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  • 1.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Automatic matching of software component requirements using semi-formal specifications and a CBSE ontology2015In: 2015 International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE), 2015, p. 118-128Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most significant tasks of component-based software development is concerned with finding suitable components for integration. This paper introduces a novel development framework that promotes reusability and focuses on assessing the suitability level of candidate components. A specifications profile is first created using a semi-formal natural language that describes the desired functional and non-functional properties of the component(s) sought. A parser automatically recognizes parts of the profile and translates them into instance values of a dedicated CBSE ontology, the latter addressing issues of components' reusability. Available components on the market are also stored as instances of the CBSE ontology. Matching between required and offered component properties takes place automatically at the level of the ontology items and a suitability ratio is calculated that suggests which components to consider for integration.

  • 2.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    et al.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Towards a CBSE Framework for Enhancing Software Reuse: Matching Component Properties Using Semi-Formal Specifications and Ontologies2016In: Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering / [ed] Leszek A. Maciaszek, Joaquim Filipe, Springer-Verlag , 2016, 18, Vol. 599, p. 98-121Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel Component-based Software Engineering (CBSE) framework is proposed in this work that focuses on enhancing the reuse process by offering support for locating appropriate components. The architecture of the framework comprises of five interrelated layers, namely Description, Location, Analysis, Recommendation and Build. The scope of this work is to describe in detail the first and third layers, and provide the means to evaluate the suitability of candidate software components for reuse. The overall aim is to facilitate components’ profiling and offer efficient matching of system and software requirements to increase the reusability potential of components. A specifications profile is created for each component using a semi-formal natural language that describes certain properties. A dedicated parser recognizes parts of the profile and translates them into in-stance values of a dedicated CBSE ontology that encodes these properties. Matching is then performed at the level of ontology instances between the available components and the components required by the developer. The framework recommends components based on a suitability ratio that calculates their distances from the desired properties.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Characteristics of Software Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems: A Case Study2014In: Information and Software Technology, Vol. 51, p. 1457-1475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Traditionally, Embedded Systems (ES) are tightly linked to physical products, and closed both for communication to the surrounding world and to additions or modifications by third parties. New technical solutions are however emerging that allow addition of plug-in software, as well as external communication for both software installation and data exchange. These mechanisms in combination will allow for the construction of Federated Embedded Systems (FES). Expected benefits include the possibility of third-party actors developing add-on functionality; a shorter time to market for new functions; and the ability to upgrade existing products in the field. This will however require not only new technical solutions, but also a transformation of the software ecosystems for ES. Objective: This paper aims at providing an initial characterization of the mechanisms that need to be present to make a FES ecosystem successful. This includes identification of the actors, the possible business models, the effects on product development processes, methods and tools, as well as on the product architecture. Method: The research was carried out as an explorative case study based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to ES that represent different roles in a future ecosystem for FES. The interview data was analyzed and the findings were mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC). Results: The findings from the study describe the main characteristics of a FES ecosystem, and identify the challenges for future research and practice. Conclusions: The case study indicates that new actors exist in the FES ecosystem compared to a traditional supply chain, and that their roles and relations are redefined. The business models include new revenue streams and services, but also create the need for trade-offs between, e.g., openness and dependability in the architecture, as well as new ways of working.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Notes On Agile and Safety-Critical Development2016In: Software Engineering Notes: an Informal Newsletter of The Specia, ISSN 0163-5948, E-ISSN 1943-5843, Vol. 41, no 2, p. 23-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agile approaches have been highly influential to the software engineering practices in many organizations, and are increasingly being applied in larger companies, and for developing systems outside the pure software domain. To understand more about the current state of agile, its applications to safety-critical systems, and the consequences on innovation and large organizations, a seminar was organized in Stockholm in 2014. This paper gives an overview of the topics discussed at that seminar, a summary of the main results and suggestions for future work as input to a research agenda for agile development of safety-critical software.

  • 5. Belk, Marios
    et al.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Germanakos, Panagiotis
    Samaras, George
    Modeling users on the World Wide Web based on cognitive factors, navigation behavior and clustering techniques2013In: Journal of Systems and Software, Vol. 86, p. 2995-3012Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on modeling users’ cognitive styles based on a set of Web usage mining techniques on user navigation patterns and clickstream data. Main aim is to investigate whether specific clustering techniques can group users of particular cognitive style using measures obtained from psychometric tests and content navigation behavior. Three navigation metrics are proposed and utilized to find identifiable groups of users that have similar navigation patterns in relation to their cognitive style. The proposed work has been evaluated with two user studies which entail a psychometric-based survey for extracting the users’ cognitive styles, combined with a real usage scenario of users navigating in a controlled Web 2.0 environment. A total of 106 participants of age between 17 and 25 participated in the study providing interesting insights with respect to cognitive styles and navigation behavior of users. Studies like the reported one can be useful for modeling users and assist adaptive Web 2.0 environments to organize and present information and functionalities in an adaptive format to diverse user groups.

