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  • 1. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Ammonium nitrate fertiliser production based on biomass: Environmental effects from a life cycle perspective2008In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 99, no 17, p. 8034-8041Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ammonium nitrate and calcium ammonium nitrate are the most commonly used straight nitrogen fertilisers in Europe, accounting for 43% of the total nitrogen used for fertilisers. They are both produced in a similar way; carbonate can be added as a last step to produce calcium ammonium nitrate. The environmental impact, fossil energy input and land use from using gasified biomass (cereal straw and short rotation willow (Salix) coppice) as feedstock in ammonium nitrate production were studied in a cradle-to-gate evaluation using life cycle assessment methodology. The global warming potential in the biomass systems was only 22-30% of the impact from conventional production using natural gas. The eutrophication potential was higher for the biomass systems due to nutrient leaching during cultivation, while the acidification was about the same in all systems. The primary fossil energy use was calculated to be 1.45 and 1.37 MJ/kg nitrogen for Salix and straw, respectively, compared to 35.14 MJ for natural gas. The biomass production was assumed to be self-supporting with nutrients by returning part of the ammonium nitrate produced together with the ash from the gasification. For the production of nitrogen from Salix, it was calculated that 3914 kg of nitrogen can be produced every year from 1 ha, after that 1.6% of the produced nitrogen has been returned to the Salix production. From wheat straw, 1615 kg of nitrogen can be produced annually from 1 ha, after that 0.6% of the nitrogen has been returned. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Future fuel supply systems for organic production based on Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether from on-farm-grown biomass2008In: Biosystems Engineering, ISSN 1537-5110, E-ISSN 1537-5129, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 145-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of making a 1000 ha organic farm self-sufficient in renewable fuel were studied. Biomass grown on-farm can be transported to large fuel production facilities and the fuel transported back to the farm. Two fuels, Fischer-Tropsch diesel (FTD) and dimethyl ether (DME), produced from either straw or short-rotation willow coppice (Salix), were studied. The environmental impact, land use and energy balance were calculated using life-cycle methodology. It was calculated that the straw-based systems had only 32-39% of the impact on global warming (kg [CO2-eq]) compared to the Salix-based systems. For acidification and eutrophication, the differences between the systems were less significant. The energy balances were 8.9 and 9.6 for FTD and 10.1 and 10.0 for DME, from straw and Salix, respectively. To become self-sufficient in FTD, 108 ha has to be set aside for Salix production or 261 ha of straw collected from the existing crop rotation. For DME the corresponding figures are 38 and 70 ha. The many by-products in the FTD scenarios explain the large difference between fuels. Comparing FTD and DME, the differences in environmental impact were small. Considering this, FTD is a more likely alternative since DME requires a pressurised infrastructure system and engine modifications. © 2007 IAgrE.

