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  • 1.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Architectural Concepts for Federated Embedded Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Federated embedded systems (FES) is an approach for systems-of-systems engineering in the domain of cyber-physical systems. It is based on the idea to allow dynamic addition of plug-in software in the embedded system of a product, and through communication between the plug-ins in different products, it becomes possible to build services on the level of a federation of products. In this paper, architectural concerns for FES are elicited, and are used as rationale for a number of decisions in the architecture of products that are enabled for FES, as well as in the application architecture of a federation. A concrete implementation of a FES from the automotive domain is also described, as a validation of the architectural concepts presented.

  • 2.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On the Conceptual Design of a Dynamic Component Model for Reconfigurable AUTOSAR Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently developed the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which is now being introduced widely in production vehicles. The standard structures the application into reusable components that can be deployed in a specific vehicle using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the conceptual design of a dynamic component model that extends an AUTOSAR based control unit with the possibility to add plug-in components that execute on a virtual machine. This concept is intended to give benefits in terms of much shorter deployment time for new functions, even into vehicles that have already been produced. Further, it creates opportunities for vehicles to take part in federated embedded systems together with other products. It also opens up a market for third-party developers, and fosters open innovation in an ecosystem around the automotive software business.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards a risk analysis method for systems-of-systems based on systems thinking2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The characteristics of systems-of-systems (SoS) present fundamental challenges regarding properties such as safety, security, reliability, and robustness. This is due to the SoS nature where a collection of independent systems cooperate to fulfil certain high-level objectives. Risk analysis is thus an important activity in SoS engineering. This paper presents a risk analysis method which extends the existing STAMP safety analysis method that is based on systems thinking. Our extensions are aimed at coping with other risks than safety, and the usage is tailored to SoS. The method aims at deriving requirements on the constituent systems that will reduce the emergent risks on the SoS as a whole. The method has been applied to a case study of vehicle platooning.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Ni, Ze
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Eilert
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    MOPED: A Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design of Cyber-Physical Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the increasing importance of cyber-physical and embedded systems in industry, there is a strong demand for engineers with an updated knowledge on contemporary technology and methods in the area. This is a challenge for educators, in particular when it comes to creating hands-on experiences of real systems, due to their complexity and the fact that they are usually proprietary. Therefore, a laboratory environment that is representative of the industrial solutions is needed, with a focus on software and systems engineering issues. This paper describes such an environment, called the Mobile Open Platform for Experimental Design (MOPED). It consists of a model car chassis, equipped with a network of three control units based on standard hardware, and running the automotive software standard AUTOSAR, which consists of operating system, middleware, and application software structures. It is equipped with various sensors and actuators, and is open to extensions both in hardware and software. It also contains elements of future systems, since it allows connectivity to cloud services, development of federated embedded systems, and continuous deployment of new functionality. In this way, the platform provides a very relevant learning environment for cyber-physical systems, today and in the future.

  • 5.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Enoiu, Eduardo
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Azal, Wasif
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    From natural language requirements to passive test cases using guarded assertions2018In: Proceedings - 2018 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability, and Security, QRS 2018, 2018, p. 470-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In large-scale embedded system development, requirements are often expressed in natural language. Translating these requirements to executable test cases, while keeping the test cases and requirements aligned, is a challenging task. While such a transformation typically requires extensive domain knowledge, we show that a systematic process in combination with passive testing would facilitate the translation as well as linking the requirements to tests. Passive testing approaches observe the behavior of the system and test their correctness without interfering with the normal behavior. We use a specific approach to passive testing: guarded assertions (G/A). This paper presents a method for transforming system requirements expressed in natural language into G/As. We further present a proof of concept evaluation, performed at Bombardier Transportation Sweden AB, in which we show how the process would be used, together with practical advice of the reasoning behind the translation steps.

  • 6.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    A Case Study of Interactive Development of Passive Tests2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing in the active sense is the most common way to performverification and validation of systems, but testing in the passivesense has one compelling property: independence. Independencefrom test stimuli and other passive tests opens up for parallel testingand off-line analysis. However, the tests can be difficult to developsince the complete testable state must be expressed using someformalism. We argue that a carefully chosen language togetherwith an interactive work flow, providing immediate feedback, canenable testers to approach passive testing. We have conducted a casestudy in the automotive domain, interviewing experienced testers.The testers have been introduced to, and had hands-on practicewith a tool. The tool is based on Easy Approach to RequirementsSyntax (EARS) and provides an interactive work flow for developingand evaluating test results. The case study shows that i) the testersbelieve passive testing is useful for many of their tests, ii) they seebenefits in parallelism and off-line analysis, iii) the interactive workflow is necessary for writing the testable state expression, but iv)when the testable state becomes too complex, then the proposedlanguage is a limitation. However, the language contributes toconcise tests, resembling executable requirements.

