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  • 1.
    Arvidsson, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Bolin, Lisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Linder, Marcus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Mellquist, Ann-Charlotte
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norefjell, Fredric
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Nyström, Thomas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Rex, Emma
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Norrblom, Hans-Lennart
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, IVF.
    Tööj, Lars
    Industrial Development Center, Sweden.
    Cirkulära möbelflöden: Hur nya affärsmodeller kan bidra till hållbar utveckling inom offentliga möbler2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige har en stark möbelindustri och en stolt tradition av att tillverka tidlösa och högkvalitativa möbler, ofta av naturmaterial. 2016 producerade Sverige möbler för 22,8 miljarder SEK, varav kontorsmöbler stod för nästan en fjärdedel1. Det saknas idag statistik över vad som händer med dessa möbler när de inte längre används, men det står klart att många av dem slängs i förtid när verksamheter flyttar eller när deras behov ändras. Samtidigt syns en tydlig utveckling mot att kunder mer och mer efterfrågar återbrukade eller renoverade möbler som en del i sitt hållbarhetsarbete. Denna utveckling var startpunkten för projektet ”Affärsmodell-innovation för cirkulära möbelflöden”.

    Affärsmodellinnovation för cirkulära möbelflöden är ett Vinnovafinansierat projekt som under åren 2015-2017 arbetat med att utveckla och testa koncept för cirkulära affärsmodeller för i första hand offentliga möbler. I projektet har tjugo aktörer från hela värdekedjan, från underleverantörer, möbelproducenter, återförsäljare och användare till forskare och branschorgan, samarbetat kring affärsutveckling, kundincitament, produktdesign, logistik, hållbarhets- och certifieringsfrågor.

    Den här skriften belyser hur nya affärsmodeller för mer cirkulära möbelflöden kan bidra till en mer hållbar utveckling och ger smakprov på slutsatser från projektet. Skriften riktar sig framför allt till producenter och återförsäljare av möbler för offentliga miljöer, men även kunder och inköpare tror vi kan ha stor nytta av skriften. Vi hoppas att den även kan fungera som inspiration för andra industrier och branscher som funderar på en övergång till mer cirkulära affärsekosystem.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Cirkulära möbelflöden
  • 2.
    Coppel, L.G.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Norberg, O.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., Innventia.
    Paper whiteness and its effect on perceived image quality2010Inngår i: 18th Color and Imaging Conference: Color Science and Engineering Systems, Technologies, and Applications, Technical Papers and Proceedings: CIC18, 2010, s. 62-67Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Whiteness is a commercially important characteristic of paper and board, although its perception depends on many factors that often are neglected by instrumental measurements. High whiteness improves the contrast of printed areas and increases the number of reproducible colours, but few quantitative studies have been published. In this paper, we report just-noticeable image quality difference (JND) from pair wise comparisons of images printed on paper substrate of different shades and whiteness. The JND was estimated to approximately 15 CIE whiteness, for the images and whiteness levels in this study, implying that a large substrate whiteness difference is required to get a significant visual impact on image quality. Unlike previous studies limited to colour rendering issues, the influence of the substrate’s shade as a surrounding frame to the images was also investigated here. It was found that the surrounding frame did not have a significant impact on image quality, when the images had an inherent dim background around the objects in the image. However, floating images in which the image objects are adjacent to the unprinted substrate would need further attention, since their perceived image quality seemed to depend both on the colour reproduction related to whiteness and shade, and on the contrast between the image and the substrate.

  • 3.
    Coppel, Ludovic G.
    et al.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Modelling the effect of simultaneous contrast on perceived whiteness2008Inngår i: 4th European Conference on Colour in Graphics, Imaging, and Vision and 10th International Symposium on Multispectral Colour Science, 2008, s. 183-188Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceived colour from a surface does not only depend on its optical properties and the illumination. Several studies have demonstrated the simultaneous contrast effect that makes the appearance of coloured patches depend on neighbouring colours. In this study the perceived whiteness of white patches surrounded by induction fields of different shades was evaluated by asking observers to give a magnitude estimate of perceived whiteness of the patches in comparison to a white reference. The perceived whiteness of patches with identical tristimulus values was highly dependent on the shade of the induction field and the patch size did not significantly affect the perceived whiteness. The recent CIECAM02-m2 colour appearance model was tested together with two whiteness equations. A combination of ClECAM02-m2 and a non-linear whiteness equation defined in the whole colour space predicted much of the observed simultaneous contrast effect. However, the model performed better for dark induction fields than for light induction fields. The model rated patches surrounded by light blue and light yellow equally, whereas the observers clearly rated the patches with light yellow induction field as whiter than the patches with light blue induction field. A deeper analysis of the CIECAM02-m2 model indicated that the simultaneous contrast model used cannot accurately predict the change in hue for high lightness induction fields. A potential improvement for predicting contrast simultaneous effect would be to base the calculations not only on the difference between the induction field and the background, but on the difference between the patch stimulus and the induction field.