  • 3. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Tractive power in organic farming based on fuel cell technology: Energy balance and environmental load2009In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 102, no 1-3, p. 67-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analysed a future hypothetical organic farm self-sufficient in renewable tractor fuel. Biomass from the farm was assumed to be transported to a central fuel production plant and the fuel returned to the farm, where it was utilised in fuel cell powered tractors. The land use, energy balance and environmental impact of five different scenarios were studied. In the first two scenarios, straw was used as raw material for production of hydrogen or methanol via thermochemical gasification. In the third and fourth scenarios, short rotation forest (Salix) was used as raw material for the same fuels. In the fifth scenario, ley was used as raw material for hydrogen fuel via biogas production. The straw scenarios had the lowest impact in all studied environmental impact categories since the Salix scenarios had higher soil emissions and the ley scenario had comparatively large emissions from the fuel production. The energy balance was also favourable for straw, 16.3 and 19.5 for hydrogen and methanol respectively, compared to Salix 14.2 and 15.6. For ley to hydrogen the energy balance was only 6.1 due to low efficiency in the fuel production. In the Salix scenarios, 1.6% and 2.0% of the land was set aside for raw material production in the hydrogen and methanol scenarios respectively. In the straw scenarios no land needed to be reserved, but straw was collected on 4.3% and 5.3% of the area for hydrogen and methanol respectively. To produce hydrogen from ley, 4% of the land was harvested. The study showed that the difference in environmental performance lay in choice of raw material rather than choice of fuel. Hydrogen is a gas with low volumetric energy density, which requires an adapted infrastructure and tractors equipped with gas tanks. This leads to the conclusion that methanol probably will be the preferred choice if a fuel cell powered farm would be put into practice in the future. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 4. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P-A.
    Nitrogen fertiliser production based on biogas: Energy input, environmental impact and land use.2010In: Bioresource Technology, Vol. 101, p. 7192-7195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Det svenska jordbrukets framtida drivmedelsförsörjning2010Report (Refereed)
  • 6. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Green nitrogen2011Report (Refereed)
  • 7. Ahlgren, Serina
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Consequential life cycle assessment of nitrogen fertilisers based on biomass: A Swedish perspective.2012In: Insciences Journal Climate Change, Vol. 2, no 4, p. 80-101Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 9.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    Norén, Olle
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Grön traktor: Alternativa drivmedel för det ekologiska lantbruket2002Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Baky, Andras
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rodhe, Lena
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Rötrest från biogasanläggningar: användning i lantbruket2006Report (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Brandgård, Jennie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundh, I.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Schnurer, A.
    Mandenius, C.-F.
    Mathisen, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Monitoring growth of the methanogenic archaea Methanobacterium formicicum using an electronic nose2001In: Biotechnology letters, ISSN 0141-5492, E-ISSN 1573-6776, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 241-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth of the methanogenic archaea, Methanobacterium formicicum, in pure culture was monitored by analysing samples from the gas phase with an array of chemical gas sensors (an 'electronic nose'). Analyses of the methane and protein formation rates were used as independent parameters of growth, and the data obtained from the electronic nose were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA). We found that different growth phases can be distinguished with the electronic nose followed by PCA evaluation. The fast response of the sensors in combination with the high correlations with other parameters measuring growth show that the electronic nose can be a useful tool to rapidly determine methanogenic growth.

  • 12.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Producera biogas på gården2004Report (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ringmar, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Utvärdering av gårdsbaserad biogasanläggning på Hagavik2005Report (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edström, Mats
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic treatment of animal byproducts from slaughterhouses at laboratory and pilot scale2003In: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, ISSN 0273-2289, E-ISSN 1559-0291, Vol. 109, no 1-3, p. 127-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different mixtures of animal byproducts, other slaughterhouse waste (i.e., rumen, stomach and intestinal content), food waste, and liquid manure were codigested at mesophilic conditions (37°C) at laboratory and pilot scale. Animal byproducts, including blood, represent 70-80% of the total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter of animals. The total biogas potential from waste generated during slaughter is about 1300 MJ/cattle and about 140 MJ/pig. Fed-batch digestion of pasteurized (70°C, 1 h) animal byproducts resulted in a fourfold increase in biogas yield (1.14 L/g of volatile solids [VS]) compared with nonpasteurized animal byproducts (0.31 L/g of VS). Mixtures with animal byproducts representing 19-38% of the total dry matter were digested in continuous-flow stirred tank reactors at laboratory and pilot scale. Stable processes at organic loading rates (OLRs) exceeding 2.5 g of VS/(L·d) and hydraulic retention times (HRTs) less than 40 d could be obtained with total ammonia nitrogen concentrations (NH4-N + NH3-N) in the range of 4.0-5.0 g/L. After operating one process for more than 1.5 yr at total ammonia nitrogen concentrations >4 g/L, an increase in OLR to 5 g of VS / (L·d) and a decrease in HRT to 22 d was possible without accumulation of volatile fatty acids.