  • 7.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    SAGA Toolbox: Interactive Testing of Guarded Assertions2017In: Proceedings - 10th IEEE International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation, ICST 2017, 2017, p. 516-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the SAGA toolbox. It centers around development of tests, and analysis of test results, on Guarded Assertions (GA) format. Such a test defines when to test, and what to expect in such a state. The SAGA toolbox lets the user describe the test, and at the same time get immediate feedback on the test result based on a trace from the System Under Test (SUT). The feedback is visual using plots of the trace. This enables the test engineer to play around with the data and use an agile development method, since the data is already there. Moreover, the SAGA toolbox also enables the test engineer to change test stimuli plots to study the effect they have on a test. It can later generate computer programs that can feed these test stimuli to the SUT. This enables an interactive feedback loop, where immediate feedback on changes to the test, or to the test stimuli, indicate whether the test is correct and it passed or failed.

  • 8.
    Flemström, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    A Research Roadmap for Test Design in Automated Integration Testing of Vehicular Systems2016In: FASSI 2016: The Second International Conference on Fundamentals and Advances in Software Systems Integration, International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2016, 9, p. 18-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing share of the innovations emerging in the vehicular industry are implemented in software. Consequently, vehicular electrical systems are becoming more and more complex with an increasing number of functions, computational nodes and complex sensors, e.g., cameras and radars. The introduction of autonomous functional components, such as advanced driver assistance systems, highlight the foreseeable complexity of different parts of the system interacting with each other and with the human driver. It is of utmost importance that the testing effort can scale with this increasing complexity. In this paper, we review the challenges that we are facing in integration testing of complex embedded vehicular systems. Further, based on these challenges we outline a set of research directions for semi-automated or automated test design and execution in integration testing of vehicular systems. While the discussion is exemplified with our hands-on experience of the automotive industry, much of the concepts can be generalised to a broader setting of complex embedded systems.

  • 9.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    et al.
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Skoglund, Mats
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Automotive System Testing by Independent Guarded Assertions2015In: 2015 IEEE Eighth International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshops (ICSTW), 2015, 10, article id 7107474Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Testing is a key activity in industry to verify and validate products before they reach end customers. In hardwarein- the-loop system-level verification of automotive systems, testing is often performed using sequential execution of test scripts, each containing a mix of stimuli and assertions. In this paper, we propose and study an alternative approach for automated system-level testing automotive systems. In our approach, assertion-only test scripts and one (or several) stimulionly script(s), execute concurrently on the test driver. By separating the stimuli from the assertions, with each assertion independently determining when the system under test shall be verified, we seek to achieve three things: 1) tests that better represent real-world handling of the product, 2) reduced test execution time, and 3) increased defect detection. In addition to describing our proposed approach in detail, we provide experimental results from an industrial case study evaluating the approach in an automotive system test environment.

  • 10.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Federated Embedded Systems – a review of the literature in related fields2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is concerned with the vision of smart interconnected objects, a vision that has attracted much attention lately. In this paper, embedded, interconnected, open, and heterogeneous control systems are in focus, formally referred to as Federated Embedded Systems. To place FES into a context, a review of some related research directions is presented. This review includes such concepts as systems of systems, cyber-physical systems, ubiquitous computing, internet of things, and multi-agent systems. Interestingly, the reviewed fields seem to overlap with each other in an increasing number of ways.

  • 11.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Federated Robust Embedded Systems: Concepts and Challenges2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development within the area of embedded systems (ESs) is moving rapidly, not least due to falling costs of computation and communication equipment. It is believed that increased communication opportunities will lead to the future ESs no longer being parts of isolated products, but rather parts of larger communities or federations of ESs, within which information is exchanged for the benefit of all participants. This vision is asserted by a number of interrelated research topics, such as the internet of things, cyber-physical systems, systems of systems, and multi-agent systems. In this work, the focus is primarily on ESs, with their specific real-time and safety requirements. While the vision of interconnected ESs is quite promising, it also brings great challenges to the development of future systems in an efficient, safe, and reliable way. In this work, a pre-study has been carried out in order to gain a better understanding about common concepts and challenges that naturally arise in federations of ESs. The work was organized around a series of workshops, with contributions from both academic participants and industrial partners with a strong experience in ES development. During the workshops, a portfolio of possible ES federation scenarios was collected, and a number of application examples were discussed more thoroughly on different abstraction levels, starting from screening the nature of interactions on the federation level and proceeding down to the implementation details within each ES. These discussions led to a better understanding of what can be expected in the future federated ESs. In this report, the discussed applications are summarized, together with their characteristics, challenges, and necessary solution elements, providing a ground for the future research within the area of communicating ESs.

