Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    During, Otto
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    The influence of supplementary cementitious materials on climate impact of concrete bridges exposed to chlorides2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 188, p. 391-398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to reach a specific service life of reinforced concrete structures a certain cover thickness is needed. At present, this is regulated by national standards that also limit the amount and type of supplementary cementitious materials in different exposure environments. The regulations do not, however, consider the actual durability performance of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials. As a consequence, the LCA results might be misleading. This paper shows the environmental impact of concrete with supplementary cementitious materials in chloride environment considering their specific performances. Prescriptive and performance based service life prediction models for chloride ingress are applied and compared.

  • 2.
    Al-Ayish, Nadia
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Hadi, Mohammad
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Neaz Sheikh, M.
    University of Wollongong, Australia.
    Gudmundsson, Kjartan
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Karoumi, Raid
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars: A simplified study on columns2019In: Proceedings of the fib Symposium 2019: Concrete - Innovations in Materials, Design and Structures, International Federation for Structural Concrete , 2019, p. 1998-2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concrete has a significant influence on the global warming due to its high usage in the construction industry. There are a few different strategies to increase the sustainability potential of concrete structures. Most of these strategies involve reduction of the total clinker content. One strategy, which is often neglected due to its complexity, is to increase the durability of the concrete structure. By increasing the durability, the need for repair and maintenance is reduced and thus less resources are consumed during the service life. One of the main deterioration mechanisms in concrete structures is the corrosion of steel reinforcement. A strategy to increase the service life of concrete structures in harsh environment would therefore be to increase the durability of concrete or to use low- or non-corrosive reinforcement instead of traditional steel reinforcement. This paper focuses on the latter. Glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars are non-corrosive and have emerged as an alternative to steel bars in reinforced concrete structures in harsh environment. They have other mechanical properties than steel and opens for alternative mix designs for concrete. However, the environmental impact of concrete structures reinforced with GFRP bars has not been fully investigated and most life-cycle assessment (LCA) studies have an exchange ratio of 1:1 between GFRP and steel bars despite differences in the mechanical properties. This paper studies the climate impact of concrete columns reinforced with GFRP bars through an LCA methodology, focusing on the functional unit.

  • 3.
    During, Otto
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Life cycle cost analysis on impregnated bridge edge beams2014In: Restoration of Buildings and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 441–446-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    the edge beams. However, results from this study pointed out that in most cases there is a clear economic benefit to impregnate the bridge edge beams even if it has to be repeated every 15 years.

