Change search
Refine search result
1 - 44 of 44
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Effects of leaching on Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride treated wood2013In: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering, 2013, , p. 209-214Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Postia placenta decay of acetic anhydride modified wood – effect of leaching2014In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 162-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that acetylation of wood by the use of acetic anhydride is able to impart a significant degree of decay resistance. The aim of this work was to study how a standardized leaching procedure with water (EN 84) affected the degradation of acetic anhydride modified samples by the brown rot fungi Postia placenta compared to no leaching prior to incubation. Three different levels (low, medium, and high) of acetic anhydride modified Southern yellow pine (SYP; Pinus spp.) were tested. The samples were harvested after 4 and 28 weeks. Wecompared changes in mass loss, wood moisture content, fungal DNA, and gene expression from five genes. If leaching changes the acetylated samples and makes them more susceptible for fungal deterioration, the expected effect would be higher levels of these parameters. Generally, leaching resulted in few differences between leached and nonleached samples at low levels of acetylation, while no changes were found for the highest acetylation level. No differences were found in gene expressions after 28 weeks. The possible protection of acetylated wood against oxidative fungal degradation is suggested to be interpreted in combination with the lowered wood moisture content.

  • 3. Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Hietala, Ari
    A step towards a better understanding of fungal colonization of modified wood - QRT-PCR studies2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    et al.
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Norway.
    New insight regarding mode of action of brown rot decay of modified wood based on DNA and gene expression studies: A review2015In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood shows resistance against wood deteriorating fungi, but the mechanisms are still not fully understood. The aim of this paper was to summarise the molecular studies performed on modified wood with regard to brown rot decay fungi. The DNA data showed that fungi are present inside the laboratory wood test samples already after two weeks of inoculation. Generally the fungal DNA content reflects mass loss and wood moisture content. The oxidative gene expression seems to be higher in modified wood than in untreated wood and it tend to increase during incubation. Based on the gene expression data we suggest that the hypothesis of lack of substrate recognition by the fungus should be rejected. In the reviewed studies, total wood moisture content in the samples was generally not low enough to inhibit fungal colonisation. Hence, moisture distribution within the wood should be studied more closely.

  • 5. De Vetter, Liesbeth
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Van Acker, Joris
    Combined evaluation of durability and ecotoxicity: A case study on furfurylated wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modified wood is commercially available and merchandized as a new, environmentally friendly and durable wood species. However, there are no standards focusing on the evaluation of modified wood. Combining resistance against fungal decay and good ecotoxicological properties may be a start. In this study softwood and hardwood species were furfurylated using different treatment processes and treating solutions. The durability was determined by exposing the treated wood to a range of Basidiomycetes and the ecotoxicity was studied on two aquatic organisms. It was the purpose to come to a strategy and how to unite efficacy and ecotoxicity, since this is important in product development. The results show that the selection of fungus used for mass loss determination and the choice of ecotoxicity method is decisive, confirming that a combination of methods is valuable. A tiered approach to find the optimal treatment seems the best option. First, adequate protection against wood-rotting fungi should be attained, followed by ecotoxicity evaluation of the wood leachates. If necessary, the optimization process should be repeated until both durability and ecotoxicity are within satisfactory limits. This process could be extended with other evaluation criteria, e.g. dimensional stability of the modified wood or a risk analysis of its leachate.

  • 6.
    Ehmcke, Gabriele
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Koch, Gerald
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Improvement of a method for topochemical investigations of degraded furfurylated wood2016In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 96-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Today there is an increasing demand for wood protection systems which are based on low environmental impact technologies. The aim of this study was to improve a method for investigating furfurylated Pinus radiata, both in terms of the furfuryl alcohol polymerisation process in the wood cell wall and the detection of initial signs of brown rot degradation. It is an established theory today that brown rot degradation starts with lignin modification in the outermost part of the secondary cell wall and the combined middle lamella. We adapted a method (cellular UV microspectrophotometry, UMSP) which enables direct imaging of the lignin distribution and modification within individual cell wall layers. Furfurylated P. radiata, incubated with Postia placenta, were scanned with monochromatic UV-light at 280 nm. The results showed that USMP is a promising method to study furfurylated wood and early fungal degradation damages in the cell wall of furfurylated wood.

