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  • 1.
    Ajpi, Cesario
    et al.
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Suescun, Leopoldo
    Universidad de la Republica, Uruguay.
    Leiva, Naviana
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    Universidad Mayor de San Andres, Bolivia.
    Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis of poly[tris-(μ4-benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ato)tetra-kis-(di-methyl-formamide)-trinickel(II)]: a two-dimensional coordination network.2019In: Acta crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic communications, ISSN 2056-9890, Vol. 75, no Pt 12, p. 1839-1843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Ni3(C8H4O4)3(C3H7NO)4], is a two-dimensional coordination network formed by trinuclear linear Ni3(tp)3(DMF)4 units (tp = terephthalate = benzene-1,4-di-carboxyl-ate and DMF = di-methyl-formamide) displaying a characteristic coordination mode of acetate groups in polynuclear metal-organic compounds. Individual trinuclear units are connected through tp anions in a triangular network that forms layers. One of the DMF ligands points outwards and provides inter-actions with equivalent planes above and below, leaving the second ligand in a structural void much larger than the DMF mol-ecule, which shows positional disorder. Parallel planes are connected mainly through weak C-H⋯O, H⋯H and H⋯C inter-actions between DMF mol-ecules, as shown by Hirshfeld surface analysis.

  • 2.
    Benavente, Fabian
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Campana, Pietro
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Zhang, Yang
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Cabrera, Saul
    UMSA Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, Bolivia.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Photovoltaic/battery system sizing for rural electrification in Bolivia: Considering the suppressed demand effect2019In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 235, p. 519-528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rural electrification programs usually do not consider the impact that the increment of demand has on the reliability of off-grid photovoltaic (PV)/battery systems. Based on meteorological data and electricity consumption profiles from the highlands of Bolivian Altiplano, this paper presents a modelling and simulation framework for analysing the performance and reliability of such systems. Reliability, as loss of power supply probability (LPSP), and cost were calculated using simulated PV power output and battery state of charge profiles. The effect of increasing the suppressed demand (SD) by 20% and 50% was studied to determine how reliable and resilient the system designs are. Simulations were performed for three rural application scenarios: a household, a school, and a health centre. Results for the household and school scenarios indicate that, to overcome the SD effect, it is more cost-effective to increase the PV power rather than to increase the battery capacity. However, with an increased PV-size, the battery ageing rate would be higher since the cycles are performed at high state of charge (SOC). For the health centre application, on the other hand, an increase in battery capacity prevents the risk of electricity blackouts while increasing the energy reliability of the system. These results provide important insights for the application design of off-grid PV-battery systems in rural electrification projects, enabling a more efficient and reliable source of electricity.

  • 3.
    Cornander, Anna
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Nilsson, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Alexandersson, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Mörstam, Magnus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Persvik, Mats
    Göteborgs Stads Leasing AB, Sweden.
    Eriksen, Jon
    Kunnskapsbyen Lilleström, Norway.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    The Blue Move for a Green Economy : Behovsstudie och teknikkartläggning av arbetsmaskiner2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Blue Move project aims to generate an increased demand for hydrogen as a fuel and investigate the business potential of heavy machinery in the Öresund-Kattegatt- Skagerrak (ÖKS) region, contributing for renewable energy in the transport sector to increase. The use of heavy machinery generates significant carbon dioxide emissions and local air pollution. By using machines with batteries and/or fuel cells instead of combustion engines, local air pollution and climate impact from the machines can be reduced. Electrification also reduces noise and vibration problems, contributing to an improved local and working environment. Customers' requirements are changing and within the near future some clients will only buy zero-emission vehicles. For example, many municipalities have high environmental targets and aim to be climate neutral and fossil fuel-free by 2030. Setting the requirements for public procurement, municipalities and regions become very important players in the process of converting to fossil fuel-free working machines. Electrification is on the rise and the development is fast, which, in addition to the environmental benefits, allows many benefits such as increased service life and a reduced number of components. The cost and character of the service of the vehicles will also change. The choice between electrical operation with batteries or with fuel cells depends on the cost, weight and space requirement for the current energy need. When operating on fuel cells, the heavy machinery can be quickly fueled, and it has an unchanged performance from full to empty tank. The use of fuel cells is also space-saving compared with fullelectric machines since areas for charging or battery change are not required. Today there are both battery and fuel cell - electric heavy machinery available on the market. This report gives an overview of available equipment, but also prototype and demo machines. Both a continued technical development and an increased market share for emission-free vehicles are required to meet future environmental goals. In order to achieve success, it is important that customers and manufacturers meet.