  • 4.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Petersson, Örjan
    Textile reinforced concrete sandwich panels2012In: fib Symposium 2012: Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community - Proceedings, 2012, , p. 169-172Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blanksvärd, Thomas
    Alternative anchorage systems for textile reinforced concrete elements.2013In: First International Conference on Concrete Sustainability. Tokyo. 2013-05-27--29, JCI , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6. Garcia, Oihana
    et al.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Definition of the procedure to determine the suitability and durability of an anti-graffiti product for application on cultural heritage porous materials2012In: Journal of Cultural Heritage, ISSN 1296-2074, E-ISSN 1778-3674, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 77–82-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Eva, Rodum
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    A Nordic method for testing hydrophobic impregnations with regard to prevention of chloride ingress2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chloride induced corrosion of the reinforcement is the major cause of degradation of reinforced concrete structures. In particular in the Nordic countries, the use of de-icing salts during winter, leads to severe degradation of edge beams in road bridges. Thus, in order to extend the service life and decrease maintenance costs, hydrophobic impregnations are commonly used to prevent or slow down chloride ingress into concrete. There is a harmonised European standard for hydrophobic impregnations, EN 1504-2 [1], but the property “diffusion of chloride ions” is “subject to national standards and regulations”. The transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland use different national methods to evaluate the performance of this type of products meaning that the same CEmarked product needs to meet different requirements. Therefore, the transport and road administrations of Sweden, Norway and Finland initiated a project with the aim to establish a common Nordic method for classification of hydrophobic impregnations with regard to their capability to protect concrete from chloride ingress. The project was divided into three phases consisting on the analysis of existing test standards (national and international), a pre-study to evaluate the influence of different tests parameters and a round robin test involving three laboratories (one in each country). A thorough comparison of the existing methods and review of relevant literature made it possible to define which test parameters could be used in the formulation of the new method and which ones required further studies. It was found that the type of surface to be treated, the length of the preconditioning period, the length of the curing period and whether the surface to be impregnated should be soaked with Ca(OH)2-solution or not should be further investigated. The results of the pre-study showed that the application of the impregnation to form surfaces led to somewhat better chloride blocking effect. Despite this, it was decided to use sawn surfaces in the method, since it is much easier to obtain reproducible surface characteristics that way. The characteristics of a form surface depend on e.g. the form material, use of release agents, curing conditions. Saturation of the surface with calcium hydroxide solution before impregnation was found slightly beneficial on the chloride blocking effect compared to when such a treatment was omitted. However, since this did not contribute to the robustness of the test results, it increased the number of experimental steps and it is not representative of practice in real structures, it was decided not to incorporate such a treatment in the new method. The chloride protection slightly increases with the impregnation curing time. It was not clear which factor was most dominant; if the continuous polymerization of the hydrophobic impregnation or the continuous cement hydration. Since enough curing time is necessary for the treatment to be efficient, it was decided that the curing period before exposure to chlorides should be 28 days. With the primary objective of determining the reliability and reproducibility of the new method, a round robin exercise was carried out. Three laboratories were involved in this phase; CBI-Borås in Sweden, SINTEF in Norway and VTT in Finland. The results show that despite some differences in both materials and methods, such as the type of cement or preconditioning and curing environments, highly reproducible results were obtained. In addition, a detailed discussion on the influence of the details of the method on the chloride profiles and on the filter effect is presented. Within the round robin test, the relative humidity before and after impregnation and the dry condition of the powder samples were found to be the major parameters leading to the discrepancy of the results. In addition, handling of the wet concrete surfaces after exposure to chlorides and the time period (and temperature) between the end of the chloride exposure and powder sampling for chloride analysis were found to have surprisingly large effects on the form of the chloride profiles in the samples. Therefore, these parts of the procedures were made much more precise in the final method, in order to increase its reproducibility. The method can be briefly described as follows: Concrete specimens are prepared by sawing 100 mm cubes into two halves, three cubes per test series. The sawn surfaces are defined as exposure faces. Three halves are treated with the hydrophobic impregnation to be tested and the other three halves are kept as untreated references. The specimens are exposed submerged in 15% NaCl-solution for 56 days. After exposure, the chloride ingress is determined by profile grinding and the total amount of penetrated chlorides is calculated. The chloride blocking effect of the hydrophobic impregnations, expressed as the Filter Effect, FE, which is determined as 1 minus the ratio between the amount of penetrated chlorides in treated and in non-treated concrete specimens. The results obtained in both the pre-study and round robin exercise were compared to those obtained with the existing national methods in order to establish proper requirement levels with the new method. Despite the many differences between the methods, it was found that a filter effect of approximately 0.65 correlates well with the existing requirement in the Swedish method and in the Norwegian method. However, given limited data available and also considering data from field investigations, a level of 0.60 is proposed as appropriate for a really well performing hydrophobic impregnation. The method was accepted as a Nordtest method in December 2015 with the denomination NT Build 515.

  • 8.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Microstructure and functional properties of rock materials2007In: Materials Characterization, Vol. 58, p. 1183-1188Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Assessment of mechanical durability properties of rock materials using quantitative microscopy and image analysis2003Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents a project that focuses on the assessment of mechanical durability properties using quantitative microscopy. The project was financed by SGU under grant 03-1174/98. The aim has been to develop methods for assessment and presentation of rock quality data. Both optical and SEM/BSE microscopy were applied and combined with computerised image analysis and manual methods for the quantitative analysis. The first part of the project was to produce a literature overview of image analysis as applied to rock materials. A method for assessment of resistance to fragmentation of granitic rocks comparable with the Los Angeles test has been developed. By means of a quantitative description of foliation using a foliation index, FIX, it is possible to assess the potential length-thickness ratio of the crushed aggregate. Methods developed in the main part of the project have been applied in related areas. These include crack initiation and propagation under cyclic loading and cyclic thermal stress.

  • 10.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Anti-graffiti systems on masonry in the scope of the Federal Motorway System2011In: Bautechnik, ISSN 0932-8351, Vol. 88, no 7, p. 443-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Blick för forskning2014In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2, p. 16-19Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Consolidation of Gotland sandstone2004In: 10th International Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 2004, , p. 447-454Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Effekten av impregnering och klotterskydd är oklar2009In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 36-38Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Klotter kostar runt en miljard årligen. Ett problem är att det saknas testmetoder för att avgöra om ett klotterskydd är effektivt mot klotter och smuts på en viss typ av yta. Inom kulturvård används impregnering för att förstärka byggnadsmaterial.

  • 14.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Klotterskydd: hur effektivt är det på betong och natursten?2008In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Marknaden är inte mogen för alternativa (eller nya) bindemedel i betongkonstruktionen2014In: Svensk Byggtidning, ISSN 2000-8880, no 6, p. 102-103Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Microscopic studies of the first steps in the chemical weathering of marble, limestone and sandstone2001In: Proceedings of the 8th Euroseminar on Microscopy Applied to Buildings Materials, 2001Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny fasad med textilarmering2012In: Cementa, ISSN 0346-8771, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ny VD2014In: Svensk Bergs & Brukstidning, ISSN 0039-6435, Vol. 93, no 1Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Ställ tekniska egenskapskrav och använd deklarationerna2014In: Energi & Miljö, no 4Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textil armering kan bli verklighet2012In: Betong.se, no 11 AprilArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong för renovering av fasader2013In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 1, p. 5-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Experimental study on the variation in porosity of marble as a function of temperature2003In: Natural Stone, Weathering Phenomena, Conservation Strategies and Case Studies, Vol. 205, p. 81-88Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Tekniska textilier i betong2010In: CBI-nytt, ISSN 0349-2060, no 2, p. 2-3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundahl, Anna
    Use of technical textiles for modification of concrete surface2012In: Restoration of Building and Monuments, ISSN 1864-7251, Vol. 18, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Combadura y dilatación de paneles de piedra natural: ensayo y evaluación de mármol y caliza2008In: Materiales de construcción, ISSN 0465-2746, E-ISSN 1988-3226, Vol. 58, no 289-290, p. 97-112Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Conformity Assessment of Stone in Amman, Jordan2006Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Field exposure sites and accelerated laboratory test of marble panels2004In: Proceedings of the international conference on Dimension Stone 2004, 14-17 June 2004, Prague, Czech Republic, Taylor & Francis Group plc, A.A Balkema Publishers , 2004, , p. 261-266Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of thin marble and limestone for facade cladding has increased substantially during the last five decades. The durability of thin slabs (often only 30 mm thick) has been assumed to be satisfactory based on centuries of successful use as a structural building stone. Nevertheless, all over the world, the long-term deformation and strength loss of some claddings have led to concerns about its safe and durable use. The detailed assessment of marble and limestone within TEAM (see also www.sp.se/building/team) is used to develop a hypothesis for the observed deterioration and to develop remedial actions. This paper describes the field exposure sites, the accelerated test, and presents parts of the results. The results indicates that all marbles bow, but at different magnitudes. The marbles demonstrate diurnal and seasonal variation in bowing and dependence on the thickness and impregnation. The final evaluation of the results will be presented in 2005.

  • 28.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Textilarmerad betong ger lättare konstruktioner2011In: Husbyggaren, ISSN 0018-7968, Vol. 53, no 7, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Tammo, Kristian
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    REr.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Alkali Resistance of Textile Reinforcement for Concrete Façade Panels2014In: XXII NORDIC CONCRETE RESEARCH SYMPOSIUM, 2014, , p. 61-64, Publication no. 50Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete has been proven to be a suitable solution for the production of thin and lightweight façade panels. Despite it being researched over the past decade, its long-term durability is not sufficiently characterized. This article presents experimental results from accelerated aging and direct tensile testing of various textile reinforcement alternatives according to ISO 10406-1. Based on the results, a large degeneration of the glass and basalt fibre bars was observed after 30 days of immersion. As for carbon fibre grids, no significant difference in ultimate tensile force was noted before and after immersion.

