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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    KÃ¥redal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    77 Aerosolized Particulate Matter from Fragmentation of Carbon Nanotube-Enhanced Concrete2023In: Annals of Work Exposures and Health, Vol. 67, no Supplement_1, p. i94-i95Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Camilla
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Suchorzewski, Jan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Prieto Rábade, Miguel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Arun Chaudhari, Ojas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Infrastructure and concrete technology.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Characterization of airborne dust emissions from three types of crushed multi-walled carbon nanotube-enhanced concretes2024In: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 34, article id 100500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dispersing Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (MWCNTs) into concrete at low (<1 wt% in cement) concentrations may improve concrete performance and properties and provide enhanced functionalities. When MWCNT-enhanced concrete is fragmented during remodelling or demolition, the stiff, fibrous and carcinogenic MWCNTs will, however, also be part of the respirable particulate matter released in the process. Consequently, systematic aerosolizing of crushed MWCNT-enhanced concretes in a controlled environment and measuring the properties of this aerosol can give valuable insights into the characteristics of the emissions such as concentrations, size range and morphology. These properties impact to which extent the emissions can be inhaled as well as where they are expected to deposit in the lung, which is critical to assess whether these materials might constitute a future health risk for construction and demolition workers. In this work, the impact from MWCNTs on aerosol characteristics was assessed for samples of three concrete types with various amounts of MWCNT, using a novel methodology based on the continuous drop method. MWCNT-enhanced concretes were crushed, aerosolized and the emitted particles were characterized with online and offline techniques. For light-weight porous concrete, the addition of MWCNT significantly reduced the respirable mass fraction (RESP) and particle number concentrations (PNC) across all size ranges (7 nm – 20 μm), indicating that MWCNTs dampened the fragmentation process by possibly reinforcing the microstructure of brittle concrete. For normal concrete, the opposite could be seen, where MWCNTs resulted in drastic increases in RESP and PNC, suggesting that the MWCNTs may be acting as defects in the concrete matrix, thus enhancing the fragmentation process. For the high strength concrete, the fragmentation decreased at the lowest MWCNT concentration, but increased again for the highest MWCNT concentration. All tested concrete types emitted <100 nm particles, regardless of CNT content. SEM imaging displayed CNTs protruding from concrete fragments, but no free fibres were detected. 

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  • 3.
    Al-Rekabi, Zeinab
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Dondi, Camilla
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Faruqui, Nilofar
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Siddiqui, Nazia S.
    University College London, UK; Kingston Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, UK.
    Elowsson, Linda
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund university, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mudway, Ian
    Imperial College, UK; National institute of health protection, UK; Asthma UK, UK.
    Larsson-Callerfelt, Anna-Karin
    Lund university, Sweden.
    Shaw, Michael
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK; University College London, UK.
    Uncovering the cytotoxic effects of air pollution with multi-modal imaging of in vitro respiratory models2023In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 221426Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Annually, an estimated seven million deaths are linked to exposure to airborne pollutants. Despite extensive epidemiological evidence supporting clear associations between poor air quality and a range of short- and long-term health effects, there are considerable gaps in our understanding of the specific mechanisms by which pollutant exposure induces adverse biological responses at the cellular and tissue levels. The development of more complex, predictive, in vitro respiratory models, including two- and three-dimensional cell cultures, spheroids, organoids and tissue cultures, along with more realistic aerosol exposure systems, offers new opportunities to investigate the cytotoxic effects of airborne particulates under controlled laboratory conditions. Parallel advances in high-resolution microscopy have resulted in a range of in vitro imaging tools capable of visualizing and analysing biological systems across unprecedented scales of length, time and complexity. This article considers state-of-the-art in vitro respiratory models and aerosol exposure systems and how they can be interrogated using high-resolution microscopy techniques to investigate cell-pollutant interactions, from the uptake and trafficking of particles to structural and functional modification of subcellular organelles and cells. These data can provide a mechanistic basis from which to advance our understanding of the health effects of airborne particulate pollution and develop improved mitigation measures. 