  • 15.
    Ekvall, Annika
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    Nordberg, Åke
    Hannerz, Nils
    Hantering av förpackat livsmedelsavfall2006Report (Refereed)
  • 16. Ericsson, N.
    et al.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundberg, C.
    Ahlgren, S.
    Hansson, P-A.
    Climate impact and energy efficiency from electricity generation through anaerobic digestion of direct combustion of short rotation coppice willow.2014In: Applied Energy, Vol. 132, p. 86-92Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17. Fredriksson, H.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Use of on-farm produced biofuels on organic farms: Evaluation of energy balances and environmental loads for three possible fuels2006In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 89, no 1, p. 184-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to evaluate systems making organic farms self-sufficient in farm-produced bio-based fuels. The energy balance and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Complete LCAs were not performed. Important constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified. The RME scenario showed favourable energy balance and produced valuable by-products but was less positive in some other aspects. The use of land was high and thereby also the emissions associated with cultivation. Emissions, with the exception of CO2, during utilisation of the fuel were high compared to those of the other fuels in the study. The technology for production and use of RME is well known and easy to implement at farm scale. The production of ethanol was energy consuming and the by-products were relatively low value. However, the area needed for cultivation of raw material was low compared to the RME scenario. The production and utilisation of ignition improver and denaturants were associated with considerable emissions. Suitable ethanol production technology is available but is more optimal for large scale systems. The biogas scenario had a low relative need for arable land, which also resulted in smaller soil emissions to air and water. Another advantage was the potential to recycle plant nutrients. On the other hand, the potential emissions of methane from storage of digestate, upgrading of biogas and methane losses during utilisation of fuel produced a negative impact, mainly on global warming. Small scale technology for biogas cleaning and storage is not fully developed and extensive tractor modifications are necessary. The global warming effects of all three systems studied were reduced by 58-72% in comparison to a similar farming system based on diesel fuel. However, the fuel costs were higher for all scenarios studied compared to current diesel prices. In particular, the large costs for seasonal storage of gas meant that the biogas scenario described is currently not financially viable. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Grim, Johanna
    et al.
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Malmros, Peter
    Uppsala Vatten och Avfall AB, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Comparison of pasteurization and integrated thermophilic sanitation at a full-scale biogas plant: Heat demand and biogas production2015In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 79, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sanitation is required for biogas plants handling slaughterhouse and food waste according to EU legislation. The standard method is pasteurization at 70 °C for 60 min, but integrated thermophilic sanitation (ITS), requiring 52 °C for 10 h in the digester, has been approved by the Swedish Board of Agriculture. This work compares pasteurization and ITS regarding heat demand and biogas production, using a full-scale plant in Uppsala, Sweden, as a case study. The plant currently uses pasteurization and thermophilic (52 °C) digestion. The impact of pasteurization on biogas production and process performance was examined at laboratory-scale. The heat demand for pasteurization was surveyed at the full-scale plant, while for ITS a process design was developed and the heat demand was theoretically calculated. The results showed that pasteurization had no significant effect on process performance or biogas production. The heat demand of pasteurization was measured to be 1.92 ± 0.29 MJ (kg VS)−1 (64.7 kWh t−1), while ITS was calculated to require 1.04 MJ (kg VS)−1 (35.1 kWh t−1). This represented 9% and 5% of biogas energy production, respectively. Changing sanitation method to ITS would hence reduce the heat demand at the plant by 46%, corresponding to annual savings of 4380 GJ (1.22 GWh).

  • 19. Hansson, M.
    et al.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Mathisen, B.
    On-line monitoring during anaerobic treatment of municipal solid waste2003In: Water Science and Technology, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 42260-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Hansson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sundh, I.
    Mathisen, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Early warning of disturbances in a laboratory-scale MSW biogas process.2002In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 45, no 10, p. 255-260Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to monitorthe dynamics of a biogas process was evaluated using multivariate data analysis. The digester was a completely stirred 8 I tank reactor fed with the organic fraction of source-sorted MSW. Intermittently the digester was overloaded with feed. Before and after overload on-line monitoring of NIR spectra and off-line analysis in the liquid and the gas phase of traditional chemical variables and microbial biomass, determined as total concentration of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA and PLEL), were done. The dynamics that occurred due to overloading could be followed using principal component analysis of the obtained NIR-spectra. In addition, the response to changes in the digester fluid was reproducible and could be detected within five minutes, which can be considered as real-time monitoring. Selected wavelengths in the region 800-2,000 nm were used to make a PLS1 -regression with propionate. The regression resulted in a good correlation for propionate (R= 0.94 and RMSEP of 0.21 g/l in the range of 0.3-3 g/l). The results indicate the possibility to develop an early warning biogas control system based on near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring of propionate.