  • 30.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Microscopic and macroscopic characterisation of the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation.2006In: Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 20, p. 939-947Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Malaga, Katarina
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Åkesson, Urban
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Lindqvist, Jan-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Schouenborg, Björn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Microscopic studies of the porosity of marble as a function of temperature and impregnation.2004In: 10th Int Congress on Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 2004, , p. 131-138Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Lundgren, Monica
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Development of pore structure and hydrate phases of binder pastes blended with slag, fly ash and metakaolin – A comparison2015In: ICCC 2015 Beijing: The 14th International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blended binder systems in concrete have been in use for many years. However, over the recent discussions on the sustainability of cement and concrete the topic became of paramount importance for the construction industry. In Sweden blended binder systems in concrete were applied fairly recently and supplementary cementitious materials (SCM) were not used largely before. In Sweden over the last 30 years engineering structures were built, with exceptions, with a low alkali, sulfate resistant Portland cement due to domestic requirements. Therefore, in context to blended binder systems durability is a major point being discussed. Most interest lays in the resistance towards frost, carbonation and chloride penetration and the experience with blended systems was limited. It is therefore the goal of this study to investigate blended binder systems over a longer hydration period of up to two years in context to durability. The results presented here will focus on the porosity and hydrate phase development within the first 90 days of hydration. In this study in total 9 different binder blends were studied. The blends included different replacement levels with granulated blast furnace slag from a Swedish producer, fly ash from a Danish power plant and commercially available metakaolin. The matrix included also one set of factory-blended cements (with interground fly ash and slag). The pore structure was investigated by mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), phase development by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD). The results are based on the evaluation of binder paste samples. Compared to a reference series consisting of a CEM I the slag containing series showed a continuous decrease of the total pore volume with increasing slag content over 90 days of hydration. The phase development showed a constant increase in monosulfate and hydrotalcite. The amount of these phases increased with increasing slag content. Notable was consumption of C4AF, which increased with the amount of slag and a decrease of C2S reaction. Compared to the reference Portland cement paste the fly ash containing pastes showed increased total pore volumes when the fly ash was just added. For the cement paste with interground fly ash the porosity development was the same as for the reference paste. The phase development for these series showed up to 28 days of hydration formation of ettringite, hemicarbonate and monocarbonate. After 91 days monosulfate was dominating and the amount of hemicarbonate was decreasing. The paste series with 15 % metakaolin showed a strong decrease in total pore volume compared to the reference series within 2 days. Afterwards the pore volume almost leveled to a constant value. The hydration phases included in the beginning large amounts of monosulfate, ettringite and hemicarbonate but changed after 91 days in favor to ettringite and monocarbonate. The metakaolin blend showed the lowest amounts of portlandite in all series, indicating a strong pozzolanic reactivity. The different hydrate phases, in particular AFm phases can help to explain a different behavior towards, e.g. chloride binding. The pore structure development has a large impact not only on strength development but also for ion and moisture transport as well as for carbonation in all series.

  • 33.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Influence of hydrophobicity and oleophobicity on cleaning graffiti on concrete panels and natural stones2012In: Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Retrofitting III (ICCRRR), TAYLOR and FRANCIS GROUP, LONDON, UK , 2012, p. 269-275Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anti-Graffiti Systems (AGS) are meant to make the cleaning process more efficient by inserting a layer between the paint and the substrate. This layer can have a low surface energy thus make it difficult for the paint to stick to the substrate or it may be easily removed together with the paint. This paper is presenting results from a study of how hydrophobicity and oleophobicity influence the cleaning efficiency of graffiti paints from concrete and natural stones. The results demonstrated that high hydrophobicity and high oleophobicity are not guaranteeing satisfying cleaning effects. The physical properties of a substrate in combination with the characteristics of the AGS layer decide about the cleaning effect.

  • 34.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Schlegel, Moriz-Caspar
    Emmerling, Franziska
    Malaga, Katarina
    Novel techniques for studying damage mechanisms of cementitious matrices affected by sulphate attack2012In: fib symposium Concrete Structures for Sustainable Community / [ed] Bager, D.H., Silfwerbrand, J., 2012, p. 267-270Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Chozas, Valle
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Larraza, Inigo
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    da Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Reactive powder concrete for facade elements: A sustainable approach2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 53-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized for external fa¸cade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market are usually expensive and less sustainable due to high cement clinker contents. In this study, improved RPC formulations with higher amounts of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) were developed. The formulations were combined with different types of reinforcements ranging from steel fibres to fibre textile grids primarily to enhance the ductility and tensile strength of the composite material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to ca. 40% of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mixes could still be achieved. A fairly steep strength gain rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The materials displayed good flow properties and a reasonably short initial setting time. The incorporation of carbon textile fibre grids proved to be highly effective in improving the post cracking behaviour of the RPC. The results validated a more sustainable approach for RPC applied to thin fa¸cade elements. 

