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  • 1.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017Ingår i: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, nr 109, s. 36-37Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 2.
    Bout, Martijn
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    A head-mounted display to support teleoperations of shared automated vehicles2017Ingår i: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, Association for Computing Machinery, Inc , 2017, s. 62-66Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

  • 3.
    Böckle, Marc Philipp
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    SAV2P - Exploring the impact of an interface for shared automated vehicles on pedestrians' experience2017Ingår i: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, 2017, s. 136-140Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians' level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 4.
    Dey, Debargha
    et al.
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lundgren, Victor Malmsten
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Schieben, Anna
    Institute of Transportation System, Germany.
    Workshop on Methodology: Evaluating Interactions Between Automated Vehicles and Other Road Users—What Works in Practice?2018Ingår i: Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, 2018, s. 17-22Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Methods and metrics for studying interactions between automated vehicles and other road users in their vicinity, such as pedestrians, cyclists and non-automated vehicles, are not established yet. This workshop focuses on identifying the strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies that could potentially be used to study such interactions. The objective lies in determining the proper experimental design, sensitivity of metrