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  • 1.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fixed fire fighting systems impact on fire spread between vehicles in road tunnel2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 113-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fixed fire fighting systems impact on fire spread between vehicles in road tunnel2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 113-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Appel, Glenn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lyckade försök i Törnskogstunneln i Stockholm2012In: Brandposten, no 47, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Claesson, Alexander
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lindström, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Kumm, Mia
    Laboratory fire experiments with a 1/3 train carriage mockup2012Report (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China; Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of sidewall effect on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires with different aspect ratios and orientations in a channel2017In: Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, ISSN 1540-7489, E-ISSN 1873-2704, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 3121-3129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of small scale tests was conducted to investigate the influence of sidewall on flame characteristics of heptane pool fires in a channel, considering pool shape (aspect ratio: 1, 2, 4 and 8) and pool orientation relative to sidewall. Distance between fire and sidewall was changed systematically. Both transverse flame development (along the direction of channel width) and longitudinal flame development (along the direction of channel length) were recorded by digital video. Results show that for a fixed fire location, the heat release rate increases with the increasing pool aspect ratio (namely a larger pool perimeter), which indicates more air entrainment and more intense combustion. In wall fire cases, when the long pool rim is perpendicular with channel sidewall, the flame can obtain more air entrainment with a weaker boundary restriction from the sidewall, compared to the case with the long pool rim being parallel with sidewall. Comparison of some previously established correlations based on various experimental conditions with our test results is made. Due to the fact without considering sidewall effect and fuel shape on the air entrainment of fire plume, the classic correlations need to be further improved. Therefore, an integral flame length model considering both sidewall effect and fuel shape is developed, which correlates well with all the data from cases with various pool positions, orientations and aspect ratios. © 2016 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  • 6.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    et al.
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Effect of tunnel cross section on gas temperatures and heat fluxes in case of large heat release rate2016In: Applied Thermal Engineering, ISSN 1359-4311, E-ISSN 1873-5606, Vol. 93, p. 405-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tests with liquid and solid fuels in model tunnels (1:20) were performed and analysed in order to study the effect of tunnel cross section (width and height) together with ventilation velocity on ceiling gas temperatures and heat fluxes. The model tunnel was 10m long with varying width (0.3m, 0.45m and 0.6m) and height (0.25m and 0.4m). Test results show that the maximum temperature under the ceiling is a weak function of heat release rate (HRR) and ventilation velocity for cases with HRR more than 100MW at full scale. It clearly varies with the tunnel height and is a weak function of the tunnel width. With a lower tunnel height, the ceiling is closer to the base of continuous flame zone and the temperatures become higher. Overall, the gas temperature beneath the ceiling decreases with the increasing tunnel dimensions, and increases with the increasing longitudinal ventilation velocity. The HRR is also an important factor that influences the decay rate of excess gas temperature, and a dimensionless HRR integrating HRR and other two key parameters, tunnel cross-sectional area and distance between fuel centre and tunnel ceiling, was introduced to account for the effect. An equation for the decay rate of excess gas temperature, considering both the tunnel dimensions and HRR, was developed. Moreover, a larger tunnel cross-sectional area will lead to a smaller heat flux.

  • 7.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Nyman, Hans
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Development of a test method for fire detection in road tunnels2015Report (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Modig, Henric
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Test Method and Performance of Fire Detection Systems in Tunnels2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 485-496Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a study carried out for the Swedish Transport Administration on fire detection in road tunnels is presented. Laboratory tests and numerous large-scale tests were carried out in order to verify a proposal for a test method for fire detection systems. The main aim was to investigate possible fire detector systems and to see if they could fulfil the requirement given by the Swedish Transport Administration to detect the fire within 90 seconds. The tests are presented as well as a recommendation for testing detection systems in Swedish road tunnels. In order to perform the fire test, pans of different sizes were tested in order to obtain a reasonable fire size. The method proposed requires the use of three 0.6 m diameter standard pans, each containing eight litres of 95 octane gasoline, and air flow velocities of 2 m/s and 6 m/s. It was found out that using only one 0.6 m pan is sufficient if early warning is required without identifying the position for the fire-fighting system.