  • 4.
    Bergman, Fanny
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Axel C.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Spanne, Marten
    City of Malmö, Sweden.
    Ohlsson, Lena
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Mahmutovic Persson, Irma
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Uller, Lena
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Physicochemical metamorphosis of re-aerosolized urban PM2.52024In: Journal of Aerosol Science, ISSN 0021-8502, E-ISSN 1879-1964, Vol. 181, article id 106416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The toxicity of particulate matter (PM) is dependent on particle physical and chemical properties and is commonly studied using in vivo and in vitro approaches. PM to be used for in vivo and in vitro studies is often collected on filters and then extracted from the filter surface using a solvent. During extraction and further PM sample handling, particle properties change, but this is often neglected in toxicology studies, with possible implications for health effect assessment. To address the current lack of knowledge and investigate changes in particle properties further, ambient PM with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) was collected on filters at an urban site and extracted using a standard methanol protocol. After extraction, the PM was dried, dispersed in water and subsequently nebulized. The resulting aerosol properties were then compared to those of the ambient PM2.5. The number size distribution for the nebulized aerosol resembled the ambient in terms of the main mode diameter, and >90 % of particle mass in the nebulized size distribution was still in the PM2.5 range. Black carbon made up a similar fraction of PM mass in nebulized as in ambient aerosol. The sulfate content in the nebulized aerosol seemed depleted and the chemical composition of the organic fraction was altered, but it remains unclear to what extent other non-refractory components were affected by the extraction process. Trace elements were not distributed equally across size fractions, neither in ambient nor nebulized PM. Change in chemical form was studied for zinc, copper and iron. The form did not appear to be different between the ambient and nebulized PM for iron and copper, but seemed altered for zinc. Although many of the studied properties were reasonably well preserved, it is clear that the PM2.5 collection and re-aerosolization process affects particles, and thus potentially also their health effects. Because of this, the effect of the particle collection and extraction process must be considered when evaluating cellular and physiological outcomes upon PM2.5 exposure. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 5.
    Gericke, Sabrina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Bermeo, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wallander, Harald
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Hanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kollberg, Linnea
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Scardamaglia, Mattia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Temperton, Robert
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zhu, Suyun
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sigfridsson Clauss, Kajsa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Shavorskiy, Andrey
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Merte, L. R
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Messing, Marie Elise
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zetterberg, Johan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Sara
    Lund University, Sweden.
    In Situ H2 Reduction of Al2O3-Supported Ni- and Mo-Based Catalysts2022In: Catalysts, E-ISSN 2073-4344, Vol. 12, no 7, article id 755Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nickel (Ni)-promoted Molybdenum (Mo)-based catalysts are used for hydrotreatment processes in the chemical industry where the catalysts are exposed to high-pressure H2 at elevated temperature. In this environment, the catalyst transforms into the active phase, which involves the reduction of the oxide. Here, we report on the first in situ study on the reduction of alumina supported Ni- and Mo-based catalysts in 1 mbar H2 using ambient-pressure X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (APXPS). The study confirms that mixing Ni and Mo lowers the reduction temperature of both Ni- and Mo-oxide as compared to the monometallic catalysts and shows that the MoO3 reduction starts at a lower temperature than the reduction of NiO in NiMo/Al2O3 catalysts. Additionally, the reduction of Ni and Mo foil was directly compared to the reduction of the Al2O3-supported catalysts and it was observed that the reduction of the supported catalysts is more gradual than the reduction of the foils, indicating a strong interaction between the Ni/Mo and the alumina support. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 6.
    Harra, Juha
    et al.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Tuominen, Mikko
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Juuti, Paxton
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Koivuluoto, Heli
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Haapanen, Janne
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Niemelä-Anttonen, Hanna
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Stenroos, Christian
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Teisala, Hannu
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Lahti, Johanna
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kuusipalo, Jurkka
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Vuoristo, Petri
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Mäkelä, Jyrki M.
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Characteristics of nFOG, an aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique2018In: JCT Research, ISSN 1547-0091, E-ISSN 2168-8028, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 623-632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An atmospheric pressure aerosol-based wet thin film coating technique called the nFOG is characterized and applied in polymer film coatings. In the nFOG, a fog of droplets is formed by two air-assist atomizers oriented toward each other inside a deposition chamber. The droplets settle gravitationally and deposit on a substrate, forming a wet film. In this study, the continuous deposition mode of the nFOG is explored. We determined the size distribution of water droplets inside the chamber in a wide side range of 0.1–100 µm and on the substrate using aerosol measurement instruments and optical microscopy, respectively. The droplet size distribution was found to be bimodal with droplets of approximately 30–50 µm contributing the most to the mass of the formed wet film. The complementary measurement methods allow us to estimate the role of different droplet deposition mechanisms. The obtained results suggest that the deposition velocity of the droplets is lower than the calculated terminal settling velocity, likely due to the flow fields inside the chamber. Furthermore, the mass flux of the droplets onto the substrate is determined to be in the order of 1 g/m3s, corresponding to a wet film growth rate of 1 µm/s. Finally, the nFOG technique is demonstrated by preparing polymer films with thicknesses in the range of approximately 0.1–20 µm.

  • 7.
    Jakobsson, Jonas K.F.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aaltonen, H. Laura
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Altered deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease2018In: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Respiratory tract deposition of airborne particles is a key link to understand their health impact. Experimental data are limited for vulnerable groups such as individuals with respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate the differences in lung deposition of nanoparticles in the distal lung for healthy subjects and subjects with respiratory disease. Methods: Lung deposition of nanoparticles (50 and 100 nm) was measured after a 10 s breath-hold for three groups: healthy never-smoking subjects (n = 17), asymptomatic (active and former) smokers (n = 15) and subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 16). Measurements were made at 1300 mL and 1800 mL volumetric lung depth. Each subject also underwent conventional lung function tests, including post bronchodilator FEV1, VC, and diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, DL,CO. Patients with previously diagnosed respiratory disease underwent a CT-scan of the lungs. Particle lung deposition fraction, was compared between the groups and with conventional lung function tests. Results: We found that the deposition fraction was significantly lower for subjects with emphysema compared to the other subjects (p = 0.001-0.01), but no significant differences were found between healthy never-smokers and smokers. Furthermore, the particle deposition correlated with pulmonary function tests, FEV1%Pred (p &lt; 0.05), FEV1/VC%Pred (p &lt; 0.01) and DL,CO (p &lt; 0.0005) when all subjects were included. Furthermore, for subjects with emphysema, deposition fraction correlated strongly with DL,CO (Pearson's r = 0.80-0.85, p &lt; 0.002) while this correlation was not found within the other groups. Conclusions: Lower deposition fraction was observed for emphysematous subjects and this can be explained by enlarged distal airspaces in the lungs. As expected, deposition increases for smaller particles and deeper inhalation. The observed results have implications for exposure assessment of air pollution and dosimetry of aerosol-based drug delivery of nanoparticles.

  • 8.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Petersson, Mikaela
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Davidsson, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Biorefinery and Energy.
    Öman, Tommy
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Sommertune, Jens
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Release of carbon nanotubes during combustion of polymer nanocomposites in a pilot-scale facility for waste incineration2021In: NanoImpact, ISSN 2452-0748, Vol. 24, article id 100357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocomposites, formed by incorporating nanoparticles into a matrix of standard materials, are increasing on the market. Little focus has been directed towards safe disposal and recycling of these new materials even though the disposal has been identified as a phase of the products' life cycle with a high risk of uncontrolled emissions of nanomaterials. In this study, we investigate if the carbon nanotubes (CNTs), when used as a filler in two types of polymers, are fully destructed in a pilot-scale combustion unit designed to mimic the combustion under waste incineration. The two polymer nanocomposites studied, polycarbonate (PC) with CNT and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) with CNT, were incinerated at two temperatures where the lower temperature just about fulfilled the European waste incineration directive while the upper was chosen to be on the safe side of fulfilling the directive. Particles in the flue gas were sampled and analysed with online and offline instrumentation along with samples of the bottom ash. CNTs could be identified in the flue gas in all experiments, although present to a greater extent when the CNTs were introduced in PC as compared to in HDPE. In the case of using PC as polymer matrix, CNTs were identified in 3–10% of the analysed SEM images while for HDPE in only ~0.5% of the images. In the case of PC, the presence of CNTs decreased with increasing bed temperature (from 10% to 3% of the images). The CNTs identified were always in bundles, often coated with remnants of the polymer, forming particles of ~1–4 μm in diameter. No CNTs were identified in the bottom ash, likely explained by the difference in time when the bottom ash and fly ash are exposed to high temperatures (~hours compared to seconds) in the pilot facility. The results suggest that the residence time of the fly ash in the combustion zone is not long enough to allow full oxidation of the CNTs. Thus, the current regulation on waste incineration (requiring a residence time of the flue gas >850 °C during at least 2 s) may not be enough to obtain complete destruction of CNTs in polymer composites. Since several types of CNTs are known to be toxic, we stress the need for further investigation of the fate and toxicity of CNTs in waste treatment processes.

