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  • 1. Ali, L.
    et al.
    Alsanius, B.W.
    Rosberg, A.K.
    Svensson, B.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Olsson, M.E.
    Effects of nutrition strategy on the levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds in blackberries2012Ingår i: European Food Research and Technology, ISSN 1438-2377, E-ISSN 1438-2385, Vol. 234, nr 1, s. 33-44Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of nutrition strategy on levels of nutrients and bioactive compounds in fruit and leaves of blackberries were studied in greenhouse-grown blackberry plants fertilised with combinations of two levels (low, high) of nitrogen (60 and 100 kg ha -1, respectively) and potassium (66.4 and 104 kg ha -1, respectively). Plant concentrations of organic phytochemicals were quantitatively analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. High amounts of both fertilisers produced high amounts of all nutrients and bioactive compounds analysed in fruit except total acidity and ellagic acid. There were major differences in compounds affecting taste in fruit, e. g., sugars (fructose and glucose), total soluble solids and pH, and also in anthocyanin content. The concentrations of secondary metabolites, vitamin C and ellagic acid in fruit also varied significantly between treatments, although the differences were smaller. Storage of blackberries showed variable effects in the different levels of compounds, and the changes found were small. Nutrient regime did not affect blackberry leaves to the same extent, and only minor changes were found. The findings show that by optimising plant nutrition, phytonutrient levels can be maximised and maintained in fresh and stored berry crops, especially those grown in greenhouses, where conditions can easily be regulated. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  • 2. Andersson, M.
    et al.
    Andersson, T.
    Adlercreutz, P.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hornsten, E.G.
    Toward an enzyme-based oxygen scavenging laminate.: Influence of industrial lamination conditions on the performance of glucose oxidase2002Ingår i: Biotechnology and Bioengineering, ISSN 0006-3592, E-ISSN 1097-0290, Vol. 79, nr 1, s. 37-42Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The laminate consisted of several polymer layers, aluminium, and one cellulose-based layer containing the active enzymatic system (e.g., glucose oxidase, catalase, glucose, and CaCO3). During the industrial lamination process, the enzyme layer was exposed to three temperature spikes up to 325°C without significant enzyme inactivation. Ninety-seven percent of the glucose oxidase activity still remained after the lamination process. The best laminate had an oxygen absorbing capacity of 7.6 ± 1.0 L/m2. A reference that was not laminated expressed a corresponding oxygen absorbing capacity of 7.1 ± 0.8 L/m2. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 3. Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Forsgren, G.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The effects of selected aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids on off-flavours in water2005Ingår i: International journal of food science & technology, ISSN 0950-5423, E-ISSN 1365-2621, Vol. 40, nr 9, s. 993-1004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of selected aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids on the development of off-flavours in water were studied. Combinations of hexanal, octanal, 2-octanone, 5-nonanone, hexanoic acid and nonanoic acid were rated by the off-flavour intensities they created in water at concentrations just at or below the threshold value of each analyte. Two different sensory panels evaluated the off-flavours induced by different combinations of the analytes. The observations of the two panels agreed well. From these studies, it could be concluded that aldehydes play an important role in the development of off-flavours intensities in water. There were synergistic effects between aldehydes and ketones, as well as between aldehydes and carboxylic acids. Small amounts of aldehydes and carboxylic acids - well below their respective threshold values - caused an increase in the off-flavour intensity. No synergism between ketones and carboxylic acids could be observed. © 2005 Institute of Food Science and Technology Trust Fund.

