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  • 1.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: användning i lantbruket2006Report (Refereed)
  • 2. Bohm, Mats
    et al.
    Browen, Alf
    Ekström, Nils
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värmeåtervinning i varmluftstorkar1989Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Brundin, S.G.
    et al.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Comparisons of Manure Handling Systems Under Swedish Conditions1994In: Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, ISSN 0021-8634, E-ISSN 1095-9246, Vol. 58, no 2-3, p. 181-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in manure handling has been rekindled in Sweden because of increasing awareness of environmental problems and high fertilizer prices. This study deals with the problem of optimizing the design of manure systems on Swedish farms. A mathematical model has been used which describes slurry systems for farms with growing fattening pigs and dairy cows and also solid manure systems for farms with dairy cows. The model deals with manure handling from animal to field crop, with an emphasis on application. Storage capacity and the quantity spread in different seasons were optimized using mixed integer linear programming. Various manure systems were compared when used in an economically optimal way. Key factors were uniformity of application, nitrogen losses through leaching and ammonia volutilization, timeliness and soil compaction. These factors place contradictory demands on the technical design of the equipment and on the timing of applications. Solid manure systems appear to be more profitable than slurry systems for small dairy farms with about 20 cows. For larger farms, slurry systems are better. Slurry systems will generally give a higher utilization of plant nutrients than solid manure systems. The utilization of nitrogen when using liquid manure is about 50% compared with about 30% for solid manure. A slurry tanker with conventional application equipment, i.e. a splash plate is the most profitable slurry spreader for small farms with 20 cows or 250 pig places. A low spreading boom is better on a larger scale, with about 2000 pigs or 160 dairy cows. A pendular nozzle is preferred on a scale in between. Irrigation systems for liquid manure may be profitable in even larger-scale systems. Some promising areas for technical development are identified, such as improved urine separation in solid manure systems and application with irrigation equipment in large-scale slurry systems.

  • 4. Brundin, Sven
    et al.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ekonomisk analys av hanteringskedjor för stallgödsel1990Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fors, Kikki
    et al.
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bannbers, Hanna
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Strand, Line
    Hushållningssällskapet i Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Arbetsmiljö och säkerhet vid surgörning av flytgödsel: Rapport från WP2, Aktivitet 52018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Stallgödsel från animalieproduktion är en källa för kvävetillförseln till Östersjön i form av utsläpp till vatten och atmosfäriskt nedfall. Ammoniakavgång kommer från gödseln vid hantering i stallar, vid lagring och spridning. Jordbruket står för största delen av ammoniakutsläppen och åtgärder för att minska ammoniak-avgången från jordbruket har därför stor effekt på de totala utsläppsmängderna. Att minska kväveläckaget från jordbruket är en viktig del i att minska övergöd-ningen av Östersjön. Minskade kväveförluster från stallgödseln ger även ökad växtnäring till de odlade grödorna och en effektivare recirkulation av kvävet. Ökat växtnäringsvärde hos stallgödseln leder till bättre utvecklade grödor, som förmår att ta upp mer av miljöbelastande fosfor jämfört med sämre utvecklade grödor. Att minska kväveförlusterna genom att förbättra hanteringen av stall-gödseln ger därmed många vinster för miljön och odlaren.

    Surgörning av flytgödsel är en känd metod för att minska ammoniakavgången från stallgödsel i stall, i lager och vid och efter spridning i fält (Petersen, 2012). Metoden praktiseras dock inte i Sverige, till stor del för att tekniken inte är till-gänglig och för att det i stort saknas erfarenheter. Teknik för surgörning finns nu utvecklad i Danmark, där 18 % av all flytgödsel försurades år 2014 (SEGES, 2015). Vid surgörningen minskas förlusterna av kväve genom att den kemiska jämvikten mellan ammonium och ammoniak förskjuts mot större andel ammoniumkväve, som inte kan avgå i gasform.