  • 6.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting component sourcing options: A survey of software engineering's broader make-or-buy decisions2019In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 112, p. 18-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them from external sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: (1) developing software in-house, (2) outsourcing development, (3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and (4) integrating open source software components. Objective: Unfortunately, there is little available research on how organizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Results: Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. Conclusion: We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 7.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Alégroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Shah, Syed
    iZettle, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Selecting Software Component Sourcing Options: Detailed Survey Description and Analysis2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering (CBSE) is a common approach to develop and evolve contemporary software systems. When evolving a system based on components, make-or-buy decisions are frequent, i.e., whether to develop components internally or to acquire them fromexternal sources. In CBSE, several different sourcing options are available: 1) developing software in-house, 2) outsourcing development, 3) buying commercial-off-the-shelf software, and 4) integrating open source software components. Unfortunately, there is little available research on howorganizations select component sourcing options (CSO) in industry practice. In this work, we seek to contribute empirical evidence to CSO selection. Method: We conduct a cross-domain survey on CSO selection in industry, implemented as an online questionnaire. Based on 188 responses, we find that most organizations consider multiple CSOs during software evolution, and that the CSO decisions in industry are dominated by expert judgment. When choosing between candidate components, functional suitability acts as an initial filter, then reliability is the most important quality. We stress that future solution-oriented work on decision support has to account for the dominance of expert judgment in industry. Moreover, we identify considerable variation in CSO decision processes in industry. Finally, we encourage software development organizations to reflect on their decision processes when choosing whether to make or buy components, and we recommend using our survey for a first benchmarking.

  • 8.
    Carlson, Jan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Context Model for Architectural Decision Support2016In: Proceedings - 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture, IEEE Press, 2016, p. 9-15, article id 7496440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing  efficient  and  effective  decision  making support  includes  identifying  means  to  reduce  repeated  manual work  and  providing  possibilities  to  take  advantage  of  the  experience  gained  in  previous  decision  situations.  For  this  to  be possible,  there  is  a  need  to  explicitly  model  the  context  of  a decision  case,  for  example  to  determine  how  much  the  evidence from one decision case can be trusted in another, similar context. In earlier work, context has been recognized as important when transferring  and  understanding  outcomes  between  cases.  The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, we describe different ways   of   utilizing   context   in   an   envisioned   decision   support system.  Thereby,  we  distinguish  between  internal  and  external context  usage,  possibilities  of  context  representation,  and  context  inheritance.  Second,  we  present  a  systematically  developed context  model  comprised  of  five  types  of  context  information, namely organization, product, stakeholder, development method &  technology,  and  market  &  business.  Third,  we  exemplary illustrate the relation of the context information to architectural decision  making  using  existing  literature.

  • 9.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    A multivariate statistical framework for the analysis of software effort phase distribution2015In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 59, p. 149-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context

    In software project management, the distribution of resources to various project activities is one of the most challenging problems since it affects team productivity, product quality and project constraints related to budget and scheduling.

    Objective

    The study aims to (a) reveal the high complexity of modelling the effort usage proportion in different phases as well as the divergence from various rules-of-thumb in related literature, and (b) present a systematic data analysis framework, able to offer better interpretations and visualisation of the effort distributed in specific phases.

    Method

    The basis for the proposed multivariate statistical framework is Compositional Data Analysis, a methodology appropriate for proportions, along with other methods like the deviation from rules-of-thumb, the cluster analysis and the analysis of variance. The effort allocations to phases, as reported in around 1500 software projects of the ISBSG R11 repository, were transformed to vectors of proportions of the total effort and were analysed with respect to prime project attributes.

    Results

    The proposed statistical framework was able to detect high dispersion among data, distribution inequality and various interesting correlations and trends, groupings and outliers, especially with respect to other categorical and continuous project attributes. Only a very small number of projects were found close to the rules-of-thumb from the related literature. Significant differences in the proportion of effort spent in different phrases for different types of projects were found.

    Conclusion

    There is no simple model for the effort allocated to phases of software projects. The data from previous projects can provide valuable information regarding the distribution of the effort for various types of projects, through analysis with multivariate statistical methodologies. The proposed statistical framework is generic and can be easily applied in a similar sense to any dataset containing effort allocation to phases.

  • 10.
    Chatzipetrou, Panagiota
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Alegroth, Emil
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Component attributes and their importance in decisions and component selection2019In: Software quality journal, ISSN 0963-9314, E-ISSN 1573-1367, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Component-based software engineering is a common approach in the development and evolution of contemporary software systems. Different component sourcing options are available, such as: (1) Software developed internally (in-house), (2) Software developed outsourced, (3) Commercial off-the-shelf software, and (4) Open-Source Software. However, there is little available research on what attributes of a component are the most important ones when selecting new components. The objective of this study is to investigate what matters the most to industry practitioners when they decide to select a component. We conducted a cross-domain anonymous survey with industry practitioners involved in component selection. First, the practitioners selected the most important attributes from a list. Next, they prioritized their selection using the Hundred-Dollar ($100) test. We analyzed the results using compositional data analysis. The results of this exploratory analysis showed that cost was clearly considered to be the most important attribute for component selection. Other important attributes for the practitioners were: support of the componentlongevity prediction, and level of off-the-shelf fit to product. Moreover, several practitioners still consider in-house software development to be the sole option when adding or replacing a component. On the other hand, there is a trend to complement it with other component sourcing options and, apart from cost, different attributes factor into their decision. Furthermore, in our analysis, nonparametric tests and biplots were used to further investigate the practitioners’ inherent characteristics. It seems that smaller and larger organizations have different views on what attributes are the most important, and the most surprising finding is their contrasting views on the cost attribute: larger organizations with mature products are considerably more cost aware.