  • 4. Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Holmgren, M.H.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, B.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion.: IV. Off-flavor compounds in extruded films of stabilized LDPE2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, nr 3, s. 583-595Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packed foods and the presence of specific degradation products in LDPE pack-aging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, i.e., a zeolite additive or antioxidants, was investigated This would prevent degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. It was found that off-flavor noted in water packed in LDPE films depended on extrusion temperature and exposure time for the melt to oxygen, that is, the parameters that influence the contents of oxidation products that are able to migrate from the polymer film. It was also found that adsorption of oxidative degradation products in a zeolite additive or protection of LDPE by using antioxidants could prevent off-flavor in the packed product (water). However, the antioxidant should be selected with regard to extrusion temperature because thermal instability in the additive might jeopardize the intended effect. Multifunctional antioxidants seem to provide improved protection, the most effective one evaluated in this work being Irganox E201, i.e., vitamin E. Concentrations of oxidized degradation products are well correlated to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The highest correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components was found for ketones in the range of C 7 to C9 and aldehydes in the range of C6 to C9. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 5. Andersson, T.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wesslen, B.
    Degradation of low density polyethylene during extrusion.: III. Volatile compounds in extruded films creating off-flavor2005Ingår i: Journal of Applied Polymer Science, ISSN 0021-8995, E-ISSN 1097-4628, Vol. 95, nr 4, s. 847-858Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study was aimed at finding a correlation between the experienced off-flavor in packaged foods and the presence of specific degradation products in PE packaging films. The possibility to trap degradation products by chemical reactions with scavengers, that is, zeolites and maleic anhydride grafted LLDPE, were investigated. This trapping would prevent the degradation products from migrating to the polymer film surface and further into food in contact with the film. This work concludes that off-flavor in water packed in LDPE-films depends on extrusion temperature and the content of oxidation products in the polymer film. At lower extrusion temperatures, reactive additives to the LDPE material could control the release of off-flavor giving compo nents. Adsorbents, such as zeolites, which are able to adsorb degradation products, are effective also at higher extrusion temperatures. The amount of oxidized degradation products in the films correlated well to the perceived off-flavor in the packed water. The presence of aldehydes and ketones have a clear impact on the off-flavor. The best correlation between off-flavor and oxidized components were found for C7-C9 ketones, and aldehydes in the range of C5 to C8. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 6. Jacobsson, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I.
    Effects of type of packaging material on shelf-life of fresh broccoli by means of changes in weight, colour and texture2004Ingår i: European Food Research and Technology, ISSN 1438-2377, E-ISSN 1438-2385, Vol. 218, nr 2, s. 157-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Five polymeric films were studied to determine their ability to retain the colour, weight and texture of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica "Monterey"). The materials were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two different low-density polyethylenes (LDPE), one of which contained a sachet reported to absorb ethylene. The broccoli was packaged and stored at 4 and 10 °C for 4 weeks. The weight, colour, chlorophyll content and texture were monitored during storage as well as O 2 and CO2 concentrations inside the packages. Packaging prolonged the broccoli shelf-life by up to 14 days. The shelf-life varied depending on the packaging material and quality parameter considered. The atmosphere was modified inside the packages; however, no package provided the recommended atmosphere (O2 1-2% and CO2 5-10%) for broccoli. Packaging in OPP resulted in the highest CO2 concentration, 6%, while the lowest O2 concentration, 9%, was created in the LDPE package without a sachet for ethylene absorption. Storage in LDPE without ethylene absorber resulted in the overall longest shelf-life. Broccoli stored in PVC deteriorated faster than broccoli packaged in the other materials. The influence of packaging material was greater at the higher temperature. © Springer-Verlag 2003.

  • 7. Jacobsson, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I.
    Influence of packaging material and storage temperature on the texture, colour, and weight of broccoli2003Ingår i: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 600, s. 323-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sophisticated packaging solutions can be used in order to preserve vegetables during storage and transport. Polymeric films with selective barriers matching the respiration of the produce, thereby creating an ideal atmosphere inside the package, are available on the market. Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica 'Monterey') heads were packed in 4 different commercially available polymeric films, and stored at 4 and 10°C respectively. During storage the weight, colour, chlorophyll content and texture were monitored. The investigated polymer materials were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two types of polyethylene (PE) packagings. The choice of packaging material had an impact on the measured quality parameters of broccoli. Storage in OPP resulted in the longest storage life. Broccoli stored in PVC film deteriorated faster than broccoli packaged in the other materials. It was also observed that the influence of the type of packaging material was more important at the higher temperature. The implications of this work for the packaging and storage of fresh broccoli will be discussed.

  • 8. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    Influence of packaging material and storage temperature on the texture, colour, and weight of broccoli2003Ingår i: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 600, s. 323-326Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sophisticated packaging solutions can be used in order to preserve vegetables during storage and transport. Polymeric films with selective barriers matching the respiration of the produce, thereby creating an ideal atmosphere inside the package, are available on the market. Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica 'Monterey') heads were packed in 4 different commercially available polymeric films, and stored at 4 and 10°C respectively. During storage the weight, colour, chlorophyll content and texture were monitored. The investigated polymer materials were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two types of polyethylene (PE) packagings. The choice of packaging material had an impact on the measured quality parameters of broccoli. Storage in OPP resulted in the longest storage life. Broccoli stored in PVC film deteriorated faster than broccoli packaged in the other materials. It was also observed that the influence of the type of packaging material was more important at the higher temperature. The implications of this work for the packaging and storage of fresh broccoli will be discussed.