  • 21. Hansson, P.-A.
    et al.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ahlgren, S.
    Bernesson, S.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pettersson, O.
    Self-sufficiency of motor fuels on organic farms: Evaluation of systems based on fuels produced in industrial-scale plants2007In: Agricultural Systems, ISSN 0308-521X, E-ISSN 1873-2267, Vol. 94, no 3, p. 704-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate systems for making organic farms self-sufficient in bio-based fuels. The energy efficiency and environmental load for systems based on rape methyl ester (RME), ethanol and biogas produced by processing raw material from the farm in industrial-scale plants were evaluated using a life cycle perspective. Eventual constraints when implementing the systems in practice were also identified and the farmer's costs for the systems estimated. The RME scenario showed some good characteristics; the energy efficiency and potential effects on global warming were favourable, the technology well known and no engine modifications were necessary. However, the high price of the organically produced rapeseed made the fuel expensive. The ethanol scenario provided fuel at a comparatively low cost, but the energy efficiency was low and existing engines would have to be modified. The biogas scenario was not as economically advantageous, due to high costs for storage and transport of the biogas and the extensive tractor modifications needed. The calculations further showed that systems based on so-called exchange of fuels, i.e. when the farm produces raw material for one type of biofuel, but instead uses another type of biofuel more suitable for its own tractors, were an economically favourable way of supplying the organic farms with 'self-produced' bio-based fuels. The exchange scenario based on delivery of organic wheat to a large-scale plant and use of RME at the farm was somewhat more expensive than scenarios based on production of biogas raw material at the farm. However, the wheat/RME system has the advantage of being possible to put into practice immediately, since industrial-scale wheat ethanol plants are in operation and RME fuel is available on the market. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 22. Hesselgren, Frida
    et al.
    Hellström, Daniel
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Anaerob behandling av hushållsavloppsvatten vid låga temperaturer2005Report (Refereed)
  • 23. Kimming, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, C.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Biomass from agriculture in small-scale combined heat and power plants: A comparative life cycle assessment2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 1572-1581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomass produced on farm land is a renewable fuel that can prove suitable for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants in rural areas. However, it can still be questioned if biomass-based energy generation is a good environmental choice with regards to the impact on greenhouse gas emissions, and if there are negative consequences of using of agricultural land for other purposes than food production. In this study, a simplified life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted over four scenarios for supply of the entire demand of power and heat of a rural village. Three of the scenarios are based on utilization of biomass in 100 kW (e) combined heat and power (CHP) systems and the fourth is based on fossil fuel in a large-scale plant. The biomass systems analyzed were based on 1) biogas production with ley as substrate and the biogas combusted in a microturbine, 2) gasification of willow chips and the product gas combusted in an IC-engine and 3) combustion of willow chips for a Stirling engine. The two first scenarios also require a straw boiler. The results show that the biomass-based scenarios reduce greenhouse gas emissions considerably compared to the scenario based on fossil fuel, but have higher acidifying emissions. Scenario 1 has by far the best performance with respect to global warming potential and the advantage of utilizing a byproduct and thus not occupying extra land. Scenario 2 and 3 require less primary energy and less fossil energy input than 1, but set-aside land for willow production must be available. The low electric efficiency of scenario 3 makes it an unsuitable option. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 24. Kimming, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, C.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, S.
    Norén, Olle
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, P.-A.
    Life cycle assessment of energy self-sufficiency systems based on agricultural residues for organic arable farms2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 2, p. 1425-1432Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The agricultural industry today consumes large amounts of fossil fuels. This study used consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) to analyse two potential energy self-sufficient systems for organic arable farms, based on agricultural residues. The analysis focused on energy balance, resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A scenario based on straw was found to require straw harvest from 25% of the farm area; 45% of the total energy produced from the straw was required for energy carrier production and GHG emissions were reduced by 9% compared with a fossil fuel-based reference scenario. In a scenario based on anaerobic digestion of ley, the corresponding figures were 13%, 24% and 35%. The final result was sensitive to assumptions regarding, e.g., soil carbon content and handling of by-products. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 25.
    Kimming, Marie
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Bernesson, Sven
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Replacing fossil energy for organic milk production: potential biomass sources and greenhouse gas emission reductions2015In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 106, p. 400-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing awareness of the climate impact of agricultural production, not least from cattle farms. Major sources of GHG emissions from milk production are enteric fermentation followed by fossil fuel use and manure/soil management systems. This study analyzes the potential to eliminate fossil fuel use from milk production farms in Sweden, by using residual farm resources of biomass to obtain self-sufficiency in fuel, heat and electricity. The change from a fossil-based energy system to a renewable system based on A) Biogas based on manure and straw and B) Biogas based on manure + RME were analyzed with consequential life cycle assessment (CLCA) methodology. Focus was energy use and GHG emissions and the functional unit was 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The results show that organic milk producers can become self-sufficient in energy and reduce total GHG emissions from milk production by 46% in the Biogas system, or 32% in the Biogas + RME system compared to the Fossil system.

