resources.

  • 31.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Hansen, Preben
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Svensson, Martin
    Cöster, Rickard
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Consensus and opinions; quality and churn2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of the web user is under transformation from merely being an information consumer to also being a content provider, ``from information age to participation age'', in the words of Sun CEO Scott McNealy. This increase in participation is most obviously manifested by the growth of online communities, weblogs (blogs), and various forms of cooperative and participatory publication of information. One main factor in the shift towards participation is the advent of authoring tools for wikipedias and blogs. Such tools have decreased the threshold for publishing material online considerably --- it is no longer necessary to have knowledge about the technical workings of the web to be able to use it for making information available to a massive number of potential readers. (Although the lion's share of information produced will probably remain in text form in the foreseeable future, it should be noted that other modalities, such as podcasts, screencasts, films and images, are increasingly attracting interest.) The dynamic nature of blogs and wikipedias poses new challenges to the field of information access and refinement; new theories, methods, and tools for alleviating the burden of digesting information on behalf of the readers are clearly needed. This paper presents some issues on readership and participation we are currently considering.

  • 32. Recchia, Gabriel
    et al.
    Jones, Michael
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kanerva, Pentti
    Encoding Sequential Information in Vector Space Models of Semantics: Comparing Holographic Reduced Representation and Random Permutation2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Encoding information about the order in which words typically appear has been shown to improve the performance of high-dimensional semantic space models. This requires an encoding operation capable of binding together vectors in an order-sensitive way, and efficient enough to scale to large text corpora. Although both circular convolution and random permutations have been enlisted for this purpose in semantic models, these operations have never been systematically compared. In Experiment 1 we compare their storage capacity and probability of correct retrieval; in Experiments 2 and 3 we compare their performance on semantic tasks when integrated into existing models. We conclude that random permutations are a scalable alternative to circular convolution with several desirable properties.

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  • 33.
    Recchia, Gabriel L.
    et al.
    University of Cambridge, UK.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kanerva, Pentti
    University of California, USA.
    Jones, Michael N.
    Indiana University, US.
    Encoding sequential information in semantic space models: Comparing holographic reduced representation and random permutation2015In: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience, ISSN 1687-5265, E-ISSN 1687-5273, Vol. 2015, article id 986574Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Circular convolution and random permutation have each been proposed as neurally plausible binding operators capable of encoding sequential information in semantic memory. We perform several controlled comparisons of circular convolution and random permutation as means of encoding paired associates as well as encoding sequential information. Random permutations outperformed convolution with respect to the number of paired associates that can be reliably stored in a single memory trace. Performance was equal on semantic tasks when using a small corpus, but random permutations were ultimately capable of achieving superior performance due to their higher scalability to large corpora. Finally, "noisy" permutations in which units are mapped to other units arbitrarily (no one-to-one mapping) perform nearly as well as true permutations. These findings increase the neurological plausibility of random permutations and highlight their utility in vector space models of semantics. 

  • 34.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    An Introduction to Random Indexing2005Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 35.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Automatic bilingual lexicon acquisition using random indexing of aligned bilingual data2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a very simple and effective approach to automatic bilingual lexicon acquisition. The approach is cooccurrence-based, and uses the Random Indexing vector space methodology applied to aligned bilingual data. The approach is simple, efficient and scalable, and generate promising results when compared to a manually compiled lexicon. The paper also discusses some of the methodological problems with the prefered evaluation procedure.

  • 36.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Concept-based text representations for categorization problems2006In: ERCIM News, no 64Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Content-based adaptivity in multilingual dialogue systems2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Random indexing of linguistic units for vector-based semantic analysis2002In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 50Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The Stochastic Pattern Computing project at SICS studied the mathematical foundations of humanlike flexible information processing methods that compute with high-dimensional random vectors. The project ended in 2001 and led to the development of the Random Indexing technique for acquiring and representing semantic information about linguistic units.

  • 39.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Representing word meanings based on random labels2001Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    The Distributional Hypothesis2008In: Italian Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1120-2726, E-ISSN 2499-8125, Vol. 20, p. 33-53Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 41.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    The Word-Space Model: using distributional analysis to represent syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations between words in high-dimensional vector spaces2006Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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  • 42.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards a flexible model of word meaning2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We would like to build a model of semantic knowledge that have the capacity to acquire and represent semantic information that is ambiguous, vague and incomplete. Furthermore, the model should be able to acquire this knowledge in an unsupervised fashion from unstructured text data. Such a model needs to be both highly adaptive and very robust. In this submission, we will first try to identify some fundamental principles that a flexible model of word meaning must adhere to, and then present a possible implementation of these principles in a technique we call Random Indexing. We will also discuss current limitations of the technique and set the direction for future research.