  • 9. Jacobsson, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I.
    Influence of Temperature, Modified Atmosphere Packaging, and Heat Treatment on Aroma Compounds in Broccoli2004Ingår i: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 1607-1614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aroma compounds in broccoli stored in different modified atmospheres were studied. The packaging materials used were oriented polypropylene (OPP), poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) containing an ethylene-absorbing sachet. All samples were stored for either 1 week at a constant temperature of 10 °C or for 3 days at 4 °C, followed by 4 days at 10 °C. The atmospheres that developed inside the packaging materials differed significantly. The broccoli samples were analyzed raw and after cooking, with regard to volatile compounds, using gas-phase (headspace) extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and GC-olfactometry. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), dimethyl disulfide (DMDS), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), hexanal, 3-cis-hexen-1-ol, nonanal, ethanol, and a group of thiocyanates were selected for a detailed study because these compounds cause off-odor and can be used as indicators of stress. Significant differences were found in the aroma profiles of the broccoli samples relative to the packaging materials used for storage. Storage in OPP (14% 02, 10.5% CO2) resulted in most of the off-odors, while storage in LDPE (6% 02, 7% CO 2) and PVC (17.9% 02, 4% CO2) was found to maintain the concentration of DMS, DMDS, and DMTS during storage. Heat treatment of the broccoli increased the content of aroma compounds as well as the number of compounds containing sulfur.

  • 10. Jacobsson, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of packaging material and storage condition on the sensory quality of broccoli2004Ingår i: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 15, nr 4, s. 301-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The sensory quality of broccoli stored in modified atmosphere packages was studied. Oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) were used as packaging materials. The LDPE contained an ethylene-absorbing sachet. The samples were stored for 1 week, either at a constant temperature of 10-°C or for 3 days at 4-;°C, followed by 4 days at 10-;°C. The atmospheres that were developed inside the different packaging materials during storage differed significantly. After storage, the broccoli was evaluated both raw and cooked using a triangle test and a quantitative descriptive analysis. The triangle test showed significant differences in the smell of broccoli stored in different packaging materials after cooking. No differences were detected in the raw broccoli. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed significant differences in the fresh smell and flavour, the chewing resistance, and the crispness, between samples after cooking. Overall, including all the sensory properties studied, broccoli packaged in LDPE (5% O2, 7% CO2) that contained an ethylene absorber was perceived to be the sample most similar to fresh broccoli. There were no differences in weight loss between broccoli stored in the different packaging materials. © 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11. Jacobsson, A.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I.
    The effect of packaging material on the sensory properties of broccoli2003Ingår i: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 599, s. 91-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different commercially available polymeric films were studied to determine their effect on the sensory properties of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica cv. 'Marathon'). The polymer materials investigated were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and one low density polyethylene (LDPE) which contained an ethylene absorber. The fresh broccoli was packaged and stored for one week at 10°C or 3 days at 4°C followed by 4 days at 10°C. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inside the packages were monitored during storage. After storage the broccoli was evaluated according to sensory analyses, i.e. triangle test and quantitative descriptive analysis, by an analytical panel. The panel judged the broccoli according to smell, taste, texture and appearance. The triangle test showed significant differences between the smell of the broccoli samples, stored in the different packaging materials, when cooked. However, no differences between the raw broccoli, stored in the different packaging materials could be detected. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the following attributes; fresh smell and taste, chewing resistance, and crispness, differed significantly between the packaged broccoli when cooked. The appearance was shown to be the sensory property of broccoli most affected by the storage conditions, i.e. packaging material used and storage temperature. The results indicated the importance of the packaging material for maintaining the broccoli quality. However, one packaging material that was able to maintain all the studied sensory properties could not be identified. Copyright © ISHS 2003.