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  • 4.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Mälardalen University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An Open-source Platform for Simulation and Optimization of Clean Energy Technologies2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Energy Procedia, Vol. 105, p. 946-952Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Battery sizing and rule-based operation of grid-connected photovoltaic-battery system: A case study in Sweden.2017In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN ISSN 0196-8904, Vol. 133, p. 249-263Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Building Energy System: From System Planning To Operation2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Comparative study of hydrogen storage and battery storage in grid connected photovoltaic system: Storage sizing and rule-based operation.2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 201, p. 397-411Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Electrochemical Evaluation of the Aging Process for NCA/Graphite Cylindrical Cells Intended for Off-Grid PV Applications2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Fuel Cell-Battery Hybrid Cargo Bicycle with 300 km driving range2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    High Share Renewable Islands Through Synergies Between Energy Networks2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Loss-of-load probability analysis for optimization of small off-grid PV-battery systems in Bolivia2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 142, p. 3715-3720Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Optimization of a residential district with special consideration on energy and water reliability2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 194, p. 751-764Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH, Sweden.
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building.In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    The influence of photovoltaic models and battery models in system simulation and optimization.2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1184-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    The Influence of Photovoltaic Models and Battery Models in System Simulation and Optimization2017In: Energy Procedia, ISSN 1876-6102, E-ISSN 1876-6102, Vol. 105, p. 1184-1191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Mölmen, Live
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Fast, Lars
    Zanella, Caterina
    Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Investigation of feed water impurities on life-time of PEMWE2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the introduction of fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEV), hydrogen gas produced without fossil fuels Is requiredto reduce the CO2 emissions. At the same time, the production of renewable energy is increasing. Waterelectrolysis to produce hydrogen with the use of electricity from renewable sources allows for storage of theenergy in the form of hydrogen. The gas can be utilized either back to the electric net or as fuel for FCEVs.However, the cost of water electrolysis systems needs to be reduced while the lifetime must be increased. Oneof the main limitations of the proton exchange membrane water electrolyser (PEMWE) system is the degradationof the membrane1. This limits the lifetime of the system and is expensive to replace. It has been shown thatimpurities from feed water and the degradation products from other component poison the membrane, loweringthe proton conductivity. Furthermore, metal ion impurities catalyse the formation of hydrogen peroxide at thecathode further contributing to irreversible membrane thinning2. In industrial systems, the water circulated tothe cells is purified to minimize the degradation. However, the purification limits the operating temperature ofthe systems and increases the total system cost2.The water quality used in most electrolysis cells today utilises ASTM type II deionized water. However, littleresearch is done on the limitations, and quantifying the reduction in efficiency dependent on the water quality.Dedigama et al.3 calculated the minimum flow needed, and further state that in industry, 5 times the necessaryflow of water is circulated to ensure proper wetting of the membrane. However, in research, an excess of wateris often used, up to 100 times higher flow than required, to exclude mass transport restrictions on thereactions3,4.Increasing temperature decreases the kinetic overpotential and increases the membrane conductivity4.However, also dissolution of the catalyst and degradation of the cell components increase with temperature.Furthermore, in industrial applications the maximum temperature of the water into the purification system is60°C5. Dependent on the aim of the research, experiments at temperatures as low as 25°C are performed to fitwith the industry, while others run at 80 or 90°C to probe the upper limits of current density and efficiency2.In this project we aim to analyse the effect of varying water purity on the membrane degradation in a single PEMelectrolysis cell test setup. Furthermore, the effect of changing temperature from 60 to 80°C on the impuritytolerance will be studied. The circulating feed water will be analysed with respect to conductivity, metal ion andfluorine concentration. A parallel “blank” system with only tubings, fittings etc will be assembled and comparedto the data measured from the electrolyser. Contaminating species will be added to the feed water to study theirimpact.