  • 7. Ehmcke, Gabriele
    et al.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Improvement of a cytochemical method for localization of hydrogen peroxide and adaptation to furfurylated wood2014In: Proceedings of 10th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science & Engineering (WSE 2014), Edinburgh Napier University , 2014, , p. 180-186Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ehmcke, Gabrielle
    et al.
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Koch, Gerald
    Thünen Institute of Wood Research, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Topochemical analyses of furfuryl alcohol-modified radiata pine (Pinus radiata) by UMSP, light microscopy and SEM2017In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 71, no 10, p. 821-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Furfurylation is one of the wood modification techniques via catalytic polymerization of the monomeric furfuryl alcohol (FA) in the impregnated cell wall. Little is known about the topochemistry of this process. Brown rot degradation begins with lignin modification and therefore, the reactions between FA and lignin was one focus of this research. Furfurylated radiata pine (Pinus radiata) with three different weight percent gains (WPGs of 57%, 60% and 70%) after FA uptake was observed by cellular ultraviolet microspectrophotometry (UMSP) to analyze chemical alterations of the individual cell wall layers. Moreover, light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were performed. The ultraviolet (UV) absorbance of the modified samples increased significantly compared to the untreated controls, indicating a strong polymerization of the aromatic compounds. Highest UV absorbances were found in areas with the highest lignin concentration. The UMSP images of individual cell wall layers support the hypothesis concerning condensation reactions between lignin and FA.

  • 9. Johansson, Sanne
    et al.
    Wadsö, Lars
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    The activity of a wood-decaying fungus during drying and rewetting cycles measured by isothermal calorimetry2013In: p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Brischke, Christian
    Rapp, A.O.
    Hansson, Mattias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Jermer, Jöran
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Methods of field data evaluation – time versus reliability2011In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting IRG/WP 11, 2011, , p. 18Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Larsson Brelid, Pia
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Bardage, Stig
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Testbäddar för beständighetsprovning2014Report (Refereed)
  • 12. Meyer, Linda
    et al.
    Brischke, Christian
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Modified Timber in Various Above Ground Exposures – Durability and Moisture Performance2012In: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , p. 137-144Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13. Meyer, Linda
    et al.
    Brischke, Christian
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Moisture performance based wood durability testing2012In: p. 26-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    An overview of available DNA-based applications and results relevant for wood protection2008In: 4th meeting of the Nordic Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), Latvian State Instiute of Wood Chemistry , 2008, , p. 24-29Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and environmental impact of alternatives to conventional wood preservatives2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä. Chalmers University of Technology.
    Fungal degradation patterns and toxicity of furfurylated wood2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    A better understanding of the mode of action of furfurylated wood2010In: proceedings of 5th meeting of the Nordic-Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), University of Copenhagen , 2010, , p. 13-19Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Børja, Isabella
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Durability and fungal colonisation patterns in wood samples after six years in soil contact evaluated with qPCR, microscopy, TGA, chitin- and ergosterol assays2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Long, Carl
    The effects of acetylation level on the growth of Postia placenta over 36 weeks2012In: p. 13-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Fossdal, Carl Gunnar
    Børja, Isabella
    qPCR as a tool to study basidiomycete colonization in wooden field stakes2011In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 889-895Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Hietala, Ari
    Quantification of fungal colonization in modified wood: Quantitative real-time PCR as a tool for studies on Trametes versicolor2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, no 5, p. 645–651-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditional wood preservatives based on biocides are effective against wood-deteriorating organisms because of their toxicity. By contrast, modified woods are non-toxic by definition. To investigate the efficiency of various wood modifications, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to profile the DNA amounts of the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor (L.) [Lloyd strain CTB 863 A] during an 8-week-long growth period in treated Pinus sylvestris (L.) sapwood. The studied wood was modified by acetylation, furfurylation, and thermal treatment. The traditional wood preservatives bis-(N-cyclohexyldiazeniumdioxy)-copper (Cu-HDO) and chromated copper arsenate (CCA) were used as references, whereas untreated P. sylvestris (L.) sapwood served as a control. The maximum levels of fungal DNA in native wood occurred at the end of the experiment. For all wood treatments, the maximum fungal DNA level was recorded after an incubation period of 2 weeks, followed by a decline until the end of the trial. For the preservative-treated woods, Cu-HDO showed the lowest level of fungal DNA throughout the experiment, indicating that exploratory hyphal growth is limited owing to the phytotoxicity of the treatment. The other treatments did not inhibit the exploratory hyphal growth phase. We conclude that qPCR studies of hyphal growth patterns within wood should provide a powerful tool for evaluating and further optimizing new wood protection systems.