  • 11.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Jan
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Towards Software Assets Origin Selection Supported by a Knowledge Repository2016In: 2016 1st International Workshop on Decision Making in Software ARCHitecture (MARCH), 2016, 10, p. 22-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software architecture is no more a mere system specification as resulting from the design phase, but it includes the process by which its specification was carried out. In this respect, design decisions in component-based software engineering play an important role: they are used to enhance the quality of the system, keep the current market level, keep partnership relationships, reduce costs, and so forth. For non trivial systems, a recurring situation is the selection of an asset origin, that is if going for in-house, outsourcing, open-source, or COTS, when in the need of a certain missing functionality. Usually, the decision making process follows a case-by-case approach, in which historical information is largely neglected. This solution avoids the overhead of keeping detailed documentation about past decisions, but hampers consistency among multiple, possibly related, decisions. The ORION project aims at developing a decision support framework in which historical decision information plays a pivotal role: it is used to analyse current decision scenarios, take well-founded decisions, and store the collected data for future exploitation. In this paper, we outline the potentials of such a knowledge repository, including the information it is intended to be stored in it, and when and how to retrieve it within a decision case.

  • 12.
    Frecon, Emmanuel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Technical Challenges in Designing Systems-of-Systems Supporting Vehicle Fleets2018In: Proceedings of the Third Swedish Workshop on the Engineering of Systems-of-Systems, 2018, p. 6-8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in interconnectivity between vehicles, vehicle fleets and infrastructures led to opportunities of interoperability and systems-of-systems (SoS). Several challenges emerge that put on requirements on dealing with the vast amount of data generated by modern vehicles and their actuation with higher-level commands and controls. They have naturally created opportunities for the development of sophisticated, powerful, generic platforms to support ingestion, storage, processing, management, operation and orchestration of data and processes in SoS. A prominent example is the scenario of vehicle fleets and more precisely, on how to engineer the SoS so that the collaboration among various constituent systems will achieve the SoS goals. Several challenges cap the extent of opportunities, such as determining the business and functional requirements, as well as technical: constructing and operating an independent, scalable, and flexible platform ensuring e.g., privacy and accountability. In this work, we discuss these concerns and challenges from a technical perspective.

  • 13.
    Jansen, Slinger
    et al.
    Utrecht Unievrsity, The Netherlands.
    Grunbacher, Paul
    Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Spinellis, Diomidis
    Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece.
    Working Group on Health Measurement of Open Source Projects and Ecosystems2018In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Open source projects and ecosystems can be studied due to the public availability of their data. The main reasons for studying this data is to collect operationalizable metrics that can be used for the improvement of the project or ecosystem. We can for instance use these metrics to do prediction, study adoption rates, and perform scenario modeling. Presently, in literature, the reigning health factors that are acknowledged are Robustness, Productivity, Niche creation. It is also common to look at ecosystem health from two dimensions: the partner/network level versus the system/project level. Each dimension provides a unique perspective on open source health and enables improvement in a different manner: one focuses on the activity within the platform, whereas the other focuses on the activity outside of it. Typically, in open source ecosystem health research the metrics are characterized along several axes: they are evaluated for availability, collectability, generalizability, comparability, user friendliness, etc. Examples of metrics are interactions between developers, clones, branches, and numbers of commits. We also find that metrics that are typically easy to collect are not very meaningful. Also, the need arises for a meaningful compact subset of metrics, instead of throwing the kitchen sink at evaluation projects. Also, we suspect that “typical” developer behaviors can be extracted from the correlations between different metrics. Finally, we find that the goal-question-metric approach is insufficiently employed in the study of the health of ecosystems. One of the bigger challenges in assessing ecosystem health is the myriad of perspectives on ecosystems. For instance, we can look at network health versus economic health. Furthermore, ecosystems themselves are made up of ecosystems, and we need to establish beforehand what the best manner is of decomposing an ecosystem.

  • 14.
    Jorgensen, Magne
    et al.
    Simula Research Laboratory, Norway; University of Oslo, Norway.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Believing is Seeing: Confirmation Bias Studies in Software Engineering2015In: 2015 41st Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications, 2015, 10, p. 92-95, article id 7302437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Confirmation bias is the human tendency to search for, collect, interpret, analyse, or recall information in a way that confirms one’s prior beliefs or preferences. In this paper, we review previous research and demonstrate confirmation bias and its effect in two software engineering contexts. The first study documents that managers bias their interpretation of randomly generated project data towards confirmation of their preferred contract type. The second study reports from an analysis of the results of 35 published comparisons of regression and analogybased cost estimation models. Twenty of these comparisons evaluate the performance of a self-developed analogy-based estimation model relative to a regression-based model and may be biased towards finding evidence confirming a better accuracy of their own model. A statistical meta-analysis of all 35 comparisons showed that the analogy-based models were more accurate than the regression-based models, whereas removing the 20 comparisons where the researchers evaluated their own models gave the opposite result. Our results support the idea that it is important to consider the presence and degree of confirmation bias when collecting information about topics where there are prior preferences, beliefs, or vested interests to avoid misleading conclusions.

  • 15.
    Markou, Ioannis
    et al.
    University of the Aegean, Greece.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    A Text Analyser of Crowdsourced Online Sources for Knowledge Discovery2016In: DBKDA 2016: The Eighth International Conference on Advances in Databases, Knowledge, and Data Applications, 2016, p. 8-14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years, Twitter has become the centre of crowdsourced-generated content. Numerous tools exist to analyse its content to lead to knowledge discovery. However, most of them focus solely on the content and ignore user features. Selecting and analysing user features such as user activity and relationships lead to the discovery of authorities and user communities. Such a discovery can provide an additional perspective to crowdsourced data and increase understanding of the evolution of the trends for a given topic. This work addresses the problem by introducing a dedicated software tool developed, the Text Analyser of Crowdsourced Online Sources (TACOS). TACOS is a social relationship search tool that given a search term, analyses user features and discovers authorities and user communities for that term. For knowledge representation, it visualises the output in a graph, for increased readability. In order to show the applicability of TACOS, we have chosen a real example and aimed through two case studies to discover and analyse a specific type of user communities.