    Teknik finns för surgörning i stallar, i lager respektive vid spridning. I stallar och lager strävar man efter att pH-värdet i gödseln ska vara mindre än 5,5 för att få effekt under längre tid dvs. under efterföljande lagring och spridning. I test enligt VERA:s testprotokoll minskade ammoniakavgången i medeltal med 64 % från de två studerade svinstallarna när man surgjorde gödseln i stallet med tekniken från JH Forsuring NH4+ jämfört med ingen surgörning (ETA-Danmark, 2011). I ett av de två studerade stallarna kunde man påvisa en årlig luktminskning med 29 procent vid surgörning. För Sverige är det dock inte aktuellt med surgörning i stallar med nuvarande system och lagstiftning. Istället kan system för tillförsel av syra i lager vara aktuellt. Vid tillförsel i lager strax innan spridning eftersträvas pH<6. För att begränsa mängden syra som behöver tillsättas är det då viktigt att snarast möjligt påbörja spridningen efter att svavelsyran blandats med gödseln i lagret, med tanke på gödselns buffrande förmåga (pH stiger). För att surgöra flytgödseln under spridning doseras svavelsyran till gödseln automatiskt under körning i fält med på marknaden olika tekniker. Målet är då att gödseln håller pH <6,4 vid spridningstillfället för att det ska vara godkänt i Danmark som ammoniakbegränsande åtgärd, och ett alternativ till att mylla ner gödseln vid spridning. Enligt VERA:s testprotokoll så minskade ammoniakavgången med 49 % vid surgörning till pH 6,4 vid spridning med tekniken SyreN jämfört med ingen försurning (VERA, 2012). Det gick inte att påvisa någon luktminskning med surgörning.

  • 6. Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    Olsson, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från öppna rötrestlage: försök i pilotskala2013Report (Other academic)
  • 7. Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Olsson, Henrik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från biogasanläggningar: Försök i pilotskala2013Report (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Willén, Agnes
    Olsson, Henrik
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från öppna rötrestlager– försök i pilotskala2013Report (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Energiteknik (ET).
    Willén, Agnes
    Olsson, Henrik
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från öppna rötrestlager– försök i pilotskala2013Report (Refereed)
  • 10. Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från biogasanläggningar2011Report (Refereed)
  • 11. Holmgren, Magnus Andreas
    et al.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Värdering och utveckling av mätmetoder för bestämning av metanemissioner från biogasanläggningar: Litteraturstudie2011Report (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Joubin, Maxime
    Agrocampus Ouest, France.
    Rodhe, Lena (Contributor)
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Animal slurry acidification: effects of slurry characteristics, use of different acids, slurry pH buffering: Student work2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification of slurry is one method to reduce ammonia emissions. Mainly implemented in Denmark, SAT use sulfuric acid to decrease the pH in in-house, in storage or in field system. Organic acids could be a good alternative to sulfuric acid to develop SATs for organic farming. Successive acidifications of slurry could be a solution to keep a stable pH and avoid ammonia emissions during all the period of storage.

    In Experiment 1, sulfuric acid, nitric acid and four organic acids were tested in order to compare efficiency and the economic aspects for cattle and pig slurry acidification. In experiment 2, the buffer system of 9 different slurries (4 from cattle, 3 from pig, and 2 filtrated slurry of each) were studied after several acidifications with sulfuric acid to pH 5.5 in order to quantify the acid consumption and to determine by modelling which slurry characteristics influenced the most this consumption of acid. For both experiments, the storage temperature was 20°C.

    For acid solutions with the same normality, organic acid and nitric acid were as efficient as sulfuric acid. However, results show, considering commercial concentrated acid proprieties, sulfuric acid was still the best option with a third to half of the consumption compared to other acids and acidification cost divided by 10 to compare with the use of organic acid. Acid consumption and acidification cost were highest for nitric acid. For organic acids, the acid consumption and acidification cost depends on slurry types and the target pH value. Furthermore, sulfuric acid and acetic acid had better ability to maintain the pH value below 6.4.

    In experiment 2, for all slurries, the pH cannot be stabilized by successive acidifications, possibly due to the degradation of organic matter by acid hydrolysis and probably aerobic degradation of volatile fatty acids. The total acid consumption depended on slurry characteristics and varied between 5.97 to 8.06 liters per m3 for cattle slurry and 6.7 to 10.7 for pig slurry.