  • 4.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE., Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE., Innventia.
    Wickholm, Kristina
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s a super multimaterial!2015Inngår i: Paper Conference and Trade Show (PaperCon 2015), TAPPI Press, 2015, Vol. 1, s. 492-504Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Matching market demands and technological solutions is not always straightforward. In this article, we report on one material, a cellulose-PLA multimaterial, which was made on a full-scale pilot paper machine and adapted to five different market applications having specialized and often conflicting demands. The material can be injection molded, 3D-printed, hot pressed, treated as a textile, used in a laminate, or converted as a paper board, giving it a wide range of possible properties depending on how it is processed.The five application areas presented here were identified as gaps in the marketplace where seemingly conflicting needs were desired: opacity and transparency; compact for transport but having an expanded size during use; stiffness and flexibility; strength and light-weight; and durability and degradability. These properties are exemplified in a number of material and product demonstrators, illustrating how tailored solutions can give products with distinctly different personalities. The material can be made flexible and given movement as graceful as the wing of a bird or be processed to be strong and light-weight enough to be used in vehicles like airplanes. By having one material that is produced on a large scale, but then processed according to specific market demands and expectations, the gap between needing scale and needing scope is bridged.

  • 5.
    Hartzen, Ann-Sofie Margareta
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Sweden; KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    RISE., Innventia.
    The material expression of new pulp-fibre reinforced composites in relation to other material categories2016Inngår i: Proceedings - D and E 2016: 10th International Conference on Design and Emotion - Celebration and Contemplation, 2016, s. 191-200Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To help bridge the gap between the science lab and commercial production there is a need for a better understanding of how new bio-based materials are perceived by users. The aim of the studies in this paper was to identify the material expression, sensorial properties and semantic dimensions of a group of pulp-fibre reinforced composites that are still in the research phase and how these relate to other, better-known materials already on the market. The studies involved 21 different materials, divided into different material groups such as metals, solid woods, wood fibre materials, plastic and fibre-reinforced composites in which the pulp-fibre reinforced composites were included. The materials were evaluated for meaning in a product semantic study and for sensory perception in a sensorial study. The results of the semantic study gave two underlining dimensions explaining most of the variations between the materials, Quality and Naturalness. These dimensions also had strong correlations to some of the sensorial properties. The results indicate that the pulp-fibre reinforced composites were not perceived as having high quality or expressing naturalness. They were hard to distinguish from the plastics in the study. The implications for further research and material development are discussed.

  • 6.
    Jensen, Carl
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Edo, Mar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Lindberg, Siv
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi och hälsa, Material- och ytdesign.
    Hinder och möjligheter för att öka källsortering av plastavfall från tillverkningsindustrin2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of plastics and the management of the generated amounts of plastic waste are two issues that have been some of the most prominent in the environmental debate in recent years. Today, large quantities of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry is generated that are not sorted for recycling but end up in combustible residual waste going to energy recovery, which means a significant waste of resources. Although large quantities of plastic waste originate from the manufacturing industry, the vast majority of initiatives related to a more resource-efficient management of plastic waste have focused on the plastic waste generated related to consumption. Relatively little focus has been on the primary plastic waste generated from the manufacturing industry.

    The purpose of this project has been to contribute to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the Swedish manufacturing industry. The goals were to identify and evaluate significant barriers faced by the Swedish manufacturing industry to increase the sorting of plastic in Sweden and to propose how the sorting of the plastic waste can increase.

    The project and its results were based on a survey answered by manufacturing companies, which was supplemented by interviews with waste and recycling actors.

    The results and conclusions of the project can be summarized as follows:

    ▪ There is considerable potential to increase the source sorting of generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

    Of the companies that responded to the survey, 12 percent answered that no source sorting of plastic waste occurs. Although the number of responses was small and not representative of Sweden as a whole, the figures give an indication that the number of manufacturing companies and the amount of plastic waste that is not sorted out can be significant. Of the companies that stated that plastic packaging is generated, as many as 19 percent have no source sorting of plastic packaging. For plastic production waste and other process material containing plastic, a large proportion responded that no source sorting occurs, 26 and 53 percent, respectively.