  • 22.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Arnold, Petra
    Richter, Klaus
    Protein extraction from wood decay fungus Postia placenta2014In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2014 - IRG/WP 14, 2014, , p. 11Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brischke, Christian
    Meyer, Linda
    Relevance of natural pre-weathering for laboratory decay tests with native, modified, and preservative treated wood2013In: p. 10-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    De Vetter, Liesbeth
    Van Acker, Joris
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard of leachates from furfurylated wood: Comparison between two different aquatic organisms2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 5, p. 1067-1071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental concern regarding the use of toxic preservatives such as chromated copper arsenate (CCA) has been put forward. In the European Union, United States, and Japan, CCA has been phased out for residential and water-contact applications. Ecotoxicological studies of wood treated with conventional preservatives were carried out in the late 1990s, and it was concluded that the main impact is to water and aquatic organisms. Today, alternatives to conventional preservation methods, marketed as “environmentally friendly” or “nontoxic,” are emerging. Examples of such alternatives are modified wood, e.g., thermally modified, furfurylated, and acetylated wood. To date, not enough hazard characterization has been performed. In the present study, the Microtox® assay with the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri and the Daphtox® procedure with the crustacean Daphnia magna were used as screening methods in an effect assessment. Both organisms were exposed to water leachates from furfurylated wood using two different leaching procedures. The results indicate that Microtox is more sensitive to the toxic components from furfurylated wood than Daphtox. Furthermore, the toxicity of treated Pinus radiata was higher than that of treated Pinus sylvestris. The toxicity did not diminish over the test period, as is the case for preservative-treated wood. The present study found that treatment conditions can influence the toxicity considerably, so toxicity studies should be included in the development of new treatment process. The present study also shows that using an intermediate vacuum-drying step, leading to a more efficient curing/polymerization, results in slightly less hydrophobic oligomers in the product, such that the leachates become less toxic to bacteria.