  • 16.
    Mittas, Nikolaos
    et al.
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Angelis, Lefteris
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.
    Andreou, Andreas S.
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Integrating non-parametric models with linear components for producing software cost estimations2015In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 99, p. 120-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-lasting endeavor in the area of software project management is minimizing the risks caused by under- or over-estimations of the overall effort required to build new software systems. Deciding which method to use for achieving accurate cost estimations among the many methods proposed in the relevant literature is a significant issue for project managers. This paper investigates whether it is possible to improve the accuracy of estimations produced by popular non-parametric techniques by coupling them with a linear component, thus producing a new set of techniques called semi-parametric models (SPMs). The non-parametric models examined in this work include estimation by analogy (EbA), artificial neural networks (ANN), support vector machines (SVM) and locally weighted regression (LOESS). Our experimentation shows that the estimation ability of SPMs is superior to their non-parametric counterparts, especially in cases where both a linear and non-linear relationship exists between software effort and the related cost drivers. The proposed approach is empirically validated through a statistical framework which uses multiple comparisons to rank and cluster the models examined in non-overlapping groups performing significantly different.

  • 17.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Challenges in Software Ecosystems and Product Development2018In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production Research Report, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The German computer science pioneer Karl Steinbuch in 1966 remarked: “In a few decades time, computers will be inter-woven into almost every industrial product.” The increasing prevalence of software ecosystems and platforms today calls for the ability to augment solutions and support an emerging portfolio of leading technology solutions and trends. It is unquestionable to design or use any software technology without taking into account digitalisation trends the emerging technological innovations (e.g., Big Data, Internet of Things, Systems of Systems) and without considering standing on the shoulders of a multitude of layers of platforms and ecosystems. In our research we investigate efficient ways to organise and carry out product development in software ecosystems with the target to satisfy mutual and conflicting requirements from the involved parties. This led to the formulation of the overall research questions (RQs): RQ1. What are the implications on the business models of the different actors, when moving from a traditional supply chain to a dynamic SECO? RQ2. What are the options for improved design of product architectures to handle the contradictory requirements of openness, flexibility and dependability, and to allow efficient product line management? We identified challenges with respect to 3 categories: a) organizational, b) technical, and c) business and use a schema to conceptualise an ecosystem for Federated Embedded 1 8 1 8 2 182 18182 – Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems Systems encompassing of four layers: actors, business processes, services and components. We described in an explorative case study (based on interviews with 15 senior staff members at 9 companies related to Embedded Systems) our findings mapped according to the Business Model Canvas (BMC) to highlight the interrelated parts and characteristics of the domain. Openness in SECO was evaluated in 7 companies including 8 practitioners taking into account their practices and methods. Moreover, we target efficient and informed architecture formulation through the selection of existing components and services, and fast architectural adaptations which is crucial for companies’ success, with a systematic approach in the decision-making process with respect to components, services and platforms.

  • 18.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Embracing cognitive factors and fuzzy logic in adaptive interactive systems2013In: International Journal of Engineering Intelligent Systems, Vol. 21, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased demand of services on the Web to satisfy the diverse characteristics of users have resulted in a plethora of applications that aim to provide personalized services based on the heterogeneous needs and preferences of users. With the aim to enhance and support the personalization process of Web applications, an innovative adaptation framework is proposed embracing cognitive factors of users which serve as the user model, and Computational Intelligence techniques that decide on the adaptation effects of Web applications for providing a personalized user experience. The user model is based on a series of psychometric measures which capture particular cognitive factors of users, and the adaptation mechanism includes the utilization of Artificial Neural Networks and Fuzzy Logic for exploiting the benefits of intelligent classification and partial truth in the adaptation process. The proposed method has been evaluated with a user study that has revealed a main effect of cognitive factors of users on the adaptation of Web content and functionality since users were more efficient and effective in completing tasks in the adapted than the non-adapted version of the same environment.

  • 19.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Integrating Human Factors and Semantic Mark-ups in Adaptive Interactive Systems2014In: Open Journal of Web Technologies (OJWT), Vol. 1, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on incorporating individual differences in cognitive processing and semantic markups in the context of adaptive interactive systems. In particular, a semantic Web-based adaptation framework is proposed that enables Web authors to enrich content and functionality of Web environments with semantic markups, which are further processed and reconstructed by an adaptation mechanism based on cognitive factors of users. Main aim of this work is to investigate the added value of personalizing content and functionality of Web environments based on the unique cognitive characteristics of users. Accordingly, a user study has been conducted that entailed a psychometric-based survey for extracting users’ cognitive characteristics, combined with a real usage scenario of an existing commercial Web environment that was enriched with semantic markups and was personalized through different adaptation effects. The initial results obtained provide interesting insights in the design and deployment of adaptive interactive systems based on cognitive factors and semantic markups.