    The best model variable to explain the quantity of acid needed for the first acidification depended on the target pH. The total amount of acid needed was explained by total nitrogen, total solids, total carbon: total nitrogen ratio and volatile solids. For the total amount of acid needed for all re-acidification, total nitrogen, ammonium concentration, total carbon and volatile solids were the best sub model variables. The latter was not correlated with the acid consumption for the first titration, even though models have common variables. That supposes slurry characteristics are modified by acidification.

    In conclusion, the use of organic acids was more expensive than the use of sulfuric acid. The pH can’t be stabilized by successive acid additions due to the organic matter degradation and modification of slurry characteristics which influence the acid consumption.

  • 13. Larsson, Kjell
    et al.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jacobsson, Gustaf
    Johansson, Gunnar
    Torv som strö i smågrisproduktionen: effekt på miljö och djurhälsa1999Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Ljung, Emelie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Palm, Ola
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ökad acceptans för biogödsel inom jordbruket2013Report (Refereed)
  • 15. Malgeryd, Johan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Lönsam stallgödselhantering: teknik, växtnäringshushållning, kvalitet och ekonomi2002Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    För att inte skada miljön måste växtnäringen i stallgödseln tas tillvara och återföras

    till de odlade grödorna. Skälen till att använda stallgödsel är dock fler. Dyrare

    mineralgödsel och ekonomiskt kärvare tider har bidragit till att det ur ekonomisk

    synvinkel blivit mer intressant att använda stallgödsel som växtnäringskälla.

    JTI har, på uppdrag av SLA, sammanställt sin stallgödselforskning, bland annat med

    utgångspunkt från lantbruksföretagarens behov och frågeställningar. Hur kan man

    utnyttja växtnäringen optimalt? Hur ska gödseln lagras? Vilken utrustning och tidpunkt

    är lämpligast för spridning? Vilka givor ger bäst avkastning och kvalitet på

    gröda? Vad kostar jordpackningen och hur kan den minimeras?

    Här förmedlas konkreta tips och råd kring stallgödselhantering.

  • 16. Malgeryd, Johan
    et al.
    Karlsson, Stig
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stallgödsel: en resurs i ditt företag, SLA2002Report (Refereed)
  • 17. Malgeryd, Johan
    et al.
    Wetterberg, Christian
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stallgödselns fysikaliska egenskaper1993Report (Refereed)
  • 18. Qvist Frandsen, Thorkild
    et al.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Best available technologies for pig manure biogas plants in the Baltic Sea Region2011Report (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Forskningsområdet stallgödsel.: Sammanfattning av kunskaps-läget samt identifiering av kunskapsluckor1998Report (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hantering av helärt.: Skörd, torkning, malning, ekonomi1986Report (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mekaniserad utgödsling1987Report (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Methods for determining the presence of slurry on the crop and in the upper soil layer after application to grassland2003In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 90, no 1, p. 81-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Slurry injection in grassland may lead to lower ammonia losses and enhance silage quality compared to surface spreading. In order to evaluate the performance of different slurry injectors, there is a need for methods which measure the degree of crop contamination and the position of the slurry in the soil after spreading. The aim of this study was to identify and test possible methods. The amount of cattle slurry present on the grass stubble after spreading was determined by measuring the electrical conductivity of water used for rinsing grass samples. The slurry placement in the soil profile was measured in cross-sections made through the slurry trails. Methods used were analyses of images taken by different cameras, resistance measurements and by measuring the dimensions of the slurry trails. The method for determining the presence of slurry on the crop was practically applicable and is considered to be reliable. The placement of slurry could not be sufficiently resolved from image taken by the different cameras or by measuring resistance. Instead, visual assessment and measurements of width and depth of the slurry trails gave a good description of the slurry placement in the soil profile. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Minska utsläppen av växthusgaser från stallgödsel2014Report (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Tillsatsmedel för flytgödsel: litteraturöversikt och utveckling av testmetod2005Report (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ytmyllning av flytgödsel till vall: sparar kväve men kräver kraftigare traktor2003Report (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Abubaker, J.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pell, M.
    Nordberg, T.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from pig slurry during storage and after field application in northern European conditions2012In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 113, no 4, p. 379-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different mitigation techniques for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from pig slurry in storage and after field application were evaluated and specific emissions factors derived. Fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were measured for one year in a pilot-scale storage plant comparing uncovered pig slurry (NC) with slurry covered by straw (SC) or plastic sheet cover (PC). In spring and autumn, stored slurry was band spread (BS) in the field without or with immediate incorporation by harrowing (BS + HA). Closed chamber techniques were used for gas sampling. Complementary soil core experiments in the laboratory examined the influence of soil moisture and temperature on emissions from slurry application. Annual CH4 emissions (g CH4-C kg-1 VS) from storage were 5.3 for NC, 5.8 for SC and 2.8 for PC, corresponding to CH4 conversion factors (MCFs) of 2.6, 2.8 and 1.4%, respectively. N2O emissions from storage were low except from SC, where they comprised 31.7 g N2O-N m-2 year-1, corresponding to an N2O emissions factor (EFN2O) of 0.66% of total N (Tot-N) in slurry. N2O emissions after field application varied depending on soil conditions, with soil moisture content having a significant influence according to soil core experiments. Overall, cumulative N2O-N emissions in spring were 1.35% of Tot-N in slurry for BS and 0.46% for BS + HA. Corresponding N2O-N emissions in autumn were 0.77 and 0.97%. The MCFs observed in storage were considerably lower than the default IPCC value of 10%, while EFN2O was in the suggested IPCC range for storage and field. © 2012 IAgrE.