  • 36.
    Mueller, Urs
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Textile Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete and its Application for Facades2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactive powder concrete (RPC) is a fairly novel material with extraordinary strength and durability properties. Due to these properties, it is increasingly being utilized also for external facade cladding thus enabling a considerable reduction in the thickness of concrete elements. Commercial RPC formulations on the market have drawbacks in terms of sustainability due to their high clinker content and heat curing which is often applied to increase final strength and material density. The presented study focusses on improved formulations with higher replacement levels of cement clinker by supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs). One different mix formulation was designed and tested in terms of mechanical properties. The formulation was combined with carbon textile reinforcements primarily to enhance the flexural and tensile behavior of the material. The results showed that even with clinker replacement levels of up to 33 % of the total binder amount, a satisfactory mechanical performance of the RPC mix could still be achieved. Fairly steep strength gains rendered heat treatment unnecessary. The incorporation of carbon textile fiber grids proved to be effective in improving the post peak performance of the RPC. However, their performance depended strongly on the bond between the carbon grid and the RPC. Higher moister contents in the concrete proved to reduce the bond strength between the carbon textile and the cement paste. This is maybe less relevant for facades but structural elements with textile reinforcement and RPC might perform less well in completely submerged environment.

  • 37.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Proper Maintenance; a necessity for a long service life of natural stones.2004Report (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Stain test for natural stones NORDTEST Project No. 040292005Report (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Grelk, B
    Testing and Assessment of Marble and Limestone (TEAM) - Important Results from a Large European Research Project on Cladding Panels2007In: Journal of ASTM InternationalPaper ID JAI 100855, Vol. 4, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of natural stone as facade cladding has been shown to have much lower life cycle costs and they are more environmentally friendly than comparable products of concrete, glass, and steel. Promoting the use of natural stone has therefore a great positive impact on the environment. However, the number of occurrences of bowing and expansion of marble and limestone panels has led to increased maintenance costs, significant safety risk, and negative publicity. The lack of knowledge of a solution to the problem of bowing marble has a large negative effect on the entire stone trade. In response, short-sighted and less durable construction solutions are used as an alternative, adding to the decreasing export figures and numbers of employees within the stone sector. The TEAM _TEAM_TEsting and Assessment of Marble and limestone_ project addresses a problem with marble types, from several European countries, that display bowing on facades in both cold and warm climates. There is, therefore a need to develop harmonized European standards for differentiating between marble that is susceptible to bowing and marble that is not. Resolution No. 013, in May 1999 taken by the European Committee for Standardization _CEN_, Technical Committee _TC_ 246 Natural Stone states the urgent needs “to develop a direct test method of the bowing risk for marble cladding products.” Thus, the project addresses the mandate for external wall coverings and the safety of panels. This paper serves to give a comprehensive overview of the main findings in the project. The main objectives were: • To understand and explain the mechanisms of the expansion and loss of strength, probably the most important phenomena leading to degradation of marble and limestone clad facades. • To prevent the use of deleterious marble and limestone by introducing drafts for European standards. • To develop a concept for assessment of facades, including a monitoring system in order to predict strength development and improve safety and reliability. • To analyze if surface coating and impregnation could prevent or diminish the degradation. • To address quality control aspects in order to optimize the production conditions. The TEAM project consortium, representing nine EU _European union_ countries, comprised sixteen partners representing stone producers and trade associations, testing laboratories, standardization and certification bodies, consultants, building owners and caretakers and producers of fixing and repair systems. A state-of-the-art report has been written and is based on an extensive compilation of more than 400 papers on marble and limestone deterioration dating from the late 1800s to 2006. A survey of about 200 buildings has given a clear picture of the extent of the problem in geographical, geological, and climatological terms. Detailed case studies of six buildings have resulted in a methodology for assessment of facades including monitoring system and risk assessment. Research both in the laboratory and the field were performed on a large number of different stone types from different countries and used in different climates. This gave the explanation of degradation mechanisms and led to the determination of the critical influencing factors. Two tests methods, including precision statements: one for bowing _1_ and one for thermal and moisture irreversible expansion have been prepared for submission to CEN TC 246. Repair techniques based on the use of surface coating and impregnation systems has been tested at laboratory and in the field. Positive side effects including increased durability and easier cleaning have been observed. Guidelines for production and product control have been proposed, and an instruction for stone sampling and description has been developed.