  • 9.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Large scale fire tests with fixed fire fighting system in Runehamar tunnel2014Report (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Lundström, Ulf
    Becker, Conny
    Large scale fire tests with a Fixed Fire Fighting System (FFFS)2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 83-92Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Fullskaliga försök med brandbekämpningssystem i tunnlar2016In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Kumm, Mia
    Nilsson, D
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Claesson, Alexander
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Fridolf, Karl
    Åkerstedt, Rolf
    Nyman, Hans
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Forsén, Rickard
    Janzon, Bo
    Meyer, G
    Bryntse, A
    Carlberg, Tobias
    Newlove, Lindy
    Palm, Anders
    The METRO Project - Final Report2012Report (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A New Methodology of Design Fires for Train Carriages Based on Exponential Curve Method2016In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1449-1464Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Design fires have great influences on the fire safety concepts and safety measures, and are the basis for any assessment and calculation in tunnel fire safety design. A new methodology of design fires for individual train carriages is proposed based on the exponential design fire curve method and state-of-the-art fire research. The three key parameters required for construction of a design fire are the maximum heat release rate, time to maximum heat release rate, and energy content. An overview of the full scale train carriage fire tests is given and the results show that the maximum heat release rate is in a range of 7 MW to 77 MW and the time to reach the maximum heat release rate varies from 7 min to 118 min. The method could be employed to one single train carriage or several carriages, and alternatively one carriage could be divided into several individual sections. To illustrate the use of the methodology, several engineering applications are presented, including design fires for a metro train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 77 MW, a double-deck railway train carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 60 MW and a tram carriage with a maximum heat release rate of 28 MW. The main objective is to provide practicing engineers with a flexible and reliable methodology to make design fires for individual train carriages in performance-based tunnel fire safety design.

  • 14.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Beräkning av taktemperatur i tunnlar2010In: BrandPosten, no 43, p. 32-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Brandgastemperatur i tak i tunnlar2010Report (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Calculating ceiling temperatures in tunnels2011In: EURAILmag Business & Technology, no 24, p. 126-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Calculation of ceiling temperatures in tunnels2011In: BrandPosten, no 43, p. 32-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Erratum: The maximum ceiling gas temperature in a large tunnel fire (Fire Safety Journal (2012) 48 (38-48))2012In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 50, p. 63-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Large scale tunnel fire tests with different types of large droplet fixed fire fighting systems2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, p. 29-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presented the main results of large-scale fire tests with different types of fixed firefighting systems (FFFS) conducted in the Runehamar tunnel in June 2016. The background to the tests, the performance of the different systems, and conclusions regarding the efficiency of the systems were presented. The fire load consisted of 420 standardised wooden pallets and a target of 21 wooden pallets. Five of the tests were carried out with a 30 m long deluge zone delivering varying water densities using three different types of side-wall nozzles with an interval distance of 5 m. One test with 93 °C glass-bulb automatic sprinklers in the same zone was also conducted. In the five deluge tests, the detection system was simulated using thermocouples in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature reached 141 °C, and the system was activated manually after a delay of 4 min. The protection goal of the system was to prevent fire spread to a target positioned 5 m from the rear of the main fuel area, and to ensure that the fire did not exceed 30 MW in size. The system setups tested were found to meet these goals.