  • 12.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    On the Technological and Methodological Concepts of Federated Embedded Systems2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Paving the Way for Apps in Vehicles2013Other (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Towards safe and secure systems of systems: Challenges and opportunities2017In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 2017, p. 1803-1806Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While systems of systems (SoS) are starting to reach the market, it is not entirely evident how to analyze safety, and on a high level also security, of such systems. In fact, specific characteristics of SoS, such as independence, changing constitution, evolutionary development, and emergent behavior, provide certain challenges to the safety analysis. In this paper, such challenges are summarized and a systems theoretic safety analysis method, abbreviated as STAMP, is evaluated on an automotive SoS application example. In conclusion, STAMP seems well positioned to serve as a base for a future method for safety and, to a certain degree, security analysis of SoS, although some work remains to be done. The advantages and limitations of the STAMP approach when dealing with SoS are discussed.

  • 15.
    Ni, Ze
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Design and Implementation of a Dynamic Component Model for Federated AUTOSAR Systems2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The automotive industry has recently agreed upon the embedded software standard AUTOSAR, which structures an application into reusable components that can be deployed using a configuration scheme. However, this configuration takes place at design time, with no provision for dynamically installing components to reconfigure the system. In this paper, we present the design and implementation of a dynamic component model that extends AUTOSAR with the possibility to add plug-in components at runtime. This opens up for shorter deployment time for new functions; opportunities for vehicles to participate in federated embedded systems; and involvement of third-party software developers.

  • 16.
    Pelliccione, Patrizio
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI, Sweden.
    Aderum, Tobias
    Autoliv Research, Sweden.
    Ågren, S. Magnus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Göran
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Bergenhem, Carl
    Qamcom Research and Technology AB, Sweden.
    Thorsen, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electronics.
    Architecting cars as constituents of a system of systems2016In: Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Software-intensive Systems-of-Systems at 10th European Conference on Software Architecture, ACM , 2016, article id 5Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future transportation systems will be a heterogeneous mix of items with varying connectivity and interoperability. A mix of new technologies and legacy systems will co-exist to realize a variety of scenarios involving not only connected cars but also road infrastructures, pedestrians, cyclists, etc. Future transportation systems can be seen as a System of Systems (SoS), where each constituent system - one of the units that compose an SoS - can act as a standalone system, but the cooperation among the constituent systems enables new emerging and promising scenarios. In this paper we investigate how to architect cars so that they can be constituents of future transportation systems. This work is realized in the context of two Swedish projects coordinated by Volvo Cars and involving some universities and research centers in Sweden and many suppliers of the OEM, including Autoliv, Arccore, Combitech, Cybercom, Knowit, Prevas, ÅF-Technology, Semcom, and Qamcom.

  • 17.
    Rodriguez-Navas, Guillermo
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Sundmark, Daniel
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS.
    Gustafsson, Thomas
    Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Offline Analysis of Independent Guarded Assertions in Automotive Integration Testing2015In: 2015 IEEE 12th International Conference on Embedded Software and Systems, 2015, 7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The size and complexity of software in automotive systems have increased steadily over the last decades. Modern vehicles typically contain numerous electrical control units (ECUs), and more and more features require real-time interaction between several dedicated ECUs (e.g., gearbox, brake and engine control units) in order to perform their tasks. Since system safety and reliability must not be adversely affected by this increase in complexity, proper quality assurance is a must. Such quality assurance is often performed by testing the system in different levels of integration throughout the development process. However, the growth of complexity of the system under test aslo affects the testing, making it laborious, difficult and costly. This paper presents a novel method for efficient offline analysis of traces, which has been especially tailored for integration testing of automotive systems. The method exploits the recently defined concept of independent guarded assertion in order to formally describe the events that are relevant for the analysis as well as the expected behavior in those events. The offline analysis is implemented using a standard commercial model checker and has shown good performance in the conducted experiments.

  • 18.
    Zhang, Shuzhou
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Kobetski, Avenir
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Johansson, Eilert
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Axelsson, Jakob
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Software and Systems Engineering Laboratory.
    Wang, Huifeng
    Porting an AUTOSAR-Compliant Operating System to a High Performance Embedded Platform2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automotive embedded systems are going through a major change, both in terms of how they are used and in terms of software and hardware architecture. Much more powerful and rapidly evolvable hardware is expected, paralleled by an accelerating development rate of the control software. To meet these challenges, a software standard, AUTOSAR, is gaining ground in the automotive eld. In this work, experiences from porting AUTOSAR to a high performance embedded system, Raspberry Pi, are collected. The goal is both to present experience on the process of AUTOSAR porting and to create an AUTOSAR implementation on a cheap and widely accessible hardware platform, making AUTOSAR available for researchers and students.

1 - 18 of 18
CiteExportLink to result list
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Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
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  • en-US
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