  • 25.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Gjelstrup Björdal, Charlotte
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Microscopy evaluation of microbial decay patterns in wood stakes after 6 years in soil contact2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, IRG Secretariat , 2010, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Kölle, Martina
    Brischke, Christian
    Richter, Klaus
    Expression of Postia placenta wood degradation genes in thermally modified wood2014In: Proceedings of 10th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science & Engineering (WSE 2014), Edinburgh Napier University , 2014, , p. 97-103Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    van Zeeland, Albert
    Gosselink, Richard
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Toxic hazard and chemical analysis of leachates from furfurylated wood2010In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 29, no 9, p. 1918-1924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The furfurylation process is an extensively investigated wood modification process. Furfuryl alcohol molecules penetrate into the wood cell wall and polymerize in situ. This results in a permanent swelling of the wood cell walls. It is unclear whether or not chemical bonds exist between the furfuryl alcohol polymer and the wood. In the present study, five different wood species were used, both hardwoods and softwoods. They were treated with three different furfurylation procedures and leached according to three different leaching methods. The present study shows that, in general, the leachates from furfurylated wood have low toxicity. It also shows that the choice of leaching method is decisive for the outcome of the toxicity results. Earlier studies have shown that leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol prepolymers have higher toxicity to Vibrio fischeri than leachates from wood treated with furfuryl alcohol monomers. This is probably attributable to differences in leaching of chemical compounds. The present study shows that this difference in the toxicity most likely cannot be attributed to maleic acid, furan, furfural, furfuryl alcohol, or 2-furoic acid. However, the difference might be caused by the two substances 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and 2,5-furandimethanol. The present study found no difference in the amount of leached furfuryl alcohol between leachates from furfurylated softwood and furfurylated hardwood species. Earlier studies have indicated differences in grafting of furfuryl alcohol to lignin. However, nothing was found in the present study that could support this. The leachates of furfurylated wood still need to be investigated further to identify the chemical differences between wood furfurylated with furfuryl alcohol monomers and furfuryl alcohol prepolymers.

  • 28.
    Pilgård, Annica
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ecotoxicity of furfurylated wood – Effects of leachate on aquatic bacteria2009In: Proceeings of IRG annual meeting, 2009, , p. 9Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 29. Puttmann, Sabrina
    et al.
    Krause, Andreas
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Treu, Andreas
    Militz, Holger
    Furfurylated wood for wooden window constructions2010In: proceedings of The Fourth European Conference on Wood Modification, SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2010, , p. 569-576Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Beck, Greeley
    Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    The importance of moisture for Brown Rot degradation of Modified Wood: A critical discussion2019In: Forests, ISSN 1999-4907, E-ISSN 1999-4907, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 522Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of wood modification on wood-water interactions in modified wood is poorly understood, even though water is a critical factor in fungal wood degradation. A previous review suggested that decay resistance in modified wood is caused by a reduced wood moisture content (MC) that inhibits the diffusion of oxidative fungal metabolites. It has been reported that a MC below 23%-25% will protect wood from decay, which correlates with the weight percent gain (WPG) level seen to inhibit decay in modified wood for several different kinds of wood modifications. In this review, the focus is on the role of water in brown rot decay of chemically and thermally modified wood. The study synthesizes recent advances in the inhibition of decay and the effects of wood modification on the MC and moisture relationships in modified wood. We discuss three potential mechanisms for diffusion inhibition in modified wood: (i) nanopore blocking; (ii) capillary condensation in nanopores; and (iii) plasticization of hemicelluloses. The nanopore blocking theory works well with cell wall bulking and crosslinking modifications, but it seems less applicable to thermal modification, which may increase nanoporosity. Preventing the formation of capillary water in nanopores also explains cell wall bulking modification well. However, the possibility of increased nanoporosity in thermally modified wood and increased wood-water surface tension for 1.3-dimethylol-4.5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) modification complicate the interpretation of this theory for these modifications. Inhibition of hemicellulose plasticization fits well with diffusion prevention in acetylated, DMDHEU and thermally modified wood, but plasticity in furfurylated wood may be increased. We also point out that the different mechanisms are not mutually exclusive, and it may be the case that they all play some role to varying degrees for each modification. Furthermore, we highlight recent work which shows that brown rot fungi will eventually degrade modified wood materials, even at high treatment levels. The herein reviewed literature suggests that the modification itself may initially be degraded, followed by an increase in wood cell wall MC to a level where chemical transport is possible.