  • 20.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ecosystems and Open Innovation for Embedded Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study2015In: Software Business, Springer International Publishing , 2015, 11, Vol. 210, p. 81-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper surveys work on ecosystems and open innovation of systems in the context of software engineering for embedded systems. The primary research goal is to develop a research agenda based on the topics identified within the research publications on the topic. The agenda is based on a systematic mapping study of 260 publications obtained from digital libraries and is influenced by a set of areas of interest, i.e., product lines, open source, third party, business models, open innovation, and strategy. The results from the study include analysis of the type of research conducted in the field, its origin and research contribution. The study identifies the need for more solutions to specific open innovation problems such as mapping business models to technical platforms; defining open ecosystem processes that foster open innovation; and improving how ecosystem players can leverage on tool support for open innovation. A direction for future research is also provided.

  • 21.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andreou, Andreas
    Evidence of Agile Adoption in Software Organizations: An Empirical Survey2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at empirically investigating the levels of agile adoption by software development organizations in comparison with the type of practices followed, the business sectors and the countries of origin, as well as revealing the geographical organization and distribution of teams both within agile and traditional development environments. Through a dedicated survey conducted, the paper also discovers, analyzes and presents the business strategies, levels of expertise, benefits and concerns of agile adoption within the various participating organizations. The results obtained indicate that agile methods seem to offer opportunities for improved products in terms of quality and suggest a number of critical factors that affect the software process and the adoption of agile methods in general.

  • 22.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andreou, Andreas S
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    Empirical evidence and state of practice of software agile teams2014In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, Vol. 26, no 9, p. 855-866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an in depth analysis of empirical evidence on the state of practice within the agile domain obtained through a survey conducted in 2012. The context of focus is agile software processes and teams and the particular topics of interest revolve around three axes: (i) communication; (ii) project management; and (iii) quality assurance and validation. The aim of the survey is to deliver the current levels of agile adoption and practices as these are recorded in the responses of professionals in IT services and the software industry. The goal of the survey is to provide evidence-based assessment of the level of agile adoption by software development organizations, in relation to the general profile of the respondents (country of origin, business sectors, roles, etc.) and compared with different types of practices followed, such as agile techniques adopted, team organization and communication techniques, and project management. Particular patterns and trends are identified in the survey connecting the use of the agile paradigm with the aforementioned practices and investigating its relation with the roles of the respondents and the business strategies of their organizations.

  • 23.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Andersson, Jesper
    Issues and Challenges in Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses how Systems of Systems (SoS) can be constructed by linking together embedded computers in constituent systems to create complex but more flexible and adaptable systems. The approach of software system development is called Federated Embedded Systems (FES) and their revolved ecosystem of players is presented, aiming to ensure quality in engineering SoS. Ecosystems for Federated Embedded Systems (EcoFES) comprise a new area of research that scales component-based software development for embedded software into new dimensions. The proposed ecosystem dimension introduces an open, flexible and adaptable SoS architecture for improving the process of FES development. In the paper, we identify some architectural challenges and discuss the implications of scaling from a closed ecosystem to an open one, providing open collaboration and innovation in the context of FES.

  • 24.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Belk, Marios
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Germanakos, Panagiotis
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus; SAP AG, Germany.
    Samaras, George
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Towards implicit user modeling based on artificial intelligence, cognitive styles and web interaction data2014In: International journal on artificial intelligence tools, ISSN 0218-2130, Vol. 23, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A key challenge of adaptive interactive systems is to provide a positive user experience by extracting implicitly the users' unique characteristics through their interactions with the system, and dynamically adapting and personalizing the system's content presentation and functionality. Among the different dimensions of individual differences that could be considered, this work utilizes the cognitive styles of users as determinant factors for personalization. The overarching goal of this paper is to increase our understanding about the effect of cognitive styles of users on their navigation behavior and content representation preference. We propose a Web-based tool, utilizing Artificial Intelligence techniques, to implicitly capture and find any possible relations between the cognitive styles of users and their characteristics in navigation behavior and content representation preference by using their Web interaction data. The proposed tool has been evaluated with a user study revealing that cognitive styles of users have an effect on their navigation behavior and content representation preference. Research works like the reported one are useful for improving implicit and intelligent user modeling in engineering adaptive interactive systems.

  • 25.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Belk, Marios
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Germanakos, Panagiotis
    SAP AG, Germany.
    Samaras, George
    University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Personalised continuous software engineering2014In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Rapid Continuous Software Engineering, 2014, p. 57-62Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This work describes how human factors can influence continuous software engineering. The reasoning begins from the Agile Manifesto promoting individuals and interactions over processes and tools. The organisational need to continuously develop, release and learn from software development in rapid cycles requires empowered and self-organised agile teams. However, these teams are formed without necessarily considering the members' individual characteristics towards effective teamwork, from the personality and cognitive perspective. In this realm, this paper proposes a two level approach: first, form teams based on their collective personality traits and second, provide personalised tools and methods based on their individual differences in cognitive processing. The approach is motivated by a study conducted in a business environment focusing on task execution, satisfaction and effectiveness of team members in relation to their personalities and cognitive characteristics. Our preliminary results show that human factors provide a promising basis for increasing the capability of continuous software engineering.

  • 26.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS. University of Cyprus, Cyprus.
    Bibi, Stamatia
    University of Western Macedonia, Greece.
    Stamelos, Ioannis
    Aristotle University, Greece.
    Andreou, Andreas S
    Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus.
    An investigation of effort distribution among development phases: A four-stage progressive software cost estimation model2017In: Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, ISSN 2047-7473, E-ISSN 2047-7481, Vol. 29, no 10, article id e1881Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Software cost estimation is a key process in project management. Estimations in the initial project phases are made with a lot of uncertainty that influences estimation accuracy which typically increases as the project progresses in time. Project data collected during the various project phases can be used in a progressive time-dependent fashion to train software cost estimation models. Our motivation is to reduce uncertainty and increase confidence based on the understanding of patterns of effort distributions in development phases of real-world projects. In this work, we study effort distributions and suggest a four-stage progressive software cost estimation model, adjusting the initial effort estimates during the development life-cycle based on newly available data. Initial estimates are reviewed on the basis of the experience gained as development progresses and as new information becomes available. The proposed model provides an early, a post-planning, a post-specifications, and a post-design estimate, while it uses industrial data from the ISBSG (R10) dataset. The results reveal emerging patterns of effort distributions and indicate that the model provides effective estimations and exhibits high explanatory value. Contributions in lessons learned and practical implications are also provided.