  • 9.
    Janhäll, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Strandberg, Bo
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    A new method and first results for comparing emissions of fumes during construction of asphalt surfaces2024In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 422, article id 135736Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel laboratory methodology for analysing hot asphalt fumes from various paving materials is presented and evaluated. This method facilitates comparative assessments, aiming to enhance occupational safety for asphalt workers and ensure safe implementation of new paving materials. Comparative analyses of emissions to air were conducted on standard asphalt and rubber-modified asphalt at different temperatures. The temperature significantly influences PAH emissions. Rubber-modified asphalt demonstrated higher PAH emissions at equivalent temperatures compared to standard asphalt, predominantly naphthalene. Even heavier PAHs as benzo(a)pyrene were occasionally high. Notably, at recommended working temperatures the standard asphalt resulted in higher emissions, comprising heavier PAHs compared to rubber asphalt. © 2024 The Authors

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  • 10.
    Kjellberg Jensen, Johan
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ziegler, A-K
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jiménez-Gallardo, Lucia
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Garcia Domínguez, Susana
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, J-Å
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Quantifying the influence of urban biotic and abiotic environmental factors on great tit nestling physiology2023In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 859, article id 160225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a long history of avian studies investigating the impacts of urbanization. While differences in several life-history traits have been documented, either between urban and rural populations or across generalized urbanization gradients, a detailed understanding of which specific environmental variables cause these phenotypic differences is still lacking. Here, we quantified several local environmental variables coupled to urbanization (air pollution, tree composition, ambient temperature, and artificial light at night [ALAN]) within territories of breeding great tits (Parus major). We linked the environmental variables to physiological measures of the nestlings (circulating fatty acid composition [FA], antioxidant capacity and an oxidative damage marker [malondialdehyde; MDA]), to garner a mechanistic understanding of the impact of urbanization. We found that the antioxidant capacity of nestlings decreased with higher numbers of oak trees and levels of PM2.5 (airborne particulate matter with a diameter &lt; 2.5 μm). Furthermore, the ratio of ω6:ω3 polyunsaturated FAs, important for immune function, was positively correlated with PM2.5 concentration, while being negatively associated with ambient temperature and number of non-native trees in the territory. Body mass and wing length both increased with the number of local oak trees. We also show, through a principal component analysis, that while the environmental variables fall into an urbanization gradient, this gradient is insufficient to explain the observed physiological responses. Therefore, accounting for individual environmental variables in parallel, and thus allowing for interactions between these, is crucial to fully understand of the urban ecosystem. © 2022 The Authors

  • 11.
    Linell, Julia
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Olsson, Bo
    Emmace Consulting AB, Sweden.
    Stroh, Emilie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Effects of breathing variables on modelled particle lung deposition at physical activity for children and adults2024In: Air quality, atmosphere and health, ISSN 1873-9318, E-ISSN 1873-9326, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 843-856Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The respiratory tract deposited fraction (DF) is the link between exposure and health effects of airborne particles. Here, we investigate how breathing pattern alterations at increasing physical activity affect DF in different regions of the respiratory tract and compare DF between adults and children (5 and 10 years old). We performed a literature review on the alteration of tidal volume with minute ventilation at increasing physical activity and used the results to model the size resolved (0.001–10 µm) DF, primarily using the deposition models from NCRP and Yeh and Schum (1980), but also MPPD. We found a shift in the deposited size distribution with increasing physical activity—DF of ultrafine particles increased in the alveolar region and decreased in the other regions, while DF of coarser particles decreased in the alveolar region and increased in the extra-thoracic region. Children had a 10–20% higher DF of ultrafine particles in the alveolar region compared to adults. We also present parametrizations of the daily average size resolved (0.005–5 µm) DF, accounting for varying physical activity throughout the day and oral/nasal breathing. These can be applied to any size distribution to estimate deposited doses. We found that deposited mass and number doses were more than twice as high for 5-year-olds compared to adults when normalized for body weight, primarily caused by their higher weight normalized minute ventilation. This demonstrates the importance of studying children’s exposure to air pollution and not only rely on data from adults. 

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  • 12.
    Lovén, Karin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dobric, Jenny
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bölükbas, Deniz
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Tas, Sinem
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wagner, Darcy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Toxicological effects of zinc oxide nanoparticle exposure: an in vitro comparison between dry aerosol air-liquid interface and submerged exposure systems2021In: Nanotoxicology, ISSN 1743-5390, E-ISSN 1743-5404, Vol. 15, no 4, p. 494-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are increasingly produced and used today, but health risks due to their occupational airborne exposure are incompletely understood. Traditionally, nanoparticle (NP) toxicity is tested by introducing NPs to cells through suspension in the growth media, but this does not mimic respiratory exposures. Different methods to introduce aerosolized NPs to cells cultured at the air-liquid-interface (ALI) have been developed, but require specialized equipment and are associated with higher cost and time. Therefore, it is important to determine whether aerosolized setups induce different cellular responses to NPs than traditional ones, which could provide new insights into toxicological responses of NP exposure. This study evaluates the response of human alveolar epithelial cells (A549) to zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs after dry aerosol exposure in the Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT) system as compared to conventional, suspension-based exposure: cells at ALI or submerged. Similar to other studies using nebulization of ZnO NPs, we found that dry aerosol exposure of ZnO NPs via the NACIVT system induced different cellular responses as compared to conventional methods. ZnO NPs delivered at 1.0 µg/cm2 in the NACIVT system, mimicking occupational exposure, induced significant increases in metabolic activity and release of the cytokines IL-8 and MCP-1, but no differences were observed using traditional exposures. While factors associated with the method of exposure, such as differing NP aggregation, may contribute toward the different cellular responses observed, our results further encourage the use of more physiologically realistic exposure systems for evaluating airborne ENM toxicity. © 2021 The Author(s). 