  • 40.
    Schouenborg, Björn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Grelk, B
    Christiansen, C
    Duarability of Marble Cladding - A Comprehensive Literature Review2007In: Journal of ASTM International Vol 4 No 4, Vol. 4, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Natural stone has been used for centuries as building material. In historical time it was mainly used as load bearing elements, but within the past 50 years a new processing technique has made it commercially feasible to produce and use thin façade cladding. Unfortunately, a number of marble facades on buildings in both Europe and elsewhere have had serious problems with deterioration of the stone material. The TEAM _TEAM _ TEsting and Assessment of Marble and limestone_ project consortium represents nine European countries and comprises 16 partners, representing stone producers and trade associations, testing laboratories, standardization and certificate bodies, consultants, building owners and caretakers and producers of fixing and repair systems. The project had a budget of approximately 5 million dollars and was partly funded by the European Commission under the contract no. G5RD-CT-2000-00233. Two of the main objectives in the TEAM project were: — To understand and explain the mechanisms of the expansion, bowing, and loss of strength leading to degradation of marble and limestone clad facades. —To prevent the use of deleterious marble and limestone by introducing a draft for new European standards. This paper presents some of the important conclusions drawn from a literature review carried out within the TEAM project—and was based on an extensive review of literature on marble and limestone deterioration dating from the late 1800s to 2006 and the results of the TEAM project. The comprehensive information from more than 70 selected literature references is reviewed and discussed in order to describe the present knowledge on the causes and mechanisms responsible for the bowing and strength loss of thin marble cladding. In the following, the literature and TEAM findings are grouped under a number of headings proposed to explain observations. Thus, the information from the literature is compared and supplemented with the results from the TEAM project in order to present a good overview of the existing, most relevant, knowledge in the field. The literature review reveals that only few researchers have examined the durability problem from a broad perspective. In addition, no conclusive answer about the mechanisms and influencing factors can be given. The TEAM project has made it possible to identify several of the key influencing factors in marble degradation, the relative importance of various factors, and to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms involved.

  • 41.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Helsing, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Rodum, Eva
    Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Norway.
    Torkkeli, Minna
    Finnish Transport Agency, Finland.
    Hejll, Arvid
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Performance test for hydrophobic impregnations for protection against chloride2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 884-893Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the development of a common Nordic test method for the evaluation ofhydrophobic impregnations for concrete, for protection against chloride ingress. The first stage of theexperimental campaign served to evaluate the influence of the precondition environment before surfacetreatment, curing time and type of surface on the performance of the impregnation agent. In the secondstage, a round robin test involving 3 Nordic laboratories was conducted; the results showed very littlevariation and were compared to results obtained according to previous standards in order to defineperformance requirements. Finally, data from field exposed specimens for more than 5 years was used tovalidate the suitability for use.

  • 42.
    Silva, Nelson
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Hallingberg, Per
    Aercrete Technology AB, Sweden.
    Cederqvist, Christer
    Aercrete Technology AB, Sweden.
    Foam concrete-aerogel composite for thermal insulation in lightweight sandwich2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 1355-1362Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the initial steps towards the development of a foam concrete-aerogelcomposite for thermal insulation in lightweight sandwich façade elements. Fire safety is an important issuepertaining insulation materials. Therefore, the need for low-density inorganic, non-flammable materials israpidly increasing. Foam concrete is a lightweight material with good thermal characteristics; densities aslow as 400 kg/m3 and thermal conductivities as low as 100 mW/m·K can easily be achieved. The mainadvantage when compared to typical inorganic insulations (e.g. autoclaved aerated concrete or mineralwool) is that foam concrete has a much lower embodied energy, in particular due to the simplicity of themanufacturing process. However, in order to be competitive as an effective insulation material, thethermal conductivity needs to be drastically reduced which can be achieved by reducing the density andby incorporating silica aerogels (both measures affecting the compressive strength).

  • 43.
    Vera-Agullo, J.
    et al.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Lample, R.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Nelson, Silva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Durability of concrete exposed to sea water at early age: Flotaing dock method for construction of caissons2016In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Concrete Sustainability (ICCS16), International Center for Numerical Methods in Engineering (CIMNE) , 2016, p. 250-260Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ACCIONA Infrastructure, a Spanish contractor, uses the caisson method for the construction of breakwater structures. One of its floating docks, Kugira, is one of the largest of its kind in the world and it can produce concrete caissons measuring 70 m long by 36 m wide and 35 m high. Concrete caissons made in floating docks are gradually immersed in sea water as they are built; thus, the set concrete is exposed to sea water at a very early stage, within 18 to 48 hours after casting in sliding formwork. In order to study the durability of slag concrete using this construction method, the properties of concrete exposed to sea water at a very young age have been tested. Specimens were exposed to artificial sea water by the ponding method at different ages (16h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days) for a period of 6, 18 and 36 (analysis pending) months. The following properties were measured and compared with unexposed specimens: compressive strength, water and oxygen permeability, pore size distribution, migration coefficient DNT492 and chloride profiles. After 6 and 18 months ponding, lower chloride contents were measured for the specimens exposed to sea water after 28 days curing compared to those exposed at early ages. However, this difference significantly decreases within a small depth from the exposed surface. Also the migration coefficient DNT492 decreases significantly with the increase of the age of the concrete. With regards to water and oxygen permeability, no significant differences were found. In this paper, a summary of all these works is presented.                