    ▪ Manufacturing companies sorting out plastic waste have a high source sorting efficiency

    The results from the project show that the companies that sort their waste also have high source sorting levels, ire. there is a small proportion of plastic waste generated that end up in combustible waste fractions. Almost 80 percent of manufacturing companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated plastic packaging waste. For plastic production waste, about 78 percent sort out at least 70 percent of plastic waste generated. For other process materials containing plastics, the source sorting rate is considerably lower, 44 percent of the companies sort out at least 70 percent of the generated amounts.

    ▪ Existing barriers to increased sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry are estimated to be relatively small

    For each barrier, a majority of manufacturing companies indicated that the current barriers are not relevant or had a minor impact on the sorting of plastic waste. However, it should be pointed out that there are major differences between individual companies where some experience major barriers to increase their source sorting of plastic waste.

    The technical barriers are the most important ones in increasing the source sorting of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry

    For all three plastic waste streams studied, the technical barriers were the most significant to overcome in order to increase the source sorting and recycling of plastic waste from the manufacturing industry. For plastic packaging, the most important technical obstacle was that plastic packaging was contaminated. For production waste, a complex material composition, contamination and the fact that a sufficiently high quality cannot be guaranteed, were the major obstacles. For other process materials, small amounts of waste were considered to be the most important barrier. Other technical barriers for other process materials containing plastics were the presence of contaminants and that a sufficiently high quality of the waste cannot be guaranteed.

    ▪ The incentives to increase the source sorting of plastic waste are small

    Although the barriers to increased source sorting are relatively small, the incentives to increase source sorting for manufacturing companies are also small. Overall, the responses to the survey indicate that the costs related to waste management constitute a small proportion of the total production cost of manufacturing companies. This means that the financial incentives to reduce their production costs through better source sorting are small. Although several source sorted plastic fractions have a material value, the cost associated with the collection of the plastic waste is considerable and may also exceed the revenue a manufacturing company receives for the material itself. A significant proportion (21 percent) of respondents also stated that the cost of source sorted plastics is in the same order of magnitude as for combustible and sorted waste fractions.

    ▪ A large proportion of manufacturing companies use secondary plastic raw materials in their production

    Of the respondents, around half of them use secondary plastic raw material in their production. Although a majority of these use smaller quantities (<10%), reported figures indicate that there is a demand for recycled plastic raw materials in the manufacturing industry. Limitations in quality as well as large variations in the quality of recycled plastic raw materials are considered to be the main reasons why manufacturing companies use more secondary plastics in their production. The quality aspect and that secondary raw material does not meet the set quality requirements is the major reason why half of the responding companies do not use any secondary plastic raw material in their production. This shows the importance of high quality of the source sorted plastics but also sorting and recycling techniques which can handle quality deviations in collected plastic waste.

    Recommendations for increasing the source sorting and recycling of the generated plastic waste from the manufacturing industry can be summarized as follows:

    ▪ Utilize conventional goods transport for reverse logistics of plastic waste to a greater extent

    Plastic waste is often bulky, which means that costs associated with collection are significant in relation to the material value of the plastic waste and can also exceed the revenue generated for the material. Since conventional goods transport often goes back empty after delivery, there is a potential to transport the generated plastic waste to a greater extent. In a future project, the opportunities and barriers exist should be explored to realize this on a large scale, where differences between different industries also exist.

    Increased collaboration between waste and recycling actors in the collection of plastic waste

    Waste and recycling companies which collect waste from businesses and industries operate in a competitive market. This can hamper an efficient collection of plastic waste from industries as several waste and recycling companies have customers located in the same geographical area. Through increased collaboration, improved logistics could be obtained together with a reduced environmental impact at the collection. If the costs of collection can be reduced, the manufacturing companies can be offered a higher price for source sorted plastics and thus increase the financial incentives of source sorting.

    ▪ Increased collaboration between actors in the value chain

    Increased collaboration, communication and transparency between actors in the value chain (manufacturing industry, waste and recycling companies, material manufacturers to suppliers), are also necessary to achieve increased source sorting and recycling of plastic waste. Material recycling is a much more sensitive process in terms of contamination, quality, etc. compared to energy recycling which today receives large amounts of plastic waste. Therefore, it is important that quality requirements and measures to achieve these are stated and communicated by each actor in the value chain in order to enable high quality of recycled plastic raw material. Requirements and measures to reach sufficiently high quality is something the actors in the value chain have great experience and know-how in the manufacture of products, why much of this could be applied to the plastic waste generated from the production.