  • 13.
    Lovén, Karin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ahlberg, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bermeo, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Size-resolved characterization of particles >10 nm emitted to air during metal recycling2023In: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 174, article id 107874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the strive towards a circular economy, metal waste recycling is a growing industry. During the recycling process, particulate matter containing toxic and allergenic metals will be emitted to the air causing unintentional exposure to humans and environment. Objective: In this study detailed characterization of particle emissions and workplace exposures were performed, covering the full size range from 10 nm to 10 µm, during recycling of three different material flows: Waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), metal scrap, and cables. Methods: Both direct-reading instruments (minute resolution), and time-integrated filter measurements for gravimetric and chemical analysis were used. Additionally, optical sensors were applied and evaluated for long-term online monitoring of air quality in industrial settings. Results: The highest concentrations, in all particle sizes, and with respect both to particle mass and number, were measured in the WEEE flow, followed by the metal scrap flow. The number fraction of nanoparticles was high for all material flows (0.66–0.86). The most abundant metals were Fe, Al, Zn, Pb and Cu. Other elements of toxicological interest were Mn, Ba and Co. Significance: The large fraction of nanoparticles, and the fact that their chemical composition deviate from that of the coarse particles, raises questions that needs to be further addressed including toxicological implications, both for humans and for the environment. © 2023 The Authors

  • 14.
    Minelli, Caterina
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartczak, Dorota
    LGC Limited, UK.
    Peters, Ruud
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Undas, Anna
    Wageningen University & Research, The Netherlands.
    Sikora, Aneta
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Sjöström, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Goenaga-Infante, Heidi
    LGC Limited, UK.
    Shard, Alexander G
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Sticky Measurement Problem: Number Concentration of Agglomerated Nanoparticles2019In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 4927-4935Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measuring the number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) is critical for assessing reproducibility, enabling compliance with regulation, and performing risk assessments of NP-enabled products. For nanomedicines, their number concentration directly relates to their dose. However, the lack of relevant reference materials and established traceable measurement approaches make the validation of methods for NP number concentration difficult. Furthermore, commercial products often exhibit agglomeration, but guidelines for dealing with nonideal samples are scarce. We have compared the performance of five benchtop measurement methods for the measurement of colloidal number concentration in the presence of different levels of agglomeration. The methods are UV-visible spectroscopy, differential centrifugal sedimentation, dynamic light scattering, particle tracking analysis, and single-particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We find that both ensemble and particle-by-particle methods are in close agreement for monodisperse NP samples and three methods are within 20% agreement for agglomerated samples. We discuss the sources of measurement uncertainties, including how particle agglomeration affects measurement results. This work is a first step toward validation and expansion of the toolbox of methods available for the measurement of real-world NP products.

  • 15.
    Nielsen, Maria
    et al.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Baun, Anders
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Mackevica, Aiga
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Thit, Amalie
    Roskilde University, Denmark.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gallego, Julian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Westergaard Clausen, Lauge
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Skjolding, Lars
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Castro Nilsson, Alejandra
    SOLVE Research and Consultancy AB, Sweden.
    Cedervall, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Foss Hansen, Steffen
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nanomaterials in the European chemicals legislation-methodological challenges for registration and environmental safety assessment2021In: Environmental Science: Nano, ISSN 2051-8153, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 731-747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European Union the Annexes of its chemical legislation (REACH) were revised and now clarify the technical data requirements for nanomaterials (NMs). These new provisions, effective from January 1, 2020, introduce requirements for manufacturers, importers and downstream users regarding registration and safety assessment of NMs. This study aims to assess the availability and suitability of methods needed to comply with the new regulatory provisions on NMs for physico-chemical characterisation and environmental fate and effects. The scientific literature and relevant test guideline frameworks were reviewed to identify applicable methods. These were subsequently evaluated and categorised as either: 'internationally accepted test guideline or standard (TGS)', 'internationally accepted test guideline or standard under development (TGSUD)', 'established as standard methods in scientific literature (SCI)', 'other methods and/or more research needed (O)' or 'no method (N)'. We find that 80% of the information requirements and a bit more than 40% of the waiving criteria in the new REACH Annexes are supported by methods that are available as TGS, TGSUD or SCI. Most of the relevant methods in the scientific literature are included in recent OECD guidance documents or ECHA guidance. We recommend that a targeted effort is made to develop protocols and guidelines for methods to determine NM adsorption/desorption, degradation, exposure scenarios and ability to cross biological membranes. Here methods to fulfil the information requirements and waiving criteria are currently lacking. Furthermore, we recommend that increasing attention is directed towards regulatory reliability and relevance of the information that is submitted by the registrants.

  • 16.
    Odnevall, Inger
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Brookman-Amissah, Marianne
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stábile, Franca
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ekvall, Mikael T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Herting, Gunilla
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Bermeo Vargas, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Messing, Maria E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sturve, Joachim
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hansson, Lars-Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Characterization and Toxic Potency of Airborne Particles Formed upon Waste from Electrical and Electronic Equipment Waste Recycling: A Case Study2023In: ACS Environmental Au, ISSN 2694-2518, Vol. 3, no 6, p. 370-382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Manual dismantling, shredding, and mechanical grinding of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) at recycling facilities inevitably lead to the accidental formation and release of both coarse and fine particle aerosols, primarily into the ambient air. Since diffuse emissions to air of such WEEE particles are not regulated, their dispersion from the recycling plants into the adjacent environment is possible. The aim of this interdisciplinary project was to collect and characterize airborne WEEE particles smaller than 1 μm generated at a Nordic open waste recycling facility from a particle concentration, shape, and bulk and surface composition perspective. Since dispersed airborne particles eventually may reach rivers, lakes, and possibly oceans, the aim was also to assess whether such particles may pose any adverse effects on aquatic organisms. The results show that WEEE particles only exerted a weak tendency toward cytotoxic effects on fish gill cell lines, although the exposure resulted in ROS formation that may induce adverse effects. On the contrary, the WEEE particles were toxic toward the crustacean zooplankter Daphnia magna, showing strong effects on survival of the animals in a concentration-dependent way. 