  • 26.
    Kimming, Marie
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hansson, Per-Anders
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural DH systems: Climate impact and production costs2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 78, p. 51-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes.

  • 27.
    Moghaddam, Elham Ahmadi
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ahlgren, Serina
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Energy balance and global warming potential of biogas-based fuels from a life cycle perspective2015In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 132, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a multifunctional energy carrier currently used for co-generation or compressed biomethane as vehicle fuel. Gas-to-liquid (GTL) technology enables conversion of biogas into other energy carriers with higher energy density, facilitating fuel distribution.

    The energy efficiency and global warming potential (GWP) for conversion of biogas to compressed biogas (CBG), liquefied biogas (LBG), Fischer–Tropsch diesel (FTD), methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) were studied in a life cycle perspective covering the technical system from raw biogas to use in city buses.

    CBG, methanol and DME showed the best specific fuel productivity. However, when fuel distribution distances were longer, DME, LBG and methanol showed the best energy balance. Methanol, FTD and DME emitted half the GWP of LBG and CBG. Choice of electricity mix had a large impact on GWP performance. Overall, taking into account the different impact categories, combustion properties and fuel yield from raw biogas, DME showed the best performance of the fuel conversion scenarios assessed.

  • 28.
    Norberg, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    Larsolle, Anders
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hydrate for transport and storage of biogas and biomethane: A scenario study2013Report (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Nordberg, Ulf
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Torrötning: kunskapssammanställning och bedömning av utvecklingsbehov2007Report (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Co-digestion of energy crops and the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste2005In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 52, no 1-2, p. 217-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biological and technical performance during co-digestion of energy crops and the source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste has been investigated at laboratory and pilot scale. A 50:50 (TS-based) mixture of energy crops and organic waste reached a loading rate of 6.0 gVS L -1d -1 with a methane yield of 0.33-0.38 LgVS -1, while a 80:20 mixture showed elevated levels of volatile fatty acids at 5.5 gVS L -1d -1 The better performance of the 50:50 mixture can partly be explained by a better nutritional composition. Mincing the ley crop reduced viscosity and reduced problems with fibre floating and scum-blanket formation. The electricity consumed for mincing and stirring at a full-scale plant corresponds to ca 3% of the energy produced. Calculations of the costs for full-scale plants indicate that the price of the upgraded biogas has to be at least 0.078 Euro/kWh in order to balance the costs. © IWA Publishing 2005.