  • 44.
    Vera-Agullo, Jose
    et al.
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Castro-Visos, Francisco Manuel
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Larraz-Bordanaba, Francisco Javier
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Troncone-Cusati, Claudio
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Asencio-Varela, Juan Pedro
    ACCIONA, Spain.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Durability of concrete caissons made in floating docks2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 894-903Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ACCIONA Infrastructure, a Spanish contractor, uses the caisson method for the construction ofbreakwater structures. One of its floating docks, Kugira, is one of the largest of its kind in the world and itcan produce concrete caissons measuring 70 m long by 36 m wide and 35 m high. Concrete caissonsmade in floating docks are gradually immersed in sea water as they are built; thus, the set concrete isexposed to sea water at a very early stage, within 18 to 48 hours after casting in sliding formwork. In orderto study the durability of slag concrete using this construction method, the properties of concrete exposedto sea water at a very young age have been tested. Specimens were exposed to artificial sea water by theponding method at different ages (16h, 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days) for a period of 6, 18 and 36 (analysispending) months. The following properties were measured and compared with unexposed specimens:compressive strength, water and oxygen permeability, pore size distribution, migration coefficient DNT492and chloride profiles. After 6 and 18 months ponding, lower chloride contents were measured for thespecimens exposed to sea water after 28 days curing compared to those exposed at early ages.However, this difference significantly decreases within a small depth from the exposed surface. Also themigration coefficient DNT492 decreases significantly with the increase of the age of the concrete. Withregards to water and oxygen permeability, no significant differences were found. In this paper, a summaryof all these works is presented.Apart from this laboratory analysis, real scale tests were performed at site with the aim to increasedurability by the addition of nanosilica particles. The characterization of these real scale tests are alsodescribed and discussed in this paper.

  • 45.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Johannesson, Pär
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tensile behaviour of textile reinforcement under accelerated ageing conditions2016In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 5, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Textile reinforced concrete (TRC) has emerged as a promising alternative wherein corrosion is no longer an issue and much thinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched, the formalization of experimental methods concerning durability arises when attempting to implement and design such innovative building materials. In this study, accelerated ageing tests paired with tensile tests were performed. The change in physico-mechanical properties of various commercially available textile reinforcements was documented and evaluated. The ability for the reinforcements to retain their tensile capacity was also quantified in the form of empirical degradation curves. It was observed that accelerated test parameters typically applied to fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) bars and grids are generally too aggressive for the textile reinforcement products and alternative boundary conditions are necessary. The developed degradation curves were found to have an overall good correlation with the experimental findings.

  • 46. Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Lundgren, Karin
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Implementation of experimental data in analyses of textile reinforced concrete structures2015In: FERRO-11 – 11th International Symposium on Ferrocement and 3rd ICTRC - International Conference on Textile Reinforced Concrete, 2015, , p. 149-158Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Anchorage of Textile Reinforcement in High-Performance Concrete2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of textile reinforced high-performance concrete (TRHPC) applied in innovative lightweight sandwich elements has been investigated in the framework of EC supported FP7 project, H-House (Healthier Life with Eco-innovative Components for Housing Constructions). TRHPC offers new possibilities for architects and engineers to create thinner and more durable concrete façade elements. Textile reinforcement grids are typically woven from non-metallic rovings usually consisting of continuous glass, rock or carbon fibres. The most promising performing textile reinforcement alternative in terms of mechanical and durability performance consists of carbon fibres. Carbon fibres do however have an inherent smooth surface which is unfavourable concerning its bond to the cement paste, which is often improved by polymer-based coatings. The bond behaviour, being a critical design parameter, should be investigated for TRHPC in order to understand limitations regarding required anchorage lengths for use in applications such as façade elements. The aim of this study was to quantify and verify the required anchorage length for a selected epoxy impregnated carbon textile reinforced TRHPC combination. To achieve this aim, the bond behaviour, leading to a suitable anchorage length (or overlap), was firstly studied by means of pull-out tests. Thereafter, the ultimate strength of the composite material was measured via uniaxial tensile testing with and without an overlap splice according to the findings from the pull-out tests. Optical measurements during the pull-out tests were performed using a video extensometer technique and by Digital Image Correlation (DIC) for the uniaxial tensile tests. Results indicated that the required anchorage length to yield rupture of the textile reinforcement in pull-out was deemed appropriate as an overlapping length when tested in tension. The combination of these two experimental methods on the composite level was useful for determining the overlapping length required for the TRHPC which could be applied in larger scale applications.