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  • 17.
    Petersson Sjögren, Madeleine
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kåredal, Monica
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Broberg, Karin
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Assarsson, Eva
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Thuresson, Sara
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dierschke, Katrin
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Hedmer, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Region Skåne, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sensitive methods for assessment of lung health in welders and controls2023In: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 212, article id 107244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Welders are exposed to gas and particle emissions that can cause severe lung disease, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. It is difficult to detect COPD early and therefore mitigating measures may be delayed. The aim of this study was to investigate lung health in welders and evaluate new sensitive methods with potential to assess early onset pulmonary changes in occupational settings. Methods: This study assessed the lung health and symptoms in active welders (n = 28) and controls (n = 17). Lung measurements were performed with standard spirometry and new methods: airspace dimension assessment (AiDA), oscillometry, blood serum biomarkers (club cell secretory protein 16, surfactant protein D, matrix metalloproteinases, fibroblast, hepatocyte growth factor, interleukins), and one urine biomarker (desmosine). Results: According to spirometry measurements, all participants had normal lung function. However, prevalence of cough was significantly higher among welders compared with controls and lung changes were found in welders with the novel methods. Welders had significantly higher respiratory system resistance assessed with oscillometry, serum levels of metalloproteinases 9 and hepatocyte growth factor, compared with controls. Airspace dimensions were on average higher among welders compared with controls, but the difference was not significant. The number of welding years correlated with decreased respiratory system reactance and increased serum levels of matrix metalloproteinases 9, interleukin 6, and hepatocyte growth factor. Airspace dimension assessment indices were correlated with increasing levels of inflammatory markers and matrix metalloproteinases. Conclusions: This study indicated the potential to use new and more sensitive methods for identification of changes in lungs when standard spirometry failed to do so. © 2023 The Authors

  • 18.
    Petersson-Sjögren, M.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jakobsson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Aaltonen, H. L.
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Washington, USA.
    Nicklasson, H.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden; MVIC Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium AB, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Engström, G.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, P.
    Skåne University Hospital, Sweden.
    Löndahl, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Airspace Dimension Assessment with Nanoparticles (AiDA) in Comparison to Established Pulmonary Function Tests2022In: International Journal of Nanomedicine, ISSN 1176-9114, E-ISSN 1178-2013, Vol. 17, p. 2777-2790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Airspace Dimensions Assessment with nanoparticles (AiDA) is a new method for non-invasive measurement of pulmonary distal airspaces. The aim of this study was to compare AiDA measurements with other pulmonary function variables to better understand the potential of AiDA in a clinical context. Methods: AiDA measurements and pulmonary function tests were performed in 695 subjects as part of the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study. The measurement protocol included spirometry, measurement of diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide, oscillometry and pulmonary computed tomography. AiDA indices were compared to all other pulmonary examination measurements using multivariate statistical analysis. Results: Our results show that AiDA measurements were significantly correlated with other pulmonary function examination indices, although covariance was low. We found that AiDA variables explained variance in the data that other lung function variables only influenced to a minor extent. Conclusion: We conclude that the AiDA method provides information about the lung that is inaccessible with more conventional lung function techniques. © 2022 Petersson-Sjögren et al.

  • 19.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jacob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Deposition efficiency of inhaled particles (15-5000 nm) related to breathing pattern and lung function: An experimental study in healthy children and adults2017In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 14, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Exposure to airborne particles has a major impact on global health. The probability of these particles to deposit in the respiratory tract during breathing is essential for their toxic effects. Observations have shown that there is a substantial variability in deposition between subjects, not only due to respiratory diseases, but also among individuals with healthy lungs. The factors determining this variability are, however, not fully understood. Method: In this study we experimentally investigate factors that determine individual differences in the respiratory tract depositions of inhaled particles for healthy subjects at relaxed breathing. The study covers particles of diameters 15-5000 nm and includes 67 subjects aged 7-70 years. A comprehensive examination of lung function was performed for all subjects. Principal component analyses and multiple regression analyses were used to explore the relationships between subject characteristics and particle deposition. Results: A large individual variability in respiratory tract deposition efficiency was found. Individuals with high deposition of a certain particle size generally had high deposition for all particles <3500 nm. The individual variability was explained by two factors: breathing pattern, and lung structural and functional properties. The most important predictors were found to be breathing frequency and anatomical airway dead space. We also present a linear regression model describing the deposition based on four variables: tidal volume, breathing frequency, anatomical dead space and resistance of the respiratory system (the latter measured with impulse oscillometry). Conclusions: To understand why some individuals are more susceptible to airborne particles we must understand, and take into account, the individual variability in the probability of particles to deposit in the respiratory tract by considering not only breathing patterns but also adequate measures of relevant structural and functional properties.

  • 20.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Klementiev, Konstantin
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dahl, Jonas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Steenari, Britt-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Identification and Quantification of Chemical Forms of Cu and Zn in MSWI Ashes Using XANES2020In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 34, no 11, p. 14505-14514Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Incineration is in many countries a common treatment method for municipal solid waste, and utilization of the ash residues has attracted significant interest. The bottom ash is best suited as a secondary construction material, whereas the fly ash is being investigated as a secondary raw material for recovery of, for example, Zn, Cu, and salts. For both types of application, knowledge about the chemical speciation of Zn and Cu in the ashes is valuable. The present work focuses on identifying and quantifying the chemical species of Zn and Cu in 12 samples of fly ash and bottom ash from three waste-to-energy plants using X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). The XANES spectra of the ash samples showed similar distinctive features, and both in the bottom and fly ash samples, the same chemical forms were identified but in various ratios. Cu and Zn occurred in several chemical forms, with typically 5-7 forms present in the same sample. For Cu, the XANES spectra of the fly ash samples were nearly identical, indicating very similar chemical speciation (same chemical forms and similar ratios). Cu was found to exist in various oxide, hydroxide, chloride, silicate, and metallic forms. The most commonly occurring Zn compounds were the aluminate, ferrite, silicate, and oxide along with chloride, basic carbonate (hydrozincite), and occasionally metallic forms, probably alloyed with Cu in brass. Cu occurred in different oxidation states from zero to +II, with a higher prevalence of the lower oxidation states in bottom ash than in fly ash. Zn occurred mainly in oxidation state +II in all ashes analyzed. Finally, we showed that during outdoor storage of bottom ash, levels of Cu and Zn hydroxycarbonates were increased compared to fresh bottom ash. This carbonate formation aims to make Cu and Zn less leachable.