  • 27.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Franke, Ulrik
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Decision-Making in Automotive Software Development: An Observational Study2016In: New Trends in Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques / [ed] Hamido Fujita, George Angelos Papadopoulos, IOS Press, 2016, Vol. 286, p. 59-68Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports results from an independent observational study of an automotive software development research project. The study is carried out as a monitoring activity of the project, which is inexpensive but still representative of real automotive software development cases, thus providing the basis for more rigorous studies. The objective is to take initial steps to improve our understanding of architectural decision-making in the development of software in the automotive domain. The key findings summarize issues surfacing during the development process related to the problem articulation and formulation, the impact of participant experience, the definition of requirements, the decision process, and the effect of the decisions made on the system architecture evolution. The paper offers some insights that can be useful to gain understanding of how decisions are typically made in real settings, i.e., based on gut-feeling, which is important when designing decision support systems for architectural design decisions.

  • 28.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Frecon, Emmanuel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kaizer, Christian
    Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria.
    Festl, Andreas
    Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria.
    Stocker, Alexander
    Virtual Vehicle Research Center, Austria.
    Towards a generic IoT platform for data-driven vehicle services2018In: / [ed] IEEE, 2018, p. 95-100, article id 8519505Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Advances in the field of engineering have resulted in vehicles becoming a digitised source of data from which scenarios of Quantified Vehicles emerge. Even though the benefits and range of emerging services are ample, several challenges cap the extent of opportunities, such as determining the business benefits, as well as constructing and operating an independent, scalable, and flexible platform ensuring e.g., privacy, accountability. In our work in progress paper, we propose a conceptual architecture of a generic IoT platform for enabling such data-driven services for the vehicle domain, while considering important characteristics, such as data security and privacy, improved service operations, safety and value creation for end-users. We then describe how this platform can be demonstrated, including the vehicle gateway device (Vehicle Data Logger) capturing the vehicle data, to finally enable a set of useful and usable data-driven services for vehicle drivers and other stakeholders.

  • 29.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Mantzouratos, Spyros
    IntraSoftInternational SA, Luxembourg ;.
    Gouvas, Panagiotis
    UBITECH LTD, Greece.
    Schiefer, Gunther
    KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Schork, Sebastian
    CAS Software AG, Germany .
    Abdelraheem, Mohamed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Mechler, Jeremias
    KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Gabel, Matthias
    KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Moldovan, Moldovan
    SIEMENS SRL, Romania.
    Yurchenko, Kateryna
    KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany.
    Carnehult, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    PaaSword: A Data Privacy and Context-aware Security Framework for Developing Secure Cloud Applications - Technical and Scientific Contributions2017In: European Space Projects: Developments, Implementations and Impacts in a Changing World - Volume 1: EPS Porto 2017, Porto, Portugal, 2017, p. 3-27Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Most industries worldwide have entered a period of reaping the benefits and opportunities cloud offers. At the same time, many efforts are made to address engineering challenges for the secure development of cloud systems and software.With the majority of software engineering projects today relying on the cloud, the task to structure end-to-end secure-by-design cloud systems becomes challenging but at the same time mandatory. The PaaSword project has been commissioned to address security and data privacy in a holistic way by proposing a context-aware security-by-design framework to support software developers in constructing secure applications for the cloud. This chapter presents an overview of the PaaSword project results, including the scientific achievements as well as the description of the technical solution. The benefits offered by the framework are validated through two pilot implementations and conclusions are drawn based on the future research challenges which are discussed in a research agenda.

  • 30.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Michalas, Antonis
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Gehrmann, Christian
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    A Holistic Data Privacy and Security by Design Platform-as-a-Service Framework Introducing Distributed Encrypted Persistence in Cloud-based Applications2015In: Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering (ENASE 15), Barcelona, Spain: ENASE 2015/SCITEPRESS , 2015, 14Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PaaSword’s vision is three-fold; i) maximize and fortify the trust of individual, professional and corporate customers to Cloud-enabled services and applications; ii) safeguard both corporate and personal sensitive data stored on Cloud infrastructures and Cloud-based storage services, and iii) enable the acceleration of Cloud computing technologies adoption and paradigm shift in the European industry. PaaSword will introduce a holistic data privacy and security by design framework enhanced by sophisticated context-aware policy access models and robust policy access, decision, enforcement and governance mechanisms, which will enable the implementation of secure and transparent Cloud-based applications and services, that will maintain a fully distributed and totally encrypted data persistence layer, and, thus, will ensure data protection, integrity and confidentiality, even in the case wherein there is no control over the underlying third-party Cloud resources utilised.