  • 20.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model Scale Tunnel Fire Tests- Point extraction ventilation2010Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical and experimental results from a series of tests in a model scale tunnel (1:23) with point extraction ventilation systems are presented. The point extraction ventilation system was tested under different fire and flow conditions using either forced longitudinal ventilation or natural ventilation. The study focuses on single and two point extraction systems. Wood crib piles were used to simulate the fire source, which was designed to correspond to a HGV (Heavy Goods Vehicle) fire load in large scale. The parameters tested were the number of wood cribs, the longitudinal ventilation velocity and the arrangement of the extraction vent openings and the exhaust capacity. The fire spread between wood cribs with a free distance corresponding to 15 m in large scale was tested. The maximum heat release rate, fire growth rate, maximum temperature rise beneath the ceiling, flame length and heat flux were plotted using relationships obtained from theoretical considerations. The data were found to correlate well with empirical correlations that were established. Comparison was made with large-scale data wherever possible.

  • 21.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with longitudinal ventilation2010In: Fire Safety Journal, no 45, p. 371-384Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with point extraction ventilation2011In: Journal of Fire Protection Engineering, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 5-36Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    New Concept for Design Fires in Tunnels2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , p. 603-612Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Spilled liquid fires in tunnels2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study focuses on release of liquids inside tunnels from tankers containing dangerous good. Experiments and analysis from large scale tests are presented. The tests include different leakage rates, leakage type, liquids, spillage sizes on sloping surfaces and heat release rates. Models for estimation of leakage rates, spillage sizes and heat release rates for different scenarios are presented. The results are important to use in the design of active fire protections systems in tunnels including ventilation, fixed fire-fighting and drainage systems.

  • 25.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Sprinkler limitations for tunnel fire fighting2011In: TunnelTalk, no SepArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Becker, Conny
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Large Scale Tunnel Fire Tests with Large Droplet Water-Based Fixed Fire Fighting System2016In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1539-1558Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the main results of six large scale fixed fire fighting system tests that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in September 2013. It describes the background and the performance of the system. The main fire load consisted of 420 standardized wood pallets and a target consisting of a pile of 21 wood pallets placed 5 m from the rear end of the main fire load. The purpose was to investigate possible fire spread. The water spray system is a deluge zone system delivering 10 mm/min in the activated zone. The detection system was simulated with use of thermocouple in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature was 141°C. After alarm was obtained the system was activated manually after a given delay time that was varied in the tests. The heat release rates in tests with fire suppression were reduced to 20–45 MW compared to 100 MW estimated for a free-burn test or 75 MW in test 6 with a failure of activation. Fire spread to the target was prevented after fire suppression. 

  • 27.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bobert, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Large scale fire tests with different types of fixed fire fighting systems in Runehamar tunnel2016Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The report presents the main results of the six large-scale tests with different types of fixed firefighting system (FFFS) that were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in June 2016. It describes the background to the tests and the performance of the different systems, and draws conclusions regarding the efficiency of the systems. The fire load consisted of 420 standardised wooden pallets and a target of 21 wooden pallets. Five of the tests were carried out with a 30 mlong deluge zone delivering varying water densities using three different types of side-wall nozzle and an interval distance of 5 m. One test with 93°C glass-bulb nozzles (sprinkler head) in the same zone was also conducted. In the five deluge tests, the detection system was simulated using thermocouples in the tunnel ceiling. The alarm was registered when the ceiling gas temperature reached 141°C, and the system was activated manually after a delay of 4 minutes. The protection goal of the system was to prevent fire spread to a target positioned 5 m from the rear of the main fuel area, and to ensure that the fire did not exceed 30 MW in size. The system setups tested were found to meet these goals.

  • 28.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Runehamar tunnel fire tests2015In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 71, no Jan, p. 134-149Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests, were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway in year 2003. New data and new analyzes are presented in this paper, together with a short summary of previous work on these tests. Heat release rate (HRR), radiation, fire spread, gas production, backside wall temperature, visibility, backlayering, fire growth rate, gas temperature, flame length, ventilation and pulsation are investigated. Simple theoretical models are developed to estimate and predict these parameters. The correlations developed can be used by engineers working on fire safety in tunnels.