  • 31.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Goodell, Barry
    Richter, Klaus
    Possible targets of wood modification in brown rot degradation2014In: Proceedings IRG Annual Meeting 2014 - IRG/WP 14, 2014, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    Mode of action of brown rot decay resistance in modified wood: a review2014In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 239–246-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemically or physically modified wood materials have enhanced resistance to wood decay fungi. In contrast to treatments with traditional wood preservatives, where the resistance is caused mainly by the toxicity of the chemicals added, little is known about the mode of action of nontoxic wood modification methods. This study reviews established theories related to resistance in acetylated, furfurylated, dimethylol dihydroxyethyleneurea- treated, and thermally modified wood. The main conclusion is that only one theory provides a consistent explanation for the initial inhibition of brown rot degradation in modified wood, that is, moisture exclusion via the reduction of cell wall voids. Other proposed mechanisms, such as enzyme nonrecognition, micropore blocking, and reducing the number of free hydroxyl groups, may reduce the degradation rate when cell wall water uptake is no longer impeded.

  • 33.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    University of Göttingen, Germany.
    Windeisen, Elizabeth
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Incipient brown rot decay in modified wood: patterns of mass loss, structural integrity, moisture and acetyl content in high resolution2017In: International Wood Products Journal, ISSN 2042-6445, E-ISSN 2042-6453, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 172-182Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of degradation and growth patterns of fungi in modified wood may increase the understanding of their mode of action and may lead to more accurate service-life predictions. The aim of this paper was to study the degradation and growth patterns of brown rot fungi in modified wood and to measure moisture content (MC), structural integrity and the acetyl content by frequent monitoring over 300 days. Mass loss (ML) in the modified wood materials increased slowly up to 3% for 50–100 days after which it flattened out and remained constant during the remainder of the test. Structural integrity and acetyl content were maintained in the modified wood materials and MC was lower compared to untreated wood throughout the decay test. ML results of untreated wood indicate that fungi in solid wood go through distinct phases; the degradation patterns in the modified wood materials were more difficult to interpret.

  • 34.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad. Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Kölle, Martina
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Brischke, Christian
    Leibniz University Hannover, Germany.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Effects of thermal modification on Postia placenta wood degradation dynamics: measurements of mass loss, structural integrity and gene expression2016In: Wood Science and Technology, ISSN 0043-7719, E-ISSN 1432-5225, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 385-397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism by which modified wood resists decay has long been discussed, but is still not fully understood. A better understanding of decay resistance mechanisms could improve wood protection processes and product properties. In this study, the dynamics of brown rot decay in thermally modified wood was examined through measurements of mass loss, strength loss and gene expression. Close monitoring of mass loss over 120 days in thermally modified wood exposed to Postia placenta showed a delay in the onset of degradation compared to untreated wood, and once the degradation had started, the rate was lower. Thermally modified wood did not inhibit expression of wood degradation-related genes before mass loss and was similar to that in untreated wood once mass loss could be detected. Comparing gene expression as well as strength loss at the same stage of decay rather than at the same time after exposure showed smaller differences in decay patterns between thermally modified and untreated wood than previous results indicate. It is concluded that the key to understanding degradation resistance in thermally modified wood is to compare the decay patterns in thermally modified wood and untreated wood before mass loss occurs.

  • 35.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Univerität München, Germany.
    Effect of wood modification on gene expression during incipient Postia placenta decay2014In: International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, ISSN 0964-8305, E-ISSN 1879-0208, Vol. 86, no B, p. 86-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mode of action of nontoxic wood modifications and the fungal response to modified wood are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the reaction of Postia placenta in terms of gene expression of selected genes upon the encounter of acetylated, DMDHEU-treated and thermally modified wood. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) showed that the investigated P.placentagenes involved in oxidative degradation were expressed at higher levels in modified wood than in untreated wood, while expression levels in modified wood for the investigated genes involved in enzymatic degradation were slightly lower than those in untreated wood. The results indicate that the response of P.placenta upon the encounter of modified wood is to up-regulate the expressionof the oxidative degradation machinery. In addition, our results support the theory that the decay resistance of the herein studied modified woods is due to inhibition of fungal molecules, needed for oxidative degradation of wood polymers, to penetrate the wood cell wall.