    ▪ Utilize the possibilities of chemical recycling of plastic waste

    A limitation with the mechanical recycling that exists today is that it is relatively sensitive to contaminants, lack of quality and when materials other than plastic are present. These aggravating circumstances can be mitigated by chemical and/or thermal recycling processes which are significantly less sensitive compared to the mechanical recycling processes. These technologies are not fully developed but have great potential to be alternatives for recycling the plastic waste that is not possible to be recycled mechanically.

    ▪ Reduce the number of plastic types for plastic packaging and other process materials

    A significant barrier is the large number of types of plastics used, which makes source sorting difficult and expensive. For plastic packaging but also other process materials containing plastics, the possibilities of reducing the number of different types of plastic are considerably easier compared to plastic production waste whose content and quality are affected by the industry and product being manufactured. One tool to achieve this is to develop guidelines and set requirements for material content in packaging and recyclability at procurement. By reducing the number of plastic types, the source sorting process is simplified and larger quantities of different types of plastic waste are obtained.

    ▪ Continuous information efforts and feedback to production personnel

    Providing employees with continuous feedback through KPIs etc. is fundamental and something that many manufacturing companies use as a tool for their continuous improvement. This is also something that should be applied when handling waste, where production personnel should receive continuous feedback on waste sorting and the importance of source sorting. There is still a widespread perception that source sorted plastics are still being incinerated, which is important to prevent to get a motivated production staff. In this work, it is also important to highlight why a source sorting of plastics is important from a global and environmental perspective that extends beyond the business economic perspective.

    ▪ Goal monitoring of the company's waste management

    Although the two barriers lack of target follow-up and feedback on source sorting of plastic waste and the absence of directives from the management were considered to be of minor importance overall, there were individual manufacturing companies that considered these barriers to be significant. A recommendation is therefore to set up recycling targets within organizations, follow up, revise these and communicate these to employees.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 7. Johnson, O.
    et al.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Roos, A.
    Hugosson, M.
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Consumer perceptions and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and composites: A repertory grid study2008Inngår i: Wood and Fiber Science, ISSN 0735-6161, Vol. 40, nr 4, s. 663-678Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about consumer perception and preferences on solid wood, wood-based panels, and wood-based composites is important for product development and marketing. The aim of this study was to identify attributes and associations that people use to describe different types of wood materials and to explore how they relate to preferences. The study involved nine samples that were evaluated with the Kelly’s repertory grid technique and content analysis. Based on respondents’ answers, 19 core categories reflecting sample attributes were extracted. General preferences for each sample were also recorded. Principal component analysis generated two factors describing 1) naturalness, wood-likeness, softness, unprocessed origin, living, pleasant, and high value; and 2) solid and homogeneous impression. A third, preliminary factor included categories describing irregular pattern, sleekness, and smoothness. The wood samples were most liked, whereas composites and panels were not appreciated. Preferred core categories were naturalness, wood-likeness, smoothness, living impression, and value. The least liked core categories were processed, hard, and high weight. The implications of the results for product development and marketing are discussed. © 2008 by the Society of Wood Science and Technology.

  • 8.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE., Innventia.
    Pousette, Sandra
    RISE., Innventia.
    Material identity in a packaging context2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Package design includes a number of considerations ranging from protecting the content to conveying the brand image. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding on how Swedish consumes perceive product packaging attributes, with a special emphasis on in which way packaging material (carton, paper plastic), and structural design (folding carton, paper bag, standing pouch and plastic bag), have an emotional impact on consumers' evaluation of the product and packaging. Assessing the appearance and effectiveness of a packaging system is often confounded by branding, why it is important to separate the brand influence from the attributes of the packaging system. Thus, in the experimental part, packaging prototypes of different structural design and materials were manufactured in order to present commercial cereal brands in different types of packaging. The research involved a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, comprising (i) focus groups on cereal (muesli) packaging; (ii) a mock-up study of four muesli packaging types: transparent plastic bag, carton box, paper bag, and a resalable stand-up plastic pouch; and (iii) a questionnaire on environmental attitudes to packaging materials. Fourteen respondents participated in the focus groups and 20 in the mock-up study. Result show that the paper bag and the carton box were perceived to be the most environmentally friendly packaging material. Heavy ink usage on paper bags and carton boxes can however raise concern regarding the environmental impact. Introducing functionality and good print quality can cause preferences to divert to an alternative packaging material. In the mock-up study the standing pouch was the most liked package type regardless of brands. Functional reasons (protect, re-closable etc.) and appearance reasons (nice print, nice colours) was claimed for giving this package high ratings.