  • 27.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Algerbo, Per-Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rammer, Chri
    Flytgödselspridning på vall: Ny teknik under svenska förhållanden2000Report (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alverbäck, Adam
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

    The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

    The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

    One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

    Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

    Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

  • 29.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue Contreras, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ringmar, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Växthusgasemissioner från lager med nötflytgödsel2008Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe2009In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 12019-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ammonia emissions from storage: non-digested and digested cattle slurry, with and without acid2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study concerns acidification at the beginning of storage to reduce ammonia emissions during storage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the reduction of ammonia emissions by the acidification of cattle slurry, digested and non-digested, in storage under summer conditions.

    Cattle slurry (CS) and digested cattle slurry (DCS) were taken from a dairy farm with a digester plant. The sulphuric acid required for acidification to pH 5.5 was determined by titration before the pilot-scale experiment began. In the pilot-scale experiment, each slurry type was divided into two containers. One batch was acidified to pH<5.5 by adding sulphuric acid (96%) slowly with gentle mixing. The other batch was not acidified. During acidification, the pH was measured frequently and the total amounts of acid added were noted. Temperatures were measured during the four-month storage period with loggers at 0.1 m from the bottom and 0.1 m from the surface of each container. Data were continuously recorded hourly.

    Ammonia emissions were measured using a micrometeorological mass balance method with passive flux samplers. There were five measuring periods during the warm storage period from May to August. The length of the measuring periods ranged from 3 to 14 days, with the shortest period at the start of storage.

    On a pilot scale, the acid consumption for reaching pH< 5.5 was 1.1 L/m3 for CS and 6.2 L/m3 for DCS. The change in pH after acidification was rather limited and the pH stayed <6 throughout the four-month storage period for both CS and DCS.

    On a laboratory scale, more acid was needed to reach pH 5.5, and the pH increased more, with less buffering, than on a pilot scale. The reasons for this could be higher temperatures, frequent mixing, small volumes, and the use of diluted acid on a laboratory scale compared with on a pilot scale. On a laboratory scale, it was possible to show differences in acid demand between slurry types, but the amounts of acid needed seem to be different (higher) compared with pilot scale.

    The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions corresponded to about 19% of total-N for CS and about 26% of total-N for DCS. The estimated cumulative NH3-N emissions were about the same as a percentage of TAN for CS and for DCS (57.8 and 53.9% respectively).

    Emissions from the acidified batches of slurry were overall negligibly low. The addition of acid decreased ammonia emissions very effectively, for both CS and DCS.

