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  • 1.
    Harra, Juha
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Juuti, Paxton
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Koivuluoto, Heli
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Niemelä-Anttonen, Hanna
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Stenroos, Christian
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Lahti, Johanna
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Vuoristo, Petri
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique2018In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atmospheric pressure aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique called the nFOG is characterized and applied in polymer film coatings. In the nFOG, a fog of droplets is formed by two air-assist atomizers oriented toward each other inside a deposition chamber. The droplets settle gravitationally and deposit on a substrate, forming a wet film. In this study, the continuous deposition mode of the nFOG is explored. We determined the size distribution of water droplets inside the chamber in a wide side range of 0.1–100 µm and on the substrate using aerosol measurement instruments and optical microscopy, respectively. The droplet size distribution was found to be bimodal with droplets of approximately 30–50 µm contributing the most to the mass of the formed wet film. The complementary measurement methods allow us to estimate the role of different droplet deposition mechanisms. The obtained results suggest that the deposition velocity of the droplets is lower than the calculated terminal settling velocity, likely due to the flow fields inside the chamber. Furthermore, the mass flux of the droplets onto the substrate is determined to be in the order of 1 g/m3s, corresponding to a wet film growth rate of 1 µm/s. Finally, the nFOG technique is demonstrated by preparing polymer films with thicknesses in the range of approximately 0.1–20 µm.

  • 2.
    Jakobsson, Jonas K.F.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aaltonen, H. Laura
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Altered deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2018In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is a key link to understand their health impact. Experimental data are limited for vulnerable groups such as individuals with respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in lung deposition of nanoparticles in the distal lung for healthy subjects and subjects with respiratory disease. Methods: Lung deposition of nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm) was measured after a 10 s breath-hold for three groups: healthy never-smoking subjects (n = 17), asymptomatic (active and former) smokers (n = 15) and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 16). Measurements were made at 1300 mL and 1800 mL volumetric lung depth. Each subject also underwent conventional lung function tests, including post bronchodilator FEV1, VC, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, DL,CO. Patients with previously diagnosed respiratory disease underwent a CT-scan of the lungs. Particle lung deposition fraction, was compared between the groups and with conventional lung function tests. Results: We found that the deposition fraction was significantly lower for subjects with emphysema compared to the other subjects (p = 0.001-0.01), but no significant differences were found between healthy never-smokers and smokers. Furthermore, the particle deposition correlated with pulmonary function tests, FEV1%Pred (p < 0.05), FEV1/VC%Pred (p < 0.01) and DL,CO (p < 0.0005) when all subjects were included. Furthermore, for subjects with emphysema, deposition fraction correlated strongly with DL,CO (Pearson's r = 0.80-0.85, p < 0.002) while this correlation was not found within the other groups. Conclusions: Lower deposition fraction was observed for emphysematous subjects and this can be explained by enlarged distal airspaces in the lungs. As expected, deposition increases for smaller particles and deeper inhalation. The observed results have implications for exposure assessment of air pollution and dosimetry of aerosol-based drug delivery of nanoparticles.

  • 3.
    Minelli, Caterina
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartczak, Dorota
    LGC Limited, UK.
    Peters, Ruud
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Undas, Anna
    Wageningen University & Research, Netherlands.
    Sikora, Aneta
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Sjöström, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Goenaga-Infante, Heidi
    LGC Limited, UK.
    Shard, Alexander G
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Sticky Measurement Problem: Number Concentration of Agglomerated Nanoparticles2019In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 4927-4935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring the number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is critical for assessing reproducibility, enabling compliance with regulation, and performing risk assessments of NP-enabled products. For nanomedicines, their number concentration directly relates to their dose. However, the lack of relevant reference materials and established traceable measurement approaches make the validation of methods for NP number concentration difficult. Furthermore, commercial products often exhibit agglomeration, but guidelines for dealing with nonideal samples are scarce. We have compared the performance of five benchtop measurement methods for the measurement of colloidal number concentration in the presence of different levels of agglomeration. The methods are UV-visible spectroscopy, differential centrifugal sedimentation, dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We find that both ensemble and particle-by-particle methods are in close agreement for monodisperse NP samples and three methods are within 20% agreement for agglomerated samples. We discuss the sources of measurement uncertainties, including how particle agglomeration affects measurement results. This work is a first step toward validation and expansion of the toolbox of methods available for the measurement of real-world NP products.

  • 4.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jacob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: An experimental study in healthy children and adults2017In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, ISSN 1743-8977, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. Method: In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. Results: A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry). Conclusions: To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

  • 5.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden .
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden .
    A set-up for respiratory tract deposition efficiency measurements (15–5000 nm) and first results for a group of children and adults2017In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1244-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter is associated with a number of negative health effects ranging from respiratorydiseases to systemic effects and cancer. One important factor for understanding the health effects is the individual variationin the respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles. In this study, we describe an experimental set-up for size-resolvedmeasurements of the lung deposited fraction of airborne particles, covering the diameter range from 15 to 5000 nm. Theset-up includes a system for generating a stable aerosol with a sufficiently broad size distribution. We used a scanningmobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer to determine particle number and size. The set-up was used toinvestigate individual differences in the deposition fraction (DF) of particles in the respiratory tract for a group of 67subjects of both sexes aged 7–70 years. The measured DF was applied to two model aerosols, one representing an urbanenvironment and one a rural environment, and the particle deposition rates were derived (i.e., the deposited amount ofparticles per unit time). Furthermore, the deposition rates were normalized to lung surface area and body mass – two dosemeasures that are considered relevant for the health effects of airborne particles. In addition to validation of the set-up, weshow that there is a large individual variation in DF, with some subjects having a DF that is more than twice as high as thatof others. Although we observe differences in the DF between different subgroups, most individual variation wasexplained neither by age nor by gender. When normalizing the deposition rates to lung surface area or body mass, thedeposition rates of children become significantly higher than those of adults. Furthermore, the individual variability islarger for the lung surface area or body mass normalized deposition rates than for DF

  • 6.
    Schavkan, Alexander
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Gollwitzer, Christian
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Garcia-Diez, Raul
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Krumrey, Michael
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Minelli, Caterina
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartczak, Dorota
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Cuello-Nuñez, Susana
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Goenaga-Infante, Heidi
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Sjöström, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Baur, Guillamue
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Vasilatou, Konstantina
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Shard, Alexander
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Number concentration of gold nanoparticles in suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as traceable methods compared to laboratory methods2019In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial exploitation of high value nanoparticles is in need of robust measurement methods to increase the control over product manufacturing and to implement quality assurance. InNanoPart, a European metrology project responded to these needs by developing methods for the measurement of particle size, concentration, agglomeration, surface chemistry and shell thickness. This paper illustrates the advancements this project produced for the traceable measurement of nanoparticle number concentration in liquids through small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS). It also details the validation of a range of laboratory methods, including particle tracking analysis (PTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-differential mobility analysis with a condensation particle counter (ES-DMA-CPC). We used a set of spherical gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters between 10 nm and 100 nm and discuss the results from the various techniques along with the associated uncertainty budgets.

  • 7.
    Svensson, C. R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ameer, S. S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ali, N.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Alhamdow, A.
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Messing, M. E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bohgard, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sanfins, E.
    Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, France.
    Kåredal, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, K.
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Lund University, Sweden.
    Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres2016In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles &lt;10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

  • 8.
    Wittbom, Cerina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne Association of Local Authorities, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann-Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden; Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Patrik T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts2018In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 359-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

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