  • 21.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden .
    Nicklasson, Hanna
    SUS, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Wollmer, Per
    SUS, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden .
    A set-up for respiratory tract deposition efficiency measurements (15–5000 nm) and first results for a group of children and adults2017In: Aerosol and Air Quality Research, ISSN 1680-8584, E-ISSN 2071-1409, Vol. 17, no 6, p. 1244-1255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter is associated with a number of negative health effects ranging from respiratorydiseases to systemic effects and cancer. One important factor for understanding the health effects is the individual variationin the respiratory tract deposition of inhaled particles. In this study, we describe an experimental set-up for size-resolvedmeasurements of the lung deposited fraction of airborne particles, covering the diameter range from 15 to 5000 nm. Theset-up includes a system for generating a stable aerosol with a sufficiently broad size distribution. We used a scanningmobility particle sizer and an aerodynamic particle sizer to determine particle number and size. The set-up was used toinvestigate individual differences in the deposition fraction (DF) of particles in the respiratory tract for a group of 67subjects of both sexes aged 7–70 years. The measured DF was applied to two model aerosols, one representing an urbanenvironment and one a rural environment, and the particle deposition rates were derived (i.e., the deposited amount ofparticles per unit time). Furthermore, the deposition rates were normalized to lung surface area and body mass – two dosemeasures that are considered relevant for the health effects of airborne particles. In addition to validation of the set-up, weshow that there is a large individual variation in DF, with some subjects having a DF that is more than twice as high as thatof others. Although we observe differences in the DF between different subgroups, most individual variation wasexplained neither by age nor by gender. When normalizing the deposition rates to lung surface area or body mass, thedeposition rates of children become significantly higher than those of adults. Furthermore, the individual variability islarger for the lung surface area or body mass normalized deposition rates than for DF

  • 22.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Preger, Calle
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Axel
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Lin, Jack
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Prisle, Nønne
    University of Oulu, Finland.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Missed Evaporation from Atmospherically Relevant Inorganic Mixtures Confounds Experimental Aerosol Studies2023In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 57, no 7, p. 2706-2714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea salt aerosol particles are highly abundant in the atmosphere and play important roles in the global radiative balance. After influence from continental air, they are typically composed of Na+, Cl-, NH4+, and SO42- and organics. Analogous particle systems are often studied in laboratory settings by atomizing and drying particles from a solution. Here, we present evidence that such laboratory studies may be consistently biased in that they neglect losses of solutes to the gas phase. We present experimental evidence from a hygroscopic tandem differential mobility analyzer and an aerosol mass spectrometer, further supported by thermodynamic modeling. We show that, at normally prevailing laboratory aerosol mass concentrations, for mixtures of NaCl and (NH4)2SO4, a significant portion of the Cl- and NH4+ ions are lost to the gas phase, in some cases, leaving mainly Na2SO4 in the dry particles. Not considering losses of solutes to the gas phase during experimental studies will likely result in misinterpretation of the data. One example of such data is that from particle water uptake experiments. This may bias the explanatory models constructed from the data and introduce errors inte predictions made by air quality or climate models. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 23.
    Rissler, Jenny
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Madeleine Peterson
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Linell, Julia
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hurtig, Amalia Larsson
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Löndahl, Jakob
    Lund University, Sweden.
    An experimental study on lung deposition of inhaled 2 Όm particles in relation to lung characteristics and deposition models2023In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, E-ISSN 1743-8977, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The understanding of inhaled particle respiratory tract deposition is a key link to understand the health effects of particles or the efficiency for medical drug delivery via the lung. However, there are few experimental data on particle respiratory tract deposition, and the existing data deviates considerably when comparing results for particles > 1 μm. Methods: We designed an experimental set-up to measure deposition in the respiratory tract for particles > 1 μm, more specifically 2.3 μm, with careful consideration to minimise foreseen errors. We measured the deposition in seventeen healthy adults (21–68 years). The measurements were performed at tidal breathing, during three consecutive 5-minute periods while logging breathing patterns. Pulmonary function tests were performed, including the new airspace dimension assessment (AiDA) method measuring distal lung airspace radius (r AiDA). The lung characteristics and breathing variables were used in statistical models to investigate to what extent they can explain individual variations in measured deposited particle fraction. The measured particle deposition was compared to values predicted with whole lung models. Model calculations were made for each subject using measured variables as input (e.g., breathing pattern and functional residual capacity). Results: The measured fractional deposition for 2.3 μm particles was 0.60 ± 0.14, which is significantly higher than predicted by any of the models tested, ranging from 0.37 ± 0.08 to 0.53 ± 0.09. The multiple-path particle dosimetry (MPPD) model most closely predicted the measured deposition when using the new PNNL lung model. The individual variability in measured particle deposition was best explained by breathing pattern and distal airspace radius (r AiDA) at half inflation from AiDA. All models underestimated inter-subject variability even though the individual breathing pattern and functional residual capacity for each participant was used in the model. Conclusions: Whole lung models need to be tuned and improved to predict the respiratory tract particle deposition of micron-sized particles, and to capture individual variations – a variation that is known to be higher for aged and diseased lungs. Further, the results support the hypothesis that the AiDA method measures dimensions in the peripheral lung and that r AiDA, as measured by the AiDA, can be used to better understand the individual variation in the dose to healthy and diseased lungs.