  • 48.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute.
    Bending behaviour of novel Textile Reinforced Concrete-foamed concrete (TRC-FC) sandwich elements2017In: Composite structures, ISSN 0263-8223, E-ISSN 1879-1085, Vol. 177, p. 104-118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A novel sandwich element design consisting of two facings made of carbon reinforced Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), a low density foamed concrete (FC) core and glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connecting devices was experimentally investigated according to quasi-static and cyclic quasi-static fourpoint bending. Optical measurements based on Digital Image Correlation (DIC) were taken during testing to enable a detailed analysis of the bending behaviour and level of composite action. A model, verified by the experiments, was developed based on non-linear finite element analysis (NLFEA) to gain further insight on the failure mechanisms. Under both loading conditions, the bending behaviour of the TRCFC composite elements was characterized by favourable load bearing capacity, partial composite action, superior ductility and multiple fine cracking. The connecting devices were found to be the critical elements causing the initial failure mechanism in the form of localized pull-out within an element.

  • 49.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Wallbaum, Holger
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Sustainable potential of textile-reinforced concrete2015In: Journal of materials in civil engineering, ISSN 0899-1561, E-ISSN 1943-5533, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 4014207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The building construction industry is in need of sustainable materials and solutions. A novel building material, such as textile-reinforced concrete (TRC), could be used to meet this demand. Textile-reinforced concrete is a combination of fine-grained concrete and multiaxial textile fabrics that has been fundamentally researched over the past decade. TRC-based research has explored various facets of this composite material, such as its structural functionality, production, applicability, and design. One key aspect that is still missing, however, is a comprehensive review of the sustainable potential of this material in terms of its input–output and durability that suitably answers to requirement No. 7 of EU’s Construction Products Regulation. This article provides qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the sustainable potential and prospective development of TRC particularly reinforced by alkali-resistant (AR) glass, carbon, or basalt fibers. Based on the outcome of this evaluation, carbon textile fibers were observed to hold the optimal potential mechanical behavior; additionally, it was revealed through the conducted life-cycle assessment (LCA) that basalt had the least cumulative energy demand, whereas carbon had the least environmental impact.

  • 50.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Silva, Nelson
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Malaga, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Billberg, Peter
    Consolis Strängbetong, Sweden.
    Durability study of textile fibre reinforcement2015In: Concrete 2015: Proceedings of the 27th Biennial National Conference of the Concrete Institute of Australia in conjunction with the 69th RILEM Week "Construction Innovations, Research into Practice", Institute of Australia , 2015, p. 408-413Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conventional steel reinforced concrete is one of the most commonly used building materials,yet it has shortcomings in terms of weight, thick concrete covers, and durability namely corrosion of thereinforcement. Textile Reinforced Concrete (TRC), a combination of fine-grained concrete and noncorrosivefibre grids, has emerged as a promising alternative; corrosion is no longer an issue and muchthinner and light-weight elements can be designed. Although TRC has been expansively researched,unknowns pertaining to the long-term durability arise when attempting to implement such innovativebuilding materials. The aim of this article is to study the effect of accelerated aging on the tensile strengthof various textile fibre grids according to ISO 10406-1 [1]. Carbon, basalt and alkali-resistant (AR) glassfibre grids were immersed into high alkali environment and elevated temperature for 30 days. Directtensile tests were conducted before and after aging to observe the degree of stiffness and tensile strengthloss. After aging, the carbon fibre grids were marked by an increase in both tensile strength and stiffness,while AR-glass and basalt were degraded to the extent that tensile tests could not be conducted.Specimens were therefore exposed to alternative conditions to identify the governing degradation factor.

12 1 - 50 of 51
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.35.7