  • 32.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Växthusgaser från rötad och orötad nötflytgödsel vid lagring och efter spridning: samt bestämning av ammoniakavgång och skörd i vårkorn2013Report (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vegerfors Persson, Birgitta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from storage and field application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle slurry2015In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 199, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from non-digested and digested cattle slurry were measured during storage in a pilot-scale facility and during subsequent field application. In three treatments, non-digested cattle slurry (CS), digested cattle slurry (DCS) and digested cattle slurry covered with a roof (DCS-R), GHG emissions were measured during more than three months of storage in summer and in winter. After each storage season, CS and DCS were applied in the field before sowing, either in late summer or in spring, and compared with an unfertilised control (Control). GHG measurements were conducted using a closed chamber technique on both storage tanks and in the field, and the experiments were organised according to a randomised complete block design with three blocks. In the field, three closed chambers were placed randomly in each small plot. For every experimental unit, 7-9 measurements were made over time. Mean daily CH4 emissions during summer storage were 2.37, 7.79 and 6.78g CH4-Cm-3d-1 slurry for CS, DCS and DCS-R, respectively, and were significantly higher for DCS and DCS-R compared with CS (p<0.001). DCS-R gave significantly (p<0.05) lower CH4 emissions than DCS. The limited number of gas samples analysed during the study period may have resulted in increased uncertainty in the estimates. Mean daily CH4 emissions during winter storage were very low, with no significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments. Non-negligible N2O emissions were only detected from DCS-R in summer (cumulative mean emissions 5.98gN2O-Nm-2), corresponding to an emissions factor for N2O-N (EFN2O) of 0.24%.In the field, cumulative emissions of N2O were very limited for CS and DCS (EFN2O 0.59% and 0.44%, respectively, in autumn and 0.20% and 0.10%, respectively, in spring).A combination of summer storage and autumn spreading of DCS had the largest impact on global warming potential (GWP100) in terms of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) (28.7kg CO2em-3 slurry), with the impact from storage dominating. Presence of a roof reduced CH4 emissions, but also stimulated formation of N2O during summer and therefore had no net effect on GWP100. With winter storage and spring spreading, CS gave the lowest impact (2.51kg CO2em-3 slurry).

  • 34.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Olsson, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Växthusgaser från stallgödsel: Litteraturgenomgång och modellberäkningar2012Report (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Delin, Sofia
    SLU.
    Gustafsson, Kjell
    AgroVäst.
    Surgörning av nötflytgödsel - effekt på ammoniak-avgången vid spridning av rötad respektive icke-rötad gödsel i vall; finansierat av SLF (H1333101)2016Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel (år 1)2016Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Etana, A.
    Performance of slurry injectors compared with band spreading on three Swedish soils with ley2005In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of the present study was to evaluate different injection methods for slurry to ley on three different soils. A further objective was to study the effect of soil moisture on the working depth of an injector and on the slurry infiltration rate. In full-scale experiments, the placement of slurry, ammonia emissions and yield were measured after injection with three techniques: pressurised injection, shallow injection with V-shaped discs, and shallow injection with two angled discs. In an adjacent experiment the effect of soil moisture was studied. The performance varied between the injectors and only the injector with angled discs was able to place the slurry in ley below the soil surface on all soils studied. The ammonia release was on average halved after injection with angled discs compared with band spreading, giving a mean ammonia loss of 39% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN) applied. Despite the reduction in ammonia losses with the angled disc injector, this did not result in higher dry matter yield or higher nitrogen efficiency of the second cut compared with band spreading. The working depth of a slurry injector increased significantly with increasing soil water content. © 2005 Silsoe Research Institute. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Etana, Ararso
    Ytmyllning av flytgödsel till vall2003Report (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Fridolfsson, Magnus
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lardh, Thomas
    Ammoniakavgång från luftade dammar med lakvatten: ett problem?2008Report (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Halling, Magnus
    Vallgrödors respons på körning med kniv- eller myllningsaggregat: positiv luftning eller grödskada?2010Report (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Johansson, Susanne
    Urin-spridningsteknik, ammoniakavgång och växtnäringsutnyttjande1996Report (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Claes
    Provtagarutrustning för fastgödsel1999Report (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Kalinowski, Mariusz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Slurry acidification: Micro-structural analyses of concrete after exposure in acidified and non-acidified slurry2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Samples of three different concrete qualities were prepared and hardened, before exposure in cattle slurry without sulphuric acid (A) and with sulphuric acid added until pH<5.5 (B). The samples were exposed for two years in containers with about 45 L slurry. The boxes with slurry and concrete samples were placed in a ventilated room at 20 °C. The slurry and air temperatures were recorded continuously with temperature loggers, data being recorded every third hour. The slurry level in the boxes and the slurry pH were checked regularly during the experiment. Slurry or acid was added, if necessary, to maintain the level and pH<5.5. Before pH measurements, the slurry was stirred gently in both boxes. To restrict evaporation, the containers had non-airtight plastic covers between measurements.