  • 31.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Papageorgiou, Elpiniki
    Fuzzy Cognitive Maps as Decision Support Tools for Investigating Critical Agile Adoption Factors2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lot of discussion on how to efficiently develop software by using agile methods in enterprises and what kind of implications enterprises face on their path towards enterprise agility exists in nowadays. This paper describes how Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) can be used as Computational Intelligence (CI) tools for Decision Support (DS) in reducing the risks of the implications in this adaptation or transformation process. Particularly, FCM are used in understanding the effect of a set of critical Agile Adoption Factors (AAF) proposed in literature in the success of adopting agile. A set of preliminary experiments have been conducted to show that AAF can be evaluated with the use of FCM and their effect on adoption success is validated in three specific contexts. The scenarios investigated show that a critical implication is corporate bureaucracy. Also, results indicate that some enablers are the project teams’ personal traits, such as collaborative attitude and readiness to change, as well as, the customers’ level of commitment. The proposed FCM model provides an insight on the usefulness of the method for assessing agile transformation success.

  • 32.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Petersen, Kai
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wohlin, Claes
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Carlson, Jan
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Malardalen University, Sweden.
    The GRADE Decision Canvas for Classification and Reflection on Architecture Decisions2017In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering - Volume 1: ENASE, 2017, p. 187-194Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces a decision canvas for capturing architecture decisions in software and systems engineering. The canvas leverages a dedicated taxonomy, denoted GRADE, meant for establishing the basics of the vocabulary for assessing and choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas serves as a template for practitioners to discuss and document architecture decisions, i.e., capture, understand and communicate decisions among decision-makers and to others. It also serves as a way to reflect on past decision-making activities devoted to both tentative and concluding decisions in the development of software-intensive systems. The canvas has been assessed by means of preliminary internal and external evaluations with four scenarios. The results are promising as the canvas fulfills its intended objectives while satisfying most of the needs of the subjects participating in the evaluation.

  • 33.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed Muhammad Ali
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Security Lab.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Decision support for choosing architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems: The GRADE taxonomy2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops (ECSAW '15), 2015, 8, article id a48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineering software-intensive systems is a complex process that typically involves making many critical decisions. A continuous challenge during system design, analysis and development is deciding on the reference architecture that could reduce risks and deliver the expected functionality and quality of a product or a service to its users. The lack of evidence in documenting strategies supporting decision-making in the selection of architectural assets in systems and software engineering creates an impediment in learning, improving and also reducing the risks involved. In order to fill this gap, ten experienced researchers in the field of decision support for the selection of architectural assets in engineering software-intensive systems conducted a workshop to reduce traceability of strategies and define a dedicated taxonomy. The result was the GRADE taxonomy, whose key elements can be used to support decision-making as exemplified through a real case instantiation for validation purposes. The overall aim is to support future work of researchers and practitioners in decision-making in the context of architectural assets in the development of software-intensive systems. The taxonomy may be used in three ways: (i) identify new opportunities in structuring decisions; (ii) support the review of alternatives and enable informed decisions; and (iii) evaluate decisions by describing in a retrospective fashion decisions, factors impacting the decision and the outcome.

  • 34.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Sentilles, Severine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Cicchetti, Antonio
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed M. A.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    The GRADE taxonomy for supporting decision-making of asset selection in software-intensive system development2018In: Information and Software Technology, ISSN 0950-5849, E-ISSN 1873-6025, Vol. 100, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context: The development of software-intensive systems includes many decisions involving various stakeholders with often conflicting interests and viewpoints. Objective: Decisions are rarely systematically documented and sporadically explored. This limits the opportunity for learning and improving on important decisions made in the development of software-intensive systems. Method: In this work, we enable support for the systematic documentation of decisions, improve their traceability and contribute to potentially improved decision-making in strategic, tactical and operational contexts. Results: We constructed a taxonomy for documentation supporting decision-making, called GRADE. GRADE was developed in a research project that required composition of a common dedicated language to make feasible the identification of new opportunities for better decision support and evaluation of multiple decision alternatives. The use of the taxonomy has been validated through thirty three decision cases from industry. Conclusion: This paper occupies this important yet greatly unexplored research gap by developing the GRADE taxonomy that serves as a common vocabulary to describe and classify decision-making with respect to architectural assets.

  • 35.
    Petersen, Kai
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Badampudi, Deepika
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Shah, Syed
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Gorschek, Tony
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Crnkovic, Ivica
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Choosing Component Origins for Software Intensive Systems: In-house, COTS, OSS or Outsourcing? – A Case Survey2018In: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, ISSN 0098-5589, E-ISSN 1939-3520, Vol. 44, no 3, p. 237-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of which software component to use influences the success of a software system. Only a few empirical studies investigate how the choice of components is conducted in industrial practice. This is important to understand to tailor research solutions to the needs of the industry. Existing studies focus on the choice for off-the-shelf (OTS) components. It is, however, also important to understand the implications of the choice of alternative component sourcing options (CSOs), such as outsourcing versus the use of OTS. Previous research has shown that the choice has major implications on the development process as well as on the ability to evolve the system. The objective of this study is to explore how decision making took place in industry to choose among CSOs. Overall, 22 industrial cases have been studied through a case survey. The results show that the solutions specifically for CSO decisions are deterministic and based on optimization approaches. The non-deterministic solutions proposed for architectural group decision making appear to suit the CSO decision making in industry better. Interestingly, the final decision was perceived negatively in nine cases and positively in seven cases, while in the remaining cases it was perceived as neither positive nor negative.