  • 24.
    Schavkan, Alexander
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Gollwitzer, Christian
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Garcia-Diez, Raul
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Krumrey, Michael
    PTB Physikalisch–Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Minelli, Caterina
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartczak, Dorota
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Cuello-Nuñez, Susana
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Goenaga-Infante, Heidi
    LGC Ld, UK.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Sjöström, Eva
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Surface, Process and Formulation.
    Baur, Guillamue
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Vasilatou, Konstantina
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Shard, Alexander
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Number concentration of gold nanoparticles in suspension: SAXS and spICPMS as traceable methods compared to laboratory methods2019In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 9, no 4, article id 502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial exploitation of high value nanoparticles is in need of robust measurement methods to increase the control over product manufacturing and to implement quality assurance. InNanoPart, a European metrology project responded to these needs by developing methods for the measurement of particle size, concentration, agglomeration, surface chemistry and shell thickness. This paper illustrates the advancements this project produced for the traceable measurement of nanoparticle number concentration in liquids through small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICPMS). It also details the validation of a range of laboratory methods, including particle tracking analysis (PTA), dynamic light scattering (DLS), differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS), ultraviolet visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) and electrospray-differential mobility analysis with a condensation particle counter (ES-DMA-CPC). We used a set of spherical gold nanoparticles with nominal diameters between 10 nm and 100 nm and discuss the results from the various techniques along with the associated uncertainty budgets.

  • 25.
    Sjödin, Veronica
    et al.
    Paroc AB, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Transition metal valence in commercial glasses analysed using X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at Balder beamline, MAX IV2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The stone wool manufacturer Paroc (a part of Owens Corning) considers blending in additional waste materials into the production to obtain a more sustainable product. By using waste material that otherwise would go to the landfill also less virgin raw material (volcanic rock) would be used. The waste material contains manganese (Mn) which may potentially affect the iron (Fe) redox equilibria that greatly affects the melt and product properties. Paroc therefor wish to understand and simulate the effect of blending in additional waste material in their product.

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  • 26.
    Stockfelt, Leo
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Xu, Yiyi
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaxon, Christina
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Brunskog, Jonas
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Patrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Berglund, Margareta
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Barregard, Lars
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Bohgard, Mats
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Albin, Maria
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hagerman, Inger
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Wierzbicka, Aneta
    Lund University, Sweden; .
    A controlled chamber study of effects of exposure to diesel exhaust particles and noise on heart rate variability and endothelial function2022In: Inhalation Toxicology, ISSN 0895-8378, E-ISSN 1091-7691, Vol. 34, no 5-6, p. 159-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Adverse cardiovascular effects are associated with both diesel exhaust and road traffic noise, but these exposures are hard to disentangle epidemiologically. We used an experimental setup to evaluate the impact of diesel exhaust particles and traffic noise, alone and combined, on intermediary outcomes related to the autonomic nervous system and increased cardiovascular risk. Methods: In a controlled chamber 18 healthy adults were exposed to four scenarios in a randomized cross-over fashion. Each exposure scenario consisted of either filtered (clean) air or diesel engine exhaust (particle mass concentrations around 300 µg/m3), and either low (46 dB(A)) or high (75 dB(A)) levels of traffic noise for 3 h at rest. ECG was recorded for 10-min periods before and during each exposure type, and frequency-domain heart rate variability (HRV) computed. Endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness were assessed after each exposure using EndoPAT 2000. Results: Compared to control exposure, HRV in the high frequency band decreased during exposure to diesel exhaust, both alone and combined with noise, but not during noise exposure only. These differences were more pronounced in women. We observed no synergistic effects of combined exposure, and no significant differences between exposure scenarios for other HRV indices, endothelial function or arterial stiffness. Conclusion: Three-hour exposure to diesel exhaust, but not noise, was associated with decreased HRV in the high frequency band. This indicates activation of irritant receptor-mediated autonomic reflexes, a possible mechanism for the cardiovascular risks of diesel exposure. There was no effect on endothelial dysfunction or arterial stiffness after exposure. © 2022 The Author(s). 

  • 27.
    Svensson, C. R.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ameer, S. S.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ludvigsson, L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ali, N.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Alhamdow, A.
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Messing, M. E.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, A.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Bohgard, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Sanfins, E.
    Institute of Emerging Diseases and Innovative Therapies, France.
    Kåredal, M.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Broberg, K.
    Lund University, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor. Lund University, Sweden.
    Validation of an air–liquid interface toxicological set-up using Cu, Pd, and Ag well-characterized nanostructured aggregates and spheres2016In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 18, no 4, article id 86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systems for studying the toxicity of metal aggregates on the airways are normally not suited for evaluating the effects of individual particle characteristics. This study validates a set-up for toxicological studies of metal aggregates using an air–liquid interface approach. The set-up used a spark discharge generator capable of generating aerosol metal aggregate particles and sintered near spheres. The set-up also contained an exposure chamber, The Nano Aerosol Chamber for In Vitro Toxicity (NACIVT). The system facilitates online characterization capabilities of mass mobility, mass concentration, and number size distribution to determine the exposure. By dilution, the desired exposure level was controlled. Primary and cancerous airway cells were exposed to copper (Cu), palladium (Pd), and silver (Ag) aggregates, 50–150 nm in median diameter. The aggregates were composed of primary particles &lt;10 nm in diameter. For Cu and Pd, an exposure of sintered aerosol particles was also produced. The doses of the particles were expressed as particle numbers, masses, and surface areas. For the Cu, Pd, and Ag aerosol particles, a range of mass surface concentrations on the air–liquid interface of 0.4–10.7, 0.9–46.6, and 0.1–1.4 µg/cm2, respectively, were achieved. Viability was measured by WST-1 assay, cytokines (Il-6, Il-8, TNF-a, MCP) by Luminex technology. Statistically significant effects and dose response on cytokine expression were observed for SAEC cells after exposure to Cu, Pd, or Ag particles. Also, a positive dose response was observed for SAEC viability after Cu exposure. For A549 cells, statistically significant effects on viability were observed after exposure to Cu and Pd particles. The set-up produced a stable flow of aerosol particles with an exposure and dose expressed in terms of number, mass, and surface area. Exposure-related effects on the airway cellular models could be asserted.

  • 28.
    Vasilatou, K.
    et al.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Wälchli, C.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Iida, K.
    NMIJ, Japan.
    Horender, S.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Tritscher, T.
    TSI GmbH, Germany.
    Hammer, T.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gaie-Levrel, F.
    LNE, France.
    Auderset, K.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Extending traceability in airborne particle size distribution measurements beyond 10 µm: Counting efficiency and unit-to-unit variability of four aerodynamic particle size spectrometers2023In: Aerosol Science and Technology, ISSN 0278-6826, E-ISSN 1521-7388, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 24-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to establish traceable number concentration measurements of airborne particles beyond 10 μm in particle size. To this end, the primary standards for particle number concentration at the National Metrology Institutes of Switzerland and Japan were further developed to extend their measurement capabilities. Details on the upgraded setup are provided. An inter-comparison of the two primary standards using an optical particle counter as transfer standard showed that these agree well within the stated uncertainties at polystyrene (PS) equivalent optical diameter of 15 µm. Subsequently, four Model 3321 (TSI Inc., USA) aerodynamic particle size spectrometers (APS) were calibrated against the primary standard of Switzerland using size-certified PS spheres with optical/aerodynamic diameter up to 20 µm as test aerosols. The counting efficiency profile and unit-to-unit variability of the APS units were determined. The results presented here can be useful for the analysis and interpretation of data collected by the different atmospheric aerosol networks worldwide. The outlined methodology can also be applied in the calibration of automated bio-aerosol monitors. © 2022 The Author(s).

  • 29.
    Wittbom, Cerina
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden; Skåne Association of Local Authorities, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Ann-Charlotte
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials. Lund University, Sweden.
    Roldin, Pontus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordin, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden; Sweco Environment, Sweden.
    Sjögren, Staffan
    Lund University, Sweden; University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, Switzerland.
    Nilsson, Patrik T.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Swietlicki, Erik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pagels, Joakim
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Svenningsson, Birgitta
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Effect of solubility limitation on hygroscopic growth and cloud drop activation of SOA particles produced from traffic exhausts2018In: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 75, no 4, p. 359-383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hygroscopicity measurements of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles often show inconsistent results between the supersaturated and subsaturated regimes, with higher activity as cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) than indicated by hygroscopic growth. In this study, we have investigated the discrepancy between the two regimes in the Lund University (LU) smog chamber. Various anthropogenic SOA were produced from mixtures of different precursors: anthropogenic light aromatic precursors (toluene and m-xylene), exhaust from a diesel passenger vehicle spiked with the light aromatic precursors, and exhaust from two different gasoline-powered passenger vehicles. Three types of seed particles were used: soot aggregates from a diesel vehicle, soot aggregates from a flame soot generator and ammonium sulphate (AS) particles. The hygroscopicity of seed particles with condensed, photochemically produced, anthropogenic SOA was investigated with respect to critical supersaturation (sc) and hygroscopic growth factor (gf) at 90% relative humidity. The hygroscopicity parameter κ was calculated for the two regimes: κsc and κgf, from measurements of sc and gf, respectively. The two κ showed significant discrepancies, with a κgf /κsc ratio closest to one for the gasoline experiments with ammonium sulphate seed and lower for the soot seed experiments. Empirical observations of sc and gf were compared to theoretical predictions, using modified Köhler theory where water solubility limitations were taken into account. The results indicate that the inconsistency between measurements in the subsaturated and supersaturated regimes may be explained by part of the organic material in the particles produced from anthropogenic precursors having a limited solubility in water. © 2018, The Author(s).

  • 30.
    Ziegler, Ann-Kathrin
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jensen, Johan Kjellberg
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jiménez-Gallardo, Lucía
    Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
    Rissler, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. Lund University, Sweden.
    Gudmundsson, Anders
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Jan-Åke
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Isaksson, Caroline
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Dietary fatty acids modulate oxidative stress response to air pollution but not to infection2024In: Frontiers in Physiology, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anthropogenic changes to the environment expose wildlife to many pollutants. Among these, tropospheric ozone is of global concern and a highly potent pro-oxidant. In addition, human activities include several other implications for wildlife, e.g., changed food availability and changed distribution of pathogens in cities. These co-occurring habitat changes may interact, thereby modulating the physiological responses and costs related to anthropogenic change. For instance, many food items associated with humans (e.g., food waste and feeders for wild birds) contain relatively more ω6-than ω3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Metabolites derived from ω6-PUFAs can enhance inflammation and oxidative stress towards a stimulus, whereas the opposite response is linked to ω3-derived metabolites. Hence, we hypothesized that differential intake of ω6-and ω3-PUFAs modulates the oxidative stress state of birds and thereby affects the responses towards pro-oxidants. To test this, we manipulated dietary ω6:ω3 ratios and ozone levels in a full-factorial experiment using captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Additionally, we simulated an infection, thereby also triggering the immune system’s adaptive pro-oxidant release (i.e., oxidative burst), by injecting lipopolysaccharide. Under normal air conditions, the ω3-diet birds had a lower antioxidant ratio (GSH/GSSG ratio) compared to the ω6-diet birds. When exposed to ozone, however, the diet effect disappeared. Instead, ozone exposure overall reduced the total concentration of the key antioxidant glutathione (tGSH). Moreover, the birds on the ω6-rich diet had an overall higher antioxidant capacity (OXY) compared to birds fed a ω3-rich diet. Interestingly, only the immune challenge increased oxidative damage, suggesting the oxidative burst of the immune system overrides the other pro-oxidative processes, including diet. Taken together, our results show that ozone, dietary PUFAs, and infection all affect the redox-system, but in different ways, suggesting that the underlying responses are decoupled despite that they all increase pro-oxidant exposure or generation. Despite lack of apparent cumulative effect in the independent biomarkers, the combined single effects could together reduce overall cellular functioning and efficiency over time in wild birds exposed to pathogens, ozone, and anthropogenic food sources. 

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