    Half-way through exposure, the old slurry was replaced with fresh slurry (acidified and non-acidified treatments) to mimic conditions in farm storage where fresh slurry is added continuously during storage. After two years’ storage, the experiment was finalised. The concrete samples were taken out of the slurry, washed gently with water and put into labelled plastic bags.

    The samples were delivered to RISE CBI’s concrete laboratory, where the structural analyses were performed. These used petrographic microscopy techniques to examine the effects of exposure to two potentially aggressive environments, non-acidified and acidified cattle slurry, on concrete with three different mixes. The studied surfaces in the concrete samples were oriented vertically in the plastic containers. Polished sections were evaluated with a stereo microscope, and thin sections were evaluated using a polarising microscope and sources for visible and UV light.

    The results of the study show that the acidified slurry is more chemically aggressive to the cement paste in all the concrete mixes analysed. This can be explained by the solution’s lower pH.

    The extent of the chemical attack correlates with the initial quality of the concrete mix (water-powder ratio and type of binder). The deepest chemical attacks were observed in samples A1 and B1 consisting of “regular” concrete mix with w/c 0.59. The “long lasting quality” (LLC) concrete with a binder specially developed for low-pH environments shows markedly better resistance to chemical attack.

    The effects of the chemical attack on concrete after two years’ exposure can be classified as weak, consisting mainly of an increase in the capillary porosity of the cement paste in the outer layer of the concrete. The increase in porosity is considered to be due to the partial leaching of calcium hydroxide.

  • 44.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Karlsson, S.
    Ammonia emissions from broiler manure: Influence of storage and spreading method2002In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 82, no 4, p. 455-462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge is poor concerning losses of ammonia from broiler manure during storage and after spreading. Broiler manure was stored from October to May in two separate heaps, one uncovered and one covered with a 30 cm layer of straw. Ammonia emissions were measured with a micrometeorological mass balance method in five separate periods during storage. Ambient air temperature and temperatures in the heaps were recorded continuously. After storage, broiler manure from the uncovered heap and commercial fertilizer pellets including broiler manure were spread to arable land at a rate of 110 kg [total-N] ha-1. Ammonia emissions were measured with an equilibrium concentration method from plots fertilized with broiler manure and pellets, respectively, with and without harrowing 4 h after spreading. Temperature measurements taken in the heaps during storage indicated high biological activity. The highest temperatures were recorded in the straw-covered heap. Cumulative ammonia losses were 7% of total nitrogen from the uncovered heap and 10% from the heap with cover. Totally, 13.5% of the nitrogen in the broiler manure was lost as ammonia after spreading without incorporation of the manure and 7.5% from plots with incorporation. After incorporation no ammonia emission occurred. No emissions occurred from plots fertilized with pellets. © 2002 Silsoe Research Institute. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 45.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Niklasson, Fredrik
    Oostra, Huibert
    Gervind, Pernilla
    Kontrollerad kompostering med liten klimatpåverkan: emissioner och värmeåtervinning2015Report (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pauly, Thomas
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Fastgödsel till vall: Spridningstidpunktens inverkan på avkastning, ensilagekvalitet och risk för kväveutlakning2000Report (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pell, M.
    Yamulki, S.
    Nitrous oxide, methane and ammonia emissions following slurry spreading on grassland2006In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 229-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of ammonia (NH3) emissions to the atmosphere originate from agriculture, predominantly from animal manure handling. It is well known that incorporation of manure into soil can reduce NH3 emissions after spreading. However, there is a risk of increased nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) emissions caused by bacterial activity and limited oxygen availability under these conditions. A full-scale injector was developed and evaluated in a field experiment on grassland. Cattle slurry was either injected in closed slots 5 cm below ground or band spread on the soil surface above the crop canopy at a rate of 25 t ha-1. In a control treatment, no slurry was applied. During a 5-day period after application, NH3 emissions were measured using an equilibrium concentration method. Gas samples for estimating CH4 and N 2O emissions were also collected during 7 weeks following slurry application. Injection in closed slots resulted in no detectable NH3 emissions. After band spreading, however, NH3 emissions corresponded to nearly 40% of the total ammoniacal nitrogen in the applied slurry. The injection of slurry gave rise to a broad peak of N2O emissions during the first 3 weeks after application. In total, for the measuring period, N 2O emissions corresponded to 0.75 kg N ha-1. Band spreading resulted in only a very small N2O release of about 0.2 kg N ha-1 during the same period. Except for the first sampling occasion, the soil was predominantly a sink for CH4 in all the treatments. The use of the injector without slurry application reduced grass yield during unfavourable growing conditions. In conclusion, shallow injection in closed slots seems to be a promising technique to reduce negative environmental impacts from NH3 emissions with a limited release of N2O and CH4. © 2006 The Authors.