  • 29.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Tunnel Fire Dynamics2014Book (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Model of ventilation flows during large tunnel fires2012In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 30, no Jul, p. 64-73Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Runehamar Tunnel Fire Tests2011Report (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Ji, Jie
    et al.
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Sun, Jin Hua
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Experimental study of non-monotonous sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate of n-heptane pool fires2015In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 145, p. 228-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study the influence of sidewall effect on flame characteristics and burning rate, a series of experiments with heptane pools was conducted. The results showed that as the fires were placed close to the sidewall, the flames inclined to the sidewall due to the restriction on air entrainment, and the burning rate increased on the whole, which could be mainly due to the enhanced radiation from the heated sidewall and ceiling flame. However, regardless of fuel pool shape, the burning rate obtained the peak value when the fire was near the sidewall, rather than attached to the sidewall, resulting from less flame radiation from the vertical flame part to the fuel in the latter case. The ratio of longitudinal ceiling flame length to transverse length tended to decrease with the fire moving close to the sidewall. For cases with the largest length and wall fires, the ratio was nearly 0.5, which could be explained according to the theory of mirror effect. Also, due to the non-monotonous sidewall effect, a higher burning rate did not necessarily lead to a larger ceiling flame length.

  • 33.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    CFD modellering av brandförlopp i tunnelbanevagnar under olika ventilationsförhållanden2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 20-21Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    CFD modelling of fire development in metro carriages under different ventilation conditions2015Report (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    CFD modelling of pressure rise in a room fire2015Report (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Effect of cross section on critical velocity in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, p. 303-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerical and theoretical work was conducted to investigate the effect of tunnel cross section on critical velocityfor smoke control in longitudinally ventilated tunnel fires. The results show that for small fires, the criticalvelocity decreases with both the increasing tunnel height and tunnel width. For large fires, the critical velocitysignificantly increases with the increasing tunnel height but is independent of tunnel width. Differentcalculation models are compared with a focus on effect of tunnel cross section. A new correlation is proposedto account for the effect of tunnel width based on the previous model.

  • 37.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Latest advance of research on tunnel fire dynamics2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Modeling of pressure rise in a room fire2015In: Brandposten, no 52, p. 28-29Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39. Li, Ying Zhen
    Study of fire and explosion hazards of alternative fuel vehicles in tunnels2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An investigation of fire and explosion hazards of different types of alternativefuel vehicles in tunnels is presented. The different fuels are divided into four types:liquid fuels, liquefied fuels, compressed gases, and electricity, and detailed parameters are obtained. Three types offire hazards for the alternativefuel vehicles: pool fires, jet fires and fireballs are identified andinvestigated in detail. Fromthe perspective of pool fire size, the liquid fuels pose equivalent or evenmuch lower fire hazards compared to the traditionally used fuels, but theliquefied fuels may pose higher hazards. For pressurized tanks, the fires are generally much larger in size butshorter in duration. The gas releases from pressure relief devices and the resulting jet firesare highly transient. Forhydrogen vehicles, the fire sizes are significantly higher compared to CNGtanks, while flame lengths only slighter longer. Investigation of the peakoverpressure in case of an explosion in a tunnel was also carried out. Theresults showed that, for the vehicles investigated, the peak overpressure of tankrupture and BLEVE are mostly in a range of 0.1 to 0.36 bar at 50 m away. Thesituations in case of cloud explosion are mostly much more severe andintolerable. These hazards need to be carefully considered in both vehiclesafety design and tunnel fire safety design. Further researches on thesehazards are in urgent need.