  • 36.
    Sentilles, Severine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Ciccozzi, Frederico
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    PROMOpedia: A web-content management-based encyclopedia of software property models2018In: Proceedings - International Conference on Software Engineering, 2018, p. 45-48Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way software properties are defined, described, and measured, is different across different domains. When addressing these properties, several challenges commonly emerge, among which: synonymity, polysemy, paronymy, incomplete and inconsistent specification. In this paper we introduce PROMOpedia, an online encyclopedia, to tackle these challenges. PROMOpedia uses a web-content management system coupled with crowd-sourcing of scientific contents related to properties and their evaluation methods. The core concepts of PROMOpedia are built upon a property models ontology previously proposed by the authors, and is intended to target the needs of both researchers and practitioners. Website: http://www.mrtc.mdh.se/promopedia/ © 2018 Authors.

  • 37.
    Sentilles, Severine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ciccozzi, Frederico
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Petersen, Kai
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A Property Model Ontology2016In: Proceedings - 42nd Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA 2016), IEEE Press, 2016, p. 165-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efficient development of high quality software is tightly coupled to the ability of quickly taking complex decisions based on trustworthy facts. In component-based software engineering, the decisions related to selecting the most suitable component among functionally-equivalent ones are of paramount importance. Despite sharing the same functionality, components differ in terms of their extra-functional properties. Therefore, to make informed selections, it is crucial to evaluate extra-functional properties in a systematic way. To date, many properties and evaluation methods that are not necessarily compatible with each other exist. The property model ontology presented in this paper represents the first step towards providing a systematic way to describe extra-functional properties and their evaluation methods, and thus making them comparable. This is beneficial from two perspectives. First, it aids researchers in identifying comparable property models as a guide for empirical evaluations. Second, practitioners are supported in choosing among alternative evaluation methods for the properties of their interest. The use of the ontology is illustrated by instantiating a subset of property models relevant in the automotive domain.

  • 38.
    Sentilles, Séverine
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Ciccozzi, Federico
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    What do we know about software security evaluation?: A preliminary study2018In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2018, p. 44-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —In software development, software quality is nowadays acknowledged to be as important as software functionality and there exists an extensive body-of-knowledge on the topic. Yet, software quality is still marginalized in practice: there is no consensus on what software quality exactly is, how it is achieved and evaluated. This work investigates the state-of-the-art of software quality by focusing on the description of evaluation methods for a subset of software qualities, namely those related to software security. The main finding of this paper is the lack of information regarding fundamental aspects that ought to be specified in an evaluation method description. This work follows up the authors’ previous work on the Property Model Ontology by carrying out a systematic investigation of the state-of-the-art on evaluation methods for software security. Results show that only 25% of the papers studied provide enough information on the security evaluation methods they use in their validation processes, whereas the rest of the papers lack important information about various aspects of the methods (e.g., benchmarking and comparison to other properties, parameters, applicability criteria, assumptions and available implementations). This is a major hinder to their further use.

  • 39.
    Shah, Syed
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Nyfjord, Jaana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Measuring Productivity in Agile Software Development Process: A Scoping Study2015In: Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on Software and System Process (ICSSP 2015), New York, NY, USA: ACM , 2015, 12, p. 102-106Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An agile software development process is often claimed to increase productivity. However, productivity measurement in agile software development is little researched. Measures are not explicitly defined nor commonly agreed upon. In this paper, we highlight the agile productivity measures reported in literature by means of a research method called scoping study. We were able to identify 12 papers reporting the productivity measures in agile software development processes. We found that finding, understanding and putting into use agile productivity definitions is not an easy task. From the perspective of common roles in agile software development process and existing knowledge workers' productivity dimensions, we also emphasize that none of the productivity measures satisfy these fully. We recommend that future effort should be focused on defining agile productivity in measurable, practicable and meaningful form.

  • 40.
    Werder, Karl
    et al.
    University of Cologne, Germany.
    Brinkkemper, Sjaak
    Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Bosch, Jan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cusumano, Michael A.
    MIT Sloan School of Management, USA.
    Herzwurm, Georg
    University of Stuttgart, Germany.
    Holmström, Helena
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Hyrynsalmi, Sami
    Tampere University of Technology, Finland.
    Kittlaus, Hans-Bernd
    InnoTivum Consulting, Germany; ISPMA International Software Product Management Association, Germany.
    Kude, Thomas
    ESSEC Business School, France.
    Margaria, Tiziana
    University of Limerick, Ireland.
    Papatheocharous, Efi
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Spinellis, Diomidis
    Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece.
    Tyrväinen, Pasi
    University of Jyväskylä, Finland.
    Wang, Xiaofeng
    Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy.
    Working Group on Software-Intensive Business Research: Definition and Roadmap2018In: Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digital environment companies are forced to participate in a process often coined digital transformation. As a result, companies expect to stay relevant and harness digital technologies for their competitive advantage and sustainable value creation. A central element of this transforming process is the software that companies develop, purchase or customize in order to support their business. These challenges stretch beyond the information and technology industry, as businesses use digital technology to compete in traditions industries. Popular examples are omnipresent, with Uber revolutionizing the taxi industry, AirBnB forcing new legislations to protect the hotel industry, and Spotify becoming a single source for music with a monthly subscription model. The Dagstuhl Seminar “Software Business, Platforms, and Ecosystems: Fundamentals of Software Production Research” organized by Pekka Abrahamsson, Jan Boch, Sjaak Brinkkemper, and Alexander Mädche took place from 29th of April until 02nd of May. The seminar’s objectives were i) to strengthen crosscommunity research efforts, ii) to increase accessibility of research data and results, iii) to exchange on current and future research developments and discussions, iv) to initiate project ideas between scholars and with industry that evolve into project proposals.

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