  • 9.
    Lindberg, Siv M.
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Béland, Marie-Claude
    RISE., Innventia.
    Edström, Karin
    RISE., Innventia.
    Granberg, Hjalmar
    RISE., Innventia.
    Berthold, Fredrik
    RISE., Innventia.
    Towards a cellulose-based society: Demonstrating the feasibility of new bio-based material concepts and products2016Inngår i: Proceedings - D and E 2016: 10th International Conference on Design and Emotion - Celebration and Contemplation, 2016, s. 411-419Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In moving towards a cellulose-based society, interdisciplinary effort is required as it is at this interface that new ideas are found and can grow. New bio-based materials will play a key role but getting them into the marketplace is not always straightforward. Many options are available both for sourcing and for producing composite materials from wood-based cellulose and poly-lactic acid (PLA). Depending on how the material is processed, a multitude of properties can be generated. The main goal with this work was to attempt to reduce the research-To-market gap. This was done by testing a new way of working together where we bundled innovation-oriented projects and research-oriented projects around the theme of material experience. We then systematically worked with material demonstrators. In this article, we exemplify the results by focusing on one research-oriented project that did not at the outset have a market context and on one innovation-oriented project with clear market requirements. In addition to introducing a new concept in bundling research-oriented and innovation-oriented projects, this paper contributes several practical examples of what material demonstrators can do. We also present an application and analysis of Moultrie’s extended Science-Technology-Application-Market (STAM) model to analyze the material demonstrators and design phases of the bundled projects. We modified the proposed classification with different types of material demonstrators according to how close they are to an actual product segment. Designers and scientists worked together but with different emphasis in each phase.