  • 40.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Nyman, Hans
    Model scale tunnel fire tests with water-based fire suppression systems2014Report (Refereed)
  • 41. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Fan, Chuan Gang
    Hefei University of Technology, China.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Ji, Jie
    University of Science and Technology of China, China.
    Effect of cross section and ventilation on heat release rates in tunnel fires2016In: Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, ISSN 0886-7798, E-ISSN 1878-4364, Vol. 51, p. 414-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Model scale fire tests were performed in tunnels with varying tunnel widths and heights in order to study the effect of tunnel cross-section and ventilation velocity on the heat release rate (HRR) for both liquid pool fires and solid fuel fires. The results showed that for well ventilated heptane pool fires, the tunnel width nearly has no influence on the HRR whilst a lower tunnel height clearly increases the HRR. For well ventilated solid fuel fires, the HRR increases by approximately 25% relative to a free burn test but the HRR is not sensitive to either tunnel width, tunnel height or ventilation velocity. For solid fuel fires that were not well ventilated, the HRRs could be less than those in free burn laboratory tests. In the case of ventilation controlled fires the HRRs approximately lie at the same level as for cases with natural ventilation.

  • 42.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2013Report (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2015In: Journal of fire sciences, ISSN 0734-9041, E-ISSN 1530-8049, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 113-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Physical scaling is an efficient and cost-effective modeling tool to be used in fire safety engineering. Scaling of internal wall temperatures was investigated in room fire tests in three different scales, that is, full scale (1:1), medium scale (1:2), and small scale (1:3.5). The fire sources were either placed at the center or in the corner of the enclosures. The measured time-dependent internal wall temperatures, incident heat fluxes, and gas temperatures in different scales are compared and analyzed. Test results show that the proposed scaling method is able to scale the internal wall temperatures (temperatures inside the walls) and incident heat fluxes well, especially in medium scale.

  • 44.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Rahm, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Scaling of internal wall temperatures in enclosure fires2013In: Brandposten, no 48, p. 44-45Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Jonatan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Verification, validation and evaluation of FireFOAM as a tool for performance design2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source CFD code FireFOAM has been verified and validated against analytical solution and real fire tests. The verification showed that FireFOAM solves the three modes of heat transfer appropriately. The validation against real fire tests yielded reasonable results. FireFOAM has not been validated for a large set of real fires, which is the case for FDS. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the validation, before using the code. One of the advantages of FireFOAM compared to the Fire Dynamic Simulator is that FireFOAM can use unstructured grid. FireFOAM is parallelised and scales reasonable well, but is in general considerably slower in computation speed than the Fire Dynamic Simulator. Further, the software is poorly documented and has a steep learning curve. At present it is more a tool for researchers than for fire consultants.

  • 46. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    A new methodology of design fires for train carriages2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 133-142Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Analysis of Muskö tunnel fire flows with automatic sprinkler activation2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of the present study is analyzing the best position of a sprinkler nozzle in a tunnel cross-section in the Muskö tunnel, south of Stockholm, Sweden. Activation of the sprinklers installed along the centerline and along the sidewall is investigated through analysis of full scale experiments and by three dimensional numerical modelling. Then the tunnel velocity is analyzed by one dimensional numerical modelling for various fire locations in the Muskö tunnel. For both activating the automatic sprinklers nearby the fire and avoiding activation of the sprinklers further downstream, the automatic sprinklers are recommended to be installed along the centerline of the tunnel. It has also been found that the tunnel velocity varies significantly with the fire location. When the fire is on the left side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains in a range of 1 m/s (positive or negative) within the first 10 minutes, which helps early activation of the automatic sprinklers. When the fire is on the right side of the tunnel, the flow velocity mostly remains within a range of -1 m/s and 1 m/s within the first 5 minutes, and the velocity mostly increases to 2 m/s at around 10 min. Therefore, the scenario for fire located on the left side is better than that for fire on the right side, especially when it is located between the middle of the right section and the right portal. As one typical case with fire on the right side, the tunnel velocity maintains at 1 m/s for the first 5 min and gradually increases to 2 m/s at 10 min. Under such conditions, the automatic sprinkler system is expected to perform well. 

  • 48. Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler system in tunnel fires2012In: Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, SP , 2012, , p. 113-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatic sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Brandposten, no 44, p. 22-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Automatid sprinkler systems in tunnel fires2011In: Fire Safety and Fire Protection News & Insight on Fire Safety SearchArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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