  • 12. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    The effect of packaging material on the sensory properties of broccoli2003Ingår i: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 599, s. 91-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different commercially available polymeric films were studied to determine their effect on the sensory properties of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica cv. 'Marathon'). The polymer materials investigated were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and one low density polyethylene (LDPE) which contained an ethylene absorber. The fresh broccoli was packaged and stored for one week at 10°C or 3 days at 4°C followed by 4 days at 10°C. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inside the packages were monitored during storage. After storage the broccoli was evaluated according to sensory analyses, i.e. triangle test and quantitative descriptive analysis, by an analytical panel. The panel judged the broccoli according to smell, taste, texture and appearance. The triangle test showed significant differences between the smell of the broccoli samples, stored in the different packaging materials, when cooked. However, no differences between the raw broccoli, stored in the different packaging materials could be detected. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the following attributes; fresh smell and taste, chewing resistance, and crispness, differed significantly between the packaged broccoli when cooked. The appearance was shown to be the sensory property of broccoli most affected by the storage conditions, i.e. packaging material used and storage temperature. The results indicated the importance of the packaging material for maintaining the broccoli quality. However, one packaging material that was able to maintain all the studied sensory properties could not be identified. Copyright © ISHS 2003.

  • 13.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Saltreduktion i livsmedel för förbättrad folkhälsa och stärkt konkurrensförmåga.2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bergstrom, B.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The origin of off-odours in packaged rucola (Eruca sativa)2008Ingår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 110, nr 1, s. 96-105Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rucola (Eruca sativa) was decontaminated and then reinoculated with selected microorganisms. The produce was then stored in three different atmospheres and at two temperatures. The accumulation of off-odours in the packaging headspace was analysed. A dozen compounds were detected by olfactometry but only dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide were considered to have a strong or moderate intensity. Thus, they were identified as the substances causing an unpleasant smell inside the bags. Inoculation with microorganisms resulted in higher production of off-odours. Samples inoculated with Pseudomonadaceae&Xanthamonadaceae were particularly potent in producing the two sulphides. The off-odour problem was much more prominent in samples that were kept in a packaging material that did not allow gas exchange resulting in oxygen levels below 1%. Higher levels of sulphides were detected at 8 °C than at 4 °C. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 15.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Damant, A.P.
    Castle, L.
    Validation studies of a quick test for prediciting the sorption and washing properties of refillable plastic bottles.1997Ingår i: Food Additives and Contaminants, Vol. 14, nr 6-7, s. 685-693Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 16.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Flavour.
    Fällström, Ida
    Bergstrand, Karl-Johan
    Belysningens betydelse för aromen i örter.2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
  • 17.
    Nielsen, Tim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufven, A.
    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging on the quality of Honeoye and Korona strawberries2008Ingår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 107, nr 3, s. 1053-1063Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Strawberries (cultivars Honeoye and Korona) were stored in perforated polypropylene bags at 5 °C for 10 days. Unpackaged strawberries were used as a reference. Several quality parameters were monitored during the storage period. The packaged strawberries retained their weight throughout the experiment as opposed to the unpackaged samples which lost 1.5% of their weight per day because of dehydration. The aroma profile of Honeoye strawberries was not affected by storage in modified atmospheres. In Korona fruits, on the other hand, there was a considerable increase in ethyl acetate levels, indicating unwanted metabolism caused by the altered gas composition. The production of potential off-odours was, however, not possible to distinguish in the sensory analyses of the strawberries. The results indicated that storage in a modified atmosphere (11-14% O2 and 9-12% CO2) can be used to maintain the quality of Honeoye and Korona strawberries for a longer time, than if kept in air in open containers. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 18.
    Rollini, Manuela
    et al.
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Musatti, Alida
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Limbo, Sara
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Piergiovanni, Luciano
    University of Milan, Italy.
    Hernandez Munoz, Pilar
    Packaging Lab, Spain.
    Gavara, Rafael
    Packaging Lab, Spain.
    Antimicrobial Performance of Two Different Packaging Materials on the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Salmon2016Ingår i: Coatings, ISSN 2079-6412, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikel-id 6Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present research the antimicrobial activity of two active packaging materials on the spoilage microbiota of fresh salmon fillets was tested. A PET-coated film (PET: Polyethylene Terephthalate) containing lysozyme and lactoferrin was tested in parallel with a carvacrol-coextruded multilayer film. Salmon fillet samples were stored up to four days at 0 and 5 °C, comparatively. The carvacrol multilayer film was found effective in preventing mesophiles and psychrotrophs at shorter storage time and at lower temperature (4.0 compared to 5.0 log CFU/g in the control sample—CFU: Colony Forming Units). Lysozyme/lactoferrin-coated PET was instead efficient in decreasing H2S-producing bacteria at longer storage time and higher temperature (2.7 instead of 4.7 log CFU/g in the control sample). Even if is not intended as a way to “clean” a contaminated food product, an active package solution can indeed contribute to reducing the microbial population in food items, thus lowering the risk of food-related diseases.