  • 48.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pell, Mikael
    Täckt ytmyllning av flytgödsel i vall teknikutveckling, ammoniakavgång2005Report (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rammer, C.
    Application of slurry to ley by band spreading and injection methods2002In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 83, no 1, p. 107-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, 90% of the total amount of ammonia released to air originates from agriculture, e.g. manure handling. Incorporation of slurry into soil can reduce ammonia emissions after spreading. The objective of this study was to compare cattle slurry application to ley using (1) band spreading, (2) pressurized injection, and shallow injection with two different types of disc tines (3) and (4). Two years of field experiments were conducted to study slurry position after spreading, ammonia volatilization, grass yield, and silage quality. An economic analysis was also performed. Injection (2) and (3) were unable to satisfactorily incorporate the slurry, neither on a loam under dry soil conditions, nor on a clay soil. Year 1, high ammonia emissions were measured following application by all methods. Injector (3) with V-shaped disc tines gave a significantly (probability P<0.05) higher ammonia release compared to the other methods. Injector (3) also gave a significantly better silage quality than band spreading. Year 2, injector (4) with tines consisting of two-angled disc coulters resulted in the lowest ammonia losses. Certain differences in yield were observed in year 2. Computer simulations showed, that broadcast and band spreading were economically more profitable than shallow injection. © 2002 Silsoe Research Institute. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 50.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rydberg, T.
    Gebresenbet, G.
    The influence of shallow injector design on ammonia emissions and draught requirement under different soil conditions2004In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 89, no 2, p. 237-251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incorporation of manure into soil can effectively reduce ammonia emissions after spreading. This study was aimed at finding an appropriate tine design, which shallowly injects slurry in closed slots on grassland, with relatively low draught forces and minimal emissions of ammonia. Hollow 'tubulator' tines were developed in six different designs and compared with a double disc tine. Horizontal and vertical forces were measured in an indoor sand bin and in field experiments. In some field tests slurry placement and ammonia emissions were also measured. With the sharp tip of the smallest tubulator (application rate of 25 t ha -1; depth of 5 cm) the draught forces in the field were from 520 to 1080 N, depending on soil. Draught forces for the double disc tine were similar or slightly lower. However, under all soil conditions, the tubulator required significantly lower vertical forces to penetrate the soil than the double disc tine. For an application rate of 35 t ha -1, draught and vertical forces for the medium-sized tubulators were about half those for the double disc tine at 8 cm depth. Ammonia losses after injection with the tubulator were 1·6% and for the double disc tine 27% of applied ammonia nitrogen. Thus, appropriate tine design can minimise ammonia losses while maintaining similar energy requirements to a conventional injector. © 2004 Silsoe Research Institute. All rights reserved.

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