  • 17. Zhang, Jie
    et al.
    Campana, Pietro Elia
    Yao, Tian
    Zhang, Yang
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    Mälardalen University, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Melton, Forrest
    Yan, Jinyue
    The water-food-energy nexus optimization approach to combat agricultural drought: a case study in the United States2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 227, p. 449-464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The frequent recent drought events in the Great Plains of United States have led to significant crop yield reductions and crop price surges. Using an integrated water-food-energy nexus modelling and optimization approach, this study laid the basis for developing an effective agricultural drought management system by combining real-time drought monitoring with real-time irrigation management. The proposed water-food-energy simulation and optimization method is spatially explicit and was applied to one major corn region in Nebraska. The crop simulations, validated with yield statistics, showed that a drought year like 2012 can potentially reduce the corn yield by 50% as compared to a wet year like 2009. The simulation results show that irrigation can play a key role in halting crop losses due to drought and in sustaining high yields of up to 20t/ha. Nevertheless, the water-food-energy relationship shows that significant investments on water and energy are required to limit the negative effects of drought. The multi-criteria optimization problem developed in this study shows that the optimal crop yield does not necessarily correspond to the maximum yield, resulting in potential water and energy savings.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro E.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Stridh, Bengt
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Energy flexibility from the consumer: Integrating local electricity and heat supplies in a building2018In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 223, p. 430-442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energy requires more flexibility measures to be implemented in future energy systems. Integrating an energy consumer's local energy supplies connects multiple energy networks (i.e., the electrical grid, the district heating network, and gas network) in a decentralized way. Such integration enhances the flexibility of energy systems. In this work, a Swedish office building is investigated as a case study. Different components, including heat pump, electrical heater, battery and hot water storage tank are integrated into the electricity and heat supply system of the building. Special focus is placed on the flexibility that the studied building can provide to the electrical grid (i.e., the building modulates the electricity consumption in response to the grid operator's requirements). The flexibility is described by two metrics including the flexibility hours and the flexibility energy. Optimization of the component capacities and the operation profiles is carried out by using Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). The results show that the system fully relies on electricity for the heat demand when not considering the flexibility requirements of the electrical grid. This suggests that district heating is economically unfavorable compared with using electricity for the heat demand in the studied case. However, when flexibility requirements are added, the system turns to the district heating network for part of the heat demand. The system provides great flexibility to the electrical grid through such integration. The flexibility hours can be over 5200 h in a year, and the flexibility energy reaches more than 15.7 MWh (36% of the yearly electricity consumption). The yearly operation cost of the system slightly increases from 62,273 to 65,178 SEK when the flexibility hours increase from 304 to 5209 h. The results revealed that flexibility can be provided from the district heating network to the electrical grid via the building.

  • 19.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Zheng, Wandong
    Tianjin University, China.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Planning and operation of an integrated energy system in a Swedish building2019In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 199, article id 111920Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More flexibility measures are required due to the increasing capacities of variable renewable energies (VRE). In buildings, the integration of energy supplies forms integrated energy systems (IES). IESs can provide flexibility and increase the VRE penetration level. To upgrade a current building energy system into an IES, several energy conversion and storage components are needed. How to decide the component capacities and operate the IES were investigated separately in studies on system planning and system operation. However, a research gap exists that the system configuration from system planning is not validated by actual operation conditions in system operation. Meanwhile, studies on system operation assume that IES configurations are predetermined. This work combines system planning and system operation. The IES configuration is determined by mixed integer linear programming in system planning. Actual operation conditions and forecast errors are considered in system operation. The actual operation profiles are obtained through year-round simulations of different energy management systems. The results indicate that the system configuration from system planning can meet energy demands in system operation. Among different energy management systems, the combination of robust optimization and receding horizon optimization achieves the lowest yearly operation cost. Meanwhile, two scenarios that represent high and low forecast accuracies are studied. Under the high and low forecast accuracy scenarios, the yearly operation costs are about 4% and 6% higher than that obtained from system planning.

  • 20.
    Zhang, Yang
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Campana, Pietro
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Yang, Ying
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Lundblad, Anders Olof
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Yan, Jinyue
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Energy Flexibility through the Integrated Energy Supply System in Buildings: A Case Study in Sweden2018In: Energy Procedia, 2018, p. 564-569Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing penetration level of renewable energies requires more flexibility measures at the consumption side. Flexible energy prices have been placed by energy providers to promote flexibility measures from energy users. However, because of the current energy supply system in buildings, these flexible energy prices haven't been fully taken advantage of. This study focuses on the integrated energy supply system in buildings. A Swedish office building is used as the case study. The integrated energy supply system is built by installing new components, including battery, heat pump and electrical heater, and hot water tank. Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problems are solved to determine the optimal component capacities and operation profiles. The results indicate that all the studied system configurations achieve lower net present cost (NPC) than the current system. It suggests that the integrated energy supply system can take advantage of the flexible energy prices and lower the overall energy cost in the building. Among the studied configurations, the combination of air source heat pump (ASHP) and electrical heater (EH) has the lowest investment cost. This combination also has the lowest NPC except in the scenario with low borehole cost. © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

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