  • 19.
    Sonesson, Ulf Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Annica
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bertilsson, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Brunius, Carl
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, Leif
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl-Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundh, Åse
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden2016Ingår i: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, nr 5, s. 664-676Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

  • 20.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Windhab, E.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Effects of flow behaviour on the aggregation of whey protein suspensions, pure or mixed with xanthan1999Ingår i: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 42, nr 1, s. 15-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of prior thermal treatment on radiation sensitization were investigated on proton irradiated Type 304 stainless steel (SS) of initially as-received (AR) and thermal-sensitized (SEN) conditions. The Cr depletion profiles were measured by field emission gun transmission electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectroscopy (FEGTEM, EDS), and were calculated by a radiation induced segregation (RIS) model. The different initial conditions were input in the RIS model calculations. For the as-received condition, the initial Cr profile was modeled by a uniform concentration distribution. Overall, the results show that radiation sensitization is characterized by a very narrow Cr depleted zone.

  • 21. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Giacin, J.R.
    Antioxidant ability of bht- and ?-tocopherolimpregnated ldpe film in packaging of oatmeal2001Ingår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 81, nr 2, s. 194-201Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Cereals in general, and particularly oatmeals, are considered rather sensitive to oxidation owing to their relatively high fat content. The addition of antioxidants can sometimes prolong the shelf-life of products. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the rate of lipid oxidation ora packaged oatmeal product was affected by the nature and level of antioxidants incorporated in an LDPE film structure. The stability of the product, which was determined by hexanal analysis using GC-MS and by electronic nose analysis, showed very small variations over the chosen storage period. No oxidation, as determined by hexanal levels in the oatmeal, was initiated during storage, but small variations in volatile profile were seen among the samples analysed by the electronic nose. The product stored in the BHT-impregnated LDPE film had undergone the least change during 10 weeks of storage at 20°C. ?-Tocopherol-impregnated LDPE film did not appear to prolong the shelf-life of the oatmeal at all. © 2000 Society of Chemical Industry.

  • 22. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of ?-tocopherol concentration on the stability of linoleic acid and the properties of low-density polyethylene2000Ingår i: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In food packaging applications where low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film containing ?-tocopherol is used, the antioxidant may have a dual function, i.e. to protect the polymer from oxidative degradation during processing, and to delay the onset of oxidation of the packaged foodstuff during storage. Incorporation of high levels of ?-tocopherol into LDPE film was found to inhibit oxidation of a linoleic acid emulsion stored in contact with the film at 6°C. However, the presence of 360 ppm caused changes in mechanical properties and an increase in oxygen transmission. Levels as high as 3400 ppm ?-tocopherol also caused yellowing and reduction in crystallinity of the material. Thus, the use of high amounts of ?-tocopherol in LDPE, which might be needed in active packaging applications, requires careful consideration of the protective requirements for each specific food and the maintenance of the desired properties of the packaging material.

  • 23. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Influence of trace metals, acids and ethanol in food-simulating liquids on the retention of ?-tocopherol in low-density polyethylene film2000Ingår i: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 17, nr 8, s. 713-719Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The retention of ?-tocopherol (vitamin E) in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) film was investigated when in contact with different food-simulating liquids. Variations of the aqueous food simulants approved by the EU for testing of interactions between packaging materials and food, and an alternative fatty food simulant (95% aqueous ethanol) were used to study the influence of trace metals and acids, as well as variation in pH and ethanol concentration, on the stability of ?-tocopherol in the LDPE film. The presence of trace metals in aqueous media accelerated loss of ?-tocopherol from the film, while the addition of citric or ascorbic acid counteracted this loss. In contact with aqueous ethanol at a concentration of 50% or higher, the less of ?-tocopherol from the film was total. However, with solutions containing less than 50% ethanol, the antioxidant was almost completely retained in the film, unless the temperature was increased from 6 to 40°C. For contact with solutions containing ethanol or trace metals, an increase in temperature resulted in a greater loss of ?-tocopherol from the LDPE film.