  • 43.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards pertinent evaluation methodologies for word-space models2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Vector-based semantic analysis: representing word meanings based on random labels2001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vector-based semantic analysis is the practice of representing word meanings as semantic vectors, calculated from the co-occurrence statistics of words in large text data. This paper discusses the theoretical presumptions behind this practice, and a representational scheme based on the Distributional Hypothesis is identified as the rationale for vector-based semantic analysis. A new method for calculating semantic word vectors is then described. The method uses random labelling of words in narrow context windows to calculate semantic context vectors for each word type in the text data. The method is evaluated with a standardised synonym test, and it is shown that incorporating linguistic information in the context vectors can enhance the results.

  • 45.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    AI Sweden, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    The Singleton Fallacy: Why Current Critiques of Language Models Miss the Point2021In: Frontiers in Artificial Intelligence, E-ISSN 2624-8212, Vol. 4, article id 682578Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the current critique against neural network-based Natural Language Understanding solutions known as language models. We argue that much of the current debate revolves around an argumentation error that we refer to as the singleton fallacy: the assumption that a concept (in this case, language, meaning, and understanding) refers to a single and uniform phenomenon, which in the current debate is assumed to be unobtainable by (current) language models. By contrast, we argue that positing some form of (mental) “unobtanium” as definiens for understanding inevitably leads to a dualistic position, and that such a position is precisely the original motivation for developing distributional methods in computational linguistics. As such, we argue that language models present a theoretically (and practically) sound approach that is our current best bet for computers to achieve language understanding. This understanding must however be understood as a computational means to an end.

  • 46.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Carlsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Data Science.
    Börjeson, Love
    KB, Sweden.
    It’s Basically the Same Language Anyway: the Case for a Nordic Language Model2021In: Proceedings of the 23rd Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics (NoDaLiDa), 2021, p. 367-372Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When is it beneficial for a research community to organize a broader collaborative effort on a topic, and when should we instead promote individual efforts? In this opinion piece, we argue that we are at a stage in the development of large-scale language models where a collaborative effort is desirable, despite the fact that the preconditions for making individual contributions have never been better. We consider a number of arguments for collaboratively developing a large-scale Nordic language model, include environmental considerations, cost, data availability, language typology, cultural similarity, and transparency. Our primary goal is to raise awareness and foster a discussion about our potential impact and responsibility as NLP community.

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  • 47.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Cöster, Rickard
    Using bag-of-concepts to improve the performance of support vector machines in text categorization2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use of concept-based representations for text categorization. We introduce a new approach to create concept-based text representations, and apply it to a standard text categorization collection. The representations are used as input to a Support Vector Machine classifier, and the results show that there are certain categories for which concept-based representations constitute a viable supplement to word-based ones. We also demonstrate how the performance of the Support Vector Machine can be improved by combining representations.

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  • 48.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Hansen, Preben
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    English-Japanese cross-lingual query expansion using random indexing of aligned bilingual text data2002Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vector-space techniques can be used for extracting semantically similar words from the co-occurrence statistics of words in large text data. In this paper, we report on experiments with using the Random Indexing vector-space technique for extracting a cross-lingual thesaurus from aligned English-Japanese bilingual data. The cross-lingual thesaurus has been used for automatic cross-lingual query expansion in the NTCIR patent retrieval task.

  • 49.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Holst, Anders
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Kanerva, Pentti
    Permutations as a means to encode order in word space2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We show that sequence information can be encoded into high-dimensional fixed-width vectors using permutations of coordinates. Computational models of language often represent words with high-dimensional semantic vectors compiled from word-use statistics. A word's semantic vector usually encodes the contexts in which the word appears in a large body of text but ignores word order. However, word order often signals a word's grammatical role in a sentence and thus tells of the word's meaning. Jones and Mewhort (2007) show that word order can be included in the semantic vectors using holographic reduced representation and convolution. We show here that the order information can be captured also by permuting of vector coordinates, thus providing a general and computationally light alternative to convolution.

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  • 50.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, SICS.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Automatic Bilingual Lexicon Acquisition Using Random Indexing of Parallel Corpora2005In: Natural Language Engineering, ISSN 1351-3249, E-ISSN 1469-8110, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 327-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a very simple and effective approach to using parallel corpora for automatic bilingual lexicon acquisition. The approach, which uses the Random Indexing vector space methodology, is based on finding correlations between terms based on their distributional characteristics. The approach requires a minimum of preprocessing and linguistic knowledge, and is efficient, fast and scalable. In this paper, we explain how our approach differs from traditional cooccurrence-based word alignment algorithms, and we demonstrate how to extract bilingual lexica using the Random Indexing approach applied to aligned parallel data. The acquired lexica are evaluated by comparing them to manually compiled gold standards, and we report overlap of around 60\%. We also discuss methodological problems with evaluating lexical resources of this kind.

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