  • 31.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Optimering av biogasprocess för lantbruksrelaterade biomassor1997Report (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Pettersson, Carl-Magnus
    Thyselius, Lennart
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Samrötning av vallgrödor och källsorterat hushållsavfall1997Report (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Uusi-Pentillä, Marketta
    Rasmusson, Åke
    Processintern metananrikning2005Report (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    Uusi-Penttila, M.
    Rasmuson, A.C.
    Selective desorption of carbon dioxide from sewage sludge for in-situ methane enrichment: Enrichment experiments in pilot scale2012In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 37, p. 196-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of in-situ methane enrichment for upgrading the biogas from anaerobic digestion to vehicle fuel or natural gas quality, has been studied in pilot scale and by computer simulation of the desorption step. Pilot plant experiments have been performed using a 19m 3 and 15m 3 continuously stirred tank reactor operating with municipal sewage sludge at mesophilic conditions connected respectively to a 90dm 3 and 140dm 3 external bubble column for selective desorption of CO 2. The results show that the CH 4 yield is unchanged during the experiments, and accordingly there is no evidence that the oxygen in the air used in the desorption of CO 2 has a negative impact on the CH 4 producing activity. The sludge recirculation system must be designed to avoid leakage of air into the digester, in order to maintain a low N 2 concentration in the biogas. At best, a biogas with a volume fraction of 87% CH 4 and φN2=2% was obtained. The CH 4 loss however amounted to 8%, which is unsatisfactory. The experimental results are compared with previous data in the literature and explanations are deducted for the difference in the performance. Computer simulations reveal that the sludge flow rate recirculated through the desorption column should be as low as possible to minimize the loss of CH 4. An increased air flow rate through the desorption column and an increased desorption column volume will promote the desorption of CO 2 and improve the ratio of CO 2 to CH 4 desorption. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 35.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Jarvis, A.
    Stenberg, B.
    Mathisen, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Svensson, B.H.
    Anaerobic digestion of alfalfa silage with recirculation of process liquid2007In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 98, no 1, p. 104-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Process liquid recirculation initially stimulated one-phase anaerobic digestion of alfalfa silage in two semi-continuously fed and stirred tank reactors. Thus, with increased pH, alkalinity and stability it was possible to increase the organic loading rate to 3 g VS L -1 d -1, as compared to 2.25 g VS L -1 d -1 in a control reactor without recirculation. However, the recirculation of liquid eventually caused an accumulation of organic and inorganic substances, leading to an inhibition of hydrolysis and methanogenesis. This inhibition of microbial activity was prevented in one of the processes by replacing 50% of the recirculated process liquid with water during the second half of the operation period. A multiple linear regression model of principal components using seven input variables explained the variance in output variables nearly as well as the original model using all 23 measured input variables. The results show that it is necessary to adjust the degree of liquid recirculation to reach an optimal process. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 36.
    Nordberg, Åke
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Lindberg, Anna
    Gruvberger, Christopher
    Lilja, Tove
    Biogaspotential och framtida anläggningar i Sverige1998Report (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Alverbäck, Adam
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Pizzul, Leticia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ensuring low emissions of greenhouse gases from both undigested and digested animal slurry in storage requires a knowledge of effective, functional and economic measures. This three-year project has studied various potential measures for use in slurry storage. The greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide have been measured under summer conditions. Measures such as extended digestion time and acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid have been evaluated in a RISE pilot-scale plant for slurry storage. Measures to reduce nitrous oxide emissions formed in floating crust in a full-scale storage have been studied at farm level. Complementary theoretical calculations have been carried out to assess the effect of covering slurry stores. The impact of temperature on methane emissions has been studied in the laboratory.

    The fundamental point demonstrated on the laboratory scale is that the temperature is highly significant. As the temperature rose, methane production increased exponentially for digested slurry. For undigested slurry, the increase was considerably less. Most of the heat gained by the slurry can be attributed to solar radiation. Theoretical thermal balance calculations for slurry in storage indicated that it should be possible to reduce this heating significantly in spring by shading the slurry surface or provide the storage with a white roof.

    The studies in years 1 and 3 showed that methane emissions were significantly greater from digested than from undigested slurry. The total loss of methane from digested slurry was 2.5 and four times higher, respectively, during summer storage (approx. four months). It is therefore particularly important to implement measures to limit methane emissions from digested slurry in storage, thereby reducing the impact on the climate.

    One way to achieve lower methane emissions from digested slurry is to extend the duration of digestion, i.e. the hydraulic retention time in the digester. The studies in year 1 showed that doubling the retention time from 24 to 48 days reduced methane emissions from storage by 30 percent. At farms with digestion plants, a gas-tight roof with biogas collection is also an effective way to make the plant more efficient and prevent emissions of greenhouse gases from storage.

    Acidification of slurry with sulfuric acid is practiced in Denmark, to reduce ammonia emissions from slurry in housing, in storage and during spreading. The results show that it is also a very effective method for minimizing methane emissions from storage, with a reduction of more than 90 percent for both undigested and digested slurry. Acidification may be of interest as a way of reducing emissions of both ammonia and methane, particularly for types of slurry that do not naturally form a floating crust.

    Measures such as acidification of the floating crust to reduce nitrous oxide emissions did not prove to have effect because nitrous oxide emissions were relatively low, despite the floating crust being nearly half a metre thick. The chopped straw used for litter formed a smooth and dense floating crust on the surface of the slurry, and probably inhibited nitrous oxide formation because air was unable to penetrate the layer. Chopped straw litter in itself could therefore be a potential measure. This might also reduce straw consumption.

    Methane production from a digester is often difficult to measure and is therefore often calculated indirectly from the electricity produced. An example of key indicator for the climatic efficiency of the plant is given. For storage in summer, 10.2% of the methane produced was emitted during one-stage digestion over 24 days, and 5.5% during two-stage digestion over 48 days. The annual percentages are considerably lower because of low emissions in winter.