  • 10.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Edström, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioekonomi. RISE., Innventia.
    Tholander, Hanna
    NINE, Sweden.
    Grari, Mirjam
    NINE, Sweden.
    Aktivt åldrande - induviduellt anpassade måltidslösningar för hälsa och livskvalitet hos äldre: Förpackningskoncept2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användardriven förpackningsdesign har varit fokus i arbetspaket 4. Detta har bland annat inneburit enkätstudier med över 90 seniorer i samarbete med PRO, etnografiska studier i hemmamiljö samt hanteringsstudier och fokusgrupper där förpackningar har testats och utvärderas. Konceptutvecklingen har således skett iterativt med slutanvändare och förfinats med hjälp av vunna konsumentinsikter. Även lärdommar från litteraturen och nyutgiven standard för lättöppnade förpackningar har legat till grund för arbetet. En ledstjärna har varit att måltiden är en social aktivitet som delas med andra, förpackningen och dess innehåll bör tilltala alla 5 sinnen och locka till aptit. Projektet har därför fokuserat både på funktionalitet och upplevelsen av måltiden. Viktiga insikter som tagits hänsyn till är förpackningens hanterbarhet, i synnerhet öppningsaspekten som påverkas av såväl den äldres handstyrka och fingerfärdighet samt storlek och utformning på förpackningens greppyta. Förpackningen bör vidare intuitivt förklara hur den ska användas (öppnas, värmas etc), och information bör ges med så lite text som möjligt. Genomtänkt textstorlek och kontrast är viktigt för att den äldre ska kunna ta till sig informationen på förpackningen.Insikterna från studierna har implementerats i förpackningskoncept för huvudmål, dessert och mellanmål I samarbete med arbetspaket 5 har förpackningarna modulanpassats efter gastronormsystemet för att möjliggöra skalbarhet och därmed optimal effektivitet i distributionskedjan.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Fahlcrantz, Carl-Magnus
    RISE., STFI-Packforsk.
    Forsgren, Gunnar
    Iggesund Paper Board.
    Making subjective assessments objective: A mottle ruler for calibration of panel assessments of perceived print mottle2008Inngår i: Paper Conference and Trade Show, PaperCon '08, 2008, Vol. 4, s. 2086-2124Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to establish principles and procedures for: a) digital simulation and output of reference samples for perceived print mottle assessment, b) calibration of subjective assessments to a common unit of measurement. We decided to calibrate our scales using the just-noticeable difference (jnd) as the unit of subjective measurement and adapt a ruler system for the assessment of perceived print mottle as suggested by Keelan [1]. Jnd used in this context means the smallest difference in mottle required for 50 % of a test panel to genuinely detect a difference. Reference samples were designed in Matlab by adding a stochastic noise to a homogeneous gray (33 % reflectance) and a cyan image, that, when printed would have the resemblance of print mottle typically seen in offset printing. Digital images were converted to CMYK images, rasterized using a Best Color Rip, and printed on Epson Archival Matte paper on an Epson Stylus Photo 2100 ink-jet printer. The resulting prints were evaluated for the magnitudes of perceived visual mottle as well as for the just-noticeable differences, jnds, using panels of assessors. The prints were also evaluated for instrumental mottle using STFI-Packforsk’s image analysis based STFI-mottle software. Two mottle rulers were assembled. A mottle ruler is a set of 5 cm ח5 cm reference samples, varying widely in magnitudes of reflectance variation resembling real print mottle. Rulers were constructed for simulated K40 % (gray) and cyan 100 % (cyan) samples. The rulers are arranged with approximate twelve reference samples separated by intervals of three jnds each. A Round Robin evaluation of visually perceived print mottle was performed. Two rulers, cyan and gray, together with test samples to be evaluated against the rulers, were sent out to four participating companies. The test sets consisted of eight commercially produced samples (printed paper and board) and twelve simulated samples varying not only in the magnitude of mottle but also in character (e.g. coarseness and the orientation of the simulated noise). The purpose of using test samples with appearances that differed from the reference samples was to test the performance of the approach. The mottle rulers were also applied at Iggesund Paperboard during a test period of eight months in which more than 300 printed samples were assessed against the rulers. Round robin results showed good agreement between participating paper companies. The average standard deviations of the ratings against the rulers were ˜2.5 jnd units for the gray samples and ˜3.5 jnd units for the cyan samples. Some difficulties with the assessment technique were observed for the simulated samples, due to some samples having a very different visual character in terms of uncovered areas or noise that had a distinct orientation e.g. banding. Results from the testing period at Iggesund show less variability; average standard deviation for cyan 1.61 jnd and for gray 2.3 jnd. Overall, the calibration approach developed works very well, with the results showing a low variability of the ratings and a very good agreement between the different test panels, as well as a reasonably good correspondence between ratings of commercially produced samples and mottle measurements.

  • 12.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hansen, Peeter
    RISE., Innventia.
    Drotz, Mattias
    RISE., Innventia.
    Kihlstedt, Annika
    RISE., Innventia.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE., Innventia.
    Tactile and instrumental characterization of tissue products2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The feeling of softness and smoothness of paper tissue products is an important performance factor in the market place. In a series of panel tests, the relationship between instrumental measurements and perceived softness and smoothness was investigated. Samples of tissue base paper – napkin and toilet paper – were evaluated for surface roughness. The samples were placed on a hard, smooth glass substrate and the respondents used one finger to stroke along the sample surface. Instrumental measurement and characterization were performed using differentinstruments: Emtec TSA and Lena Softness Tester. The results divide the base paper material into product groups, but general mathematical relationships could be found between the test panel and the measurements when normalized in different ways. Measurements using the Lena produced the best correlation with the panel ratings because its principle resembled the method of the test panel most closely. However, a general relationship usingmaterial properties was shown to produce as good an estimator for the surface roughness as the results obtained with the Lena. This relationship consisted of the ratio between the plasticity and the elasticity of the tissue paper (in-plane properties), normalized for thickness. This suggests that those three material properties are fundamental to the perception of surface roughness as evaluated in this study. Using a trained haptic panel to evaluate test samples of similar grammage with variations in furnish and machine operation settings generated a good correlation to the TSA measurement (r=0.9). The panel was more susceptible to variation in furnish than variation in peak pressure, and this was particularly evident for samples evaluated on the Yankee side.

  • 13.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hartzen, Ann-Sofie
    Wodke, Thomas
    Lindström, Mikael
    RISE., Innventia.
    Hierarchic design and material identity2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Lindberg, Siv M
    et al.
    RISE., Innventia.
    Lindström, Annika
    RISE., Innventia.
    Cederström, Caroline
    RISE., Innventia.
    From, Anders
    Westerlind, Christine
    Shoppers' attention to packaging and in-store media2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
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