  • 24. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    The influence of ?-tocopherol concentration on the stability of linoleic acid and the properties of low-density polyethylene.2000Ingår i: Packaging Technology and Science, Vol. 13, s. 19-28Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 25. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Jagerstad, M.
    Mobility of ?-tocopherol and BHT in LDPE in contact with fatty food simulants1998Ingår i: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 15, nr 6, s. 709-715Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The migration/sorption behaviour of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and ?-tocopherol was studied in packaging material in contact with fatty food simulants. Two low-density polyethylene (LDPE) films, containing either BHT or ?-tocopherol as antioxidants, were stored in contact with sunflower oil or 95% (v/v) ethanol. The antioxidant content was monitored in the films throughout a period of 7 weeks. The migration of ?-tocopherol into the food simulants was slower than that of BHT. Since ?-tocopherol was transferred from the film to the simulant to a lesser extent, it is considered to be a more stable antioxidant than BHT when used in an LDPE film in contact with 95% ethanol or sunflower oil.

  • 26. Wessling, C.
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufvén, Anders
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Jagerstad, M.
    Retention of ?-tocopherol in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) in contact with foodstuffs and food-simulating liquids1999Ingår i: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, ISSN 0022-5142, E-ISSN 1097-0010, Vol. 79, nr 12, s. 1635-1641Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alpha-tocopherol occurs as a natural antioxidant in many foods and has also found use as a stabiliser in polymeric packaging materials. During storage of a food in contact with a plastic material, ?-tocopherol may be released from the packaging material and transferred into the food. An active packaging application with the transfer of a substance, such as an antioxidant, from a packaging material to a food may help to prolong the shelf-life of the food. In this study, the retention of ?-tocopherol in low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) was investigated for contact with liquid foods with different fat contents and food simulants with different ethanol contents. The PP film exhibited excellent retention of ?-tocopherol when in contact with all media, whereas some losses were observed from the LDPE film. A number of factors including fat, alcohol and organic acid contents of the various foodstuffs seemed to influence the loss of ?-tocopherol from the LDPE film.

  • 27.
    Widén, Heléne
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufven, A.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Identification of chemicals, possibly originating from misuse of refillable PET bottles, responsible for consumer complaints about off-odours in water and soft drinks2005Ingår i: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 22, nr 7, s. 681-692Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Mineral water and soft drinks with a perceptible off-odour were analysed to identify contaminants originating from previous misuse of the refillable polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. Consumers detected the off-odour after opening the bottle and duly returned it with the remaining content to the producers. The contaminants in question had thus been undetected by the in-line detection devices (so-called 'sniffers') that are supposed to reject misused bottles. GC-MS analysis was carried out on the headspace of 31 returned products and their corresponding reference products, and chromatograms were compared to find the possible off-odour compounds. Substances believed to be responsible for the organoleptic change were 2-methoxynaphthalene (10 bottles), dimethyl disulfide (4), anethole (3), petroleum products (4), ethanol with isoamyl alcohol (1) and a series of ethers (1). The mouldy/musty odour (5 bottles) was caused by trichloroanisole in one instance. In some cases, the origins of the off-odours are believed to be previous consumer misuse of food products (liquorice-flavoured alcohol, home-made alcohol containing fusel oil) or non-food products (cleaning products, petroleum products, oral moist snuff and others). The results also apply to 1.5-litre recyclable PET bottles, since the nature and extent of consumer misuse can be expected to be similar for the two bottle types. © 2005 Taylor & Francis Group Ltd.

  • 28.
    Widén, Heléne
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Leufven, A.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Migration of model contaminants from PET bottles: Influence of temperature, food simulant and functional barrier2004Ingår i: Food Additives and Contaminants, ISSN 0265-203X, E-ISSN 1464-5122, Vol. 21, nr 10, s. 993-1006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To simulate post-consumer recycled plastics, selected model contaminants were incorporated into PET bottles using a time saving method. Migration into 3% acetic acid, a cola-type beverage and 95% ethanol was followed during 1 year of storage at 20 and 40°C. Aroma compounds previously found in post-consumer PET material were used as model contaminants. Benzaldehyde was found to migrate to the highest extent. Storage at 40°C affected the bottle material and this might be one reason for the high migration values of these bottles. Migration into ethanol was up to 20 times higher than into 3% acetic acid or a cola-type beverage. Bottles with a functional barrier resisted migration into food simulants even when filled with 95% ethanol and stored for 1 year at 40°C. Differential scanning calorimetry measurements showed that ethanol was interacting with the plastic material. This resulted in a lower glass transition temperature of bottles stored with ethanol compared with bottles stored empty or with other food simulants.

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