  • 38.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Emissions of greenhouse gases (methane and nitrous oxide) from cattle slurry storage in Northern Europe2009In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 12019-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Willén, Agnes
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Vegerfors Persson, Birgitta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Greenhouse gas emissions from storage and field application of anaerobically digested and non-digested cattle slurry2015In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 199, p. 358-368Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions of the greenhouse gases (GHG), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from non-digested and digested cattle slurry were measured during storage in a pilot-scale facility and during subsequent field application. In three treatments, non-digested cattle slurry (CS), digested cattle slurry (DCS) and digested cattle slurry covered with a roof (DCS-R), GHG emissions were measured during more than three months of storage in summer and in winter. After each storage season, CS and DCS were applied in the field before sowing, either in late summer or in spring, and compared with an unfertilised control (Control). GHG measurements were conducted using a closed chamber technique on both storage tanks and in the field, and the experiments were organised according to a randomised complete block design with three blocks. In the field, three closed chambers were placed randomly in each small plot. For every experimental unit, 7-9 measurements were made over time. Mean daily CH4 emissions during summer storage were 2.37, 7.79 and 6.78g CH4-Cm-3d-1 slurry for CS, DCS and DCS-R, respectively, and were significantly higher for DCS and DCS-R compared with CS (p<0.001). DCS-R gave significantly (p<0.05) lower CH4 emissions than DCS. The limited number of gas samples analysed during the study period may have resulted in increased uncertainty in the estimates. Mean daily CH4 emissions during winter storage were very low, with no significant differences (p>0.05) between treatments. Non-negligible N2O emissions were only detected from DCS-R in summer (cumulative mean emissions 5.98gN2O-Nm-2), corresponding to an emissions factor for N2O-N (EFN2O) of 0.24%.In the field, cumulative emissions of N2O were very limited for CS and DCS (EFN2O 0.59% and 0.44%, respectively, in autumn and 0.20% and 0.10%, respectively, in spring).A combination of summer storage and autumn spreading of DCS had the largest impact on global warming potential (GWP100) in terms of CO2-equivalents (CO2e) (28.7kg CO2em-3 slurry), with the impact from storage dominating. Presence of a roof reduced CH4 emissions, but also stimulated formation of N2O during summer and therefore had no net effect on GWP100. With winter storage and spring spreading, CS gave the lowest impact (2.51kg CO2em-3 slurry).

  • 40.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Baky, Andras
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Olsson, Johanna
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Växthusgaser från stallgödsel: Litteraturgenomgång och modellberäkningar2012Report (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Rodhe, Lena
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Edström, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Tersmeden, Marianne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ascue, Johnny
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åtgärder för att minimera växthusgasutsläpp från lager med rötad och orötad gödsel (år 1)2016Report (Other academic)
  • 42. Schnurer, A.
    et al.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Ammonia, a selective agent for methane production by syntrophic acetate oxidation at mesophilic temperature2008In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 57, no 5, p. 735-740Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In biogas processes, methane production from acetate proceeds by either aceticlastic methanogenesis or through syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO). In the present study, the pathway for methane production from acetate was analysed; i) during a gradual increase of the ammonia concentration (final concentration 7 g NH4+ - N/L) in a semi-continuous lab-scale anaerobic digester (4.3 L), operating at mesophilic temperature (37°C) or ii) in diluted enrichment cultures (100 ml) experiencing a gradual increase in ammonia, sodium, potassium and propionic acid. The pathway for methane formation was determined by calculating the 14CO2/14CH 4 ratio after incubating samples with 14C-2-acetate. In the anaerobic digester, as well as in the enrichment cultures, the 14CO2/14CH4 ratio clearly increased with increasing ammonium-nitrogen concentration, i.e. as the ammonia concentration increased, a shift from the aceticlastic mechanism to the syntrophic pathway occurred. The shift was very distinct and occurred as the NH4+ - N concentration rose above 3 g/l. No shift in pathway was seen during increasing concentrations of sodium, potassium or propionic acid. The shift to SAO in the biogas digester resulted in a twofold decrease in the specific gas and methane yield. © IWA Publishing 2008.

  • 43. Sundh, I.
    et al.
    Carlsson, H.
    Nordberg, Åke
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Hansson, M.
    Mathisen, Berit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Effects of glucose overloading on microbial community structure and biogas production in laboratory-scale anaerobic digester.2003In: Bioresource Technology, Vol. 89, no 3, p. 237-243Article in journal (Refereed)
1 - 43 of 43
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