  • 36.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Richter, Klaus
    Effects of wood modification on gene expression during incipient Postia Placenta decay2013In: Proceedings of the 9th Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering, 2013, , p. 221-227Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Technische Universität München, Germany.
    In vitro oxidative and enzymatic degradation of modified wood2014In: The seventh European Conference on Wood Modification : Book of Abstracts, 2014, Vol. 6, p. 36-39, article id 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fungal cellulases have been shown to be less efficient in modified wood than in untreated wood (Lekounogou et al. 2008; Vena°s 2008). However, Verma and Mai (2010) showed that cellulase efficacy is partly restored in 1,3-dimethylol-4,5-dihydroxyethyleneurea (DMDHEU) treated wood by pre-treatment with Fenton's reagent, simulating the oxidative degradation phase in initial brown rot decay. In this study, we examined whether Fenton derived hydroxyl radicals (OH) and cellulases are able to cleave polysaccharides in furfurylated and acetylated wood and to what extent enzyme efficacy is increased by oxidative pre-treatment of these materials. The results show that fungal cellulases were able to degrade acetylated wood and that the cellulase efficacy was increased by oxidative pre-treatment by 20%, which is half of the increase in untreated wood. Furthermore, the results indicate that poly(furfuryl alcohol) is degraded by Fenton derived OH. This indicates a possible route for the eventual degradation of modified wood.

  • 38.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Richter, Klaus
    Postia placenta cellulase gene expression in modified wood during incipient decay2013In: p. 9-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Ringman, Rebecka
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Material och produkter (TRm).
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Richter, Klaus
    Postia placenta decay mechanisms and effects of wood modification2012In: The Sixth European Conference on Wood Modification Proceedings, University of Ljubljana , 2012, , p. 119-126Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Sandin, Gustav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Westin, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Integrating sustainability considerations into product development: a practical tool for prioritising social sustainability indicators and experiences from real case application2011In: Towards life cycle sustainability management / [ed] Matthias Finkbeiner, Springer Netherlands, 2011, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a tool for prioritising social sustainability parameters in product development is described. The tool's core element is a two-step Delphi exercise carried out in the product development team. The purpose of the tool is to (i) select critical social impact indicators suitable for guiding the product development process, (ii) enhance the product development team’s understanding in the field of social sustainability and (iii) engage the team in the sustainability assessment, with the further aim of ensuring the assessment’s influence on the product development process. Applied in a real product development project, the tool proved successful for selecting indicators and increase understanding of social sustainability within the product development team. Selected indicators' usefulness for the product development process remains an open question to be addressed later on as the project evolves.

  • 41.
    Sandin, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ahniyaz, Anwar
    Fornara, Andrea
    Peters, Greg
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Johansson Salazar-Sandoval, Eric
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Xu, Yingqian
    Environmental Evaluation of a Clear Coating for Exterior Wood Products: Toxicological Testing of Nanoparticles and Life Cycle Assessment2012In: 8th International Woodcoatings Congress: Science and Technology for Sustainable Design, Paint Research Association , 2012, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Treu, Andreas
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Puttmann, Sabrina
    Krause, Andreas
    Westin, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Material properties of furfurylated wood for window production2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 13Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43. Wadsö, Lars
    et al.
    Johansson, Sanne
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    The activity of rot fungi (Postia placenta) during drying and rewetting cycles measured by isothermal calorimetry2013In: Engineering in Life Sciences, ISSN 1618-0240, E-ISSN 1618-2863, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 536-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44. Wadsö, Lars
    et al.
    Pilgård, Annica
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Alfredsen, Gry
    Measurements of rot fungal activity as a function of moisture content by isothermal calorimetry2010In: Proceedings of IRG Annual Meeting, 2010, , p. 5Conference paper (Other academic)
1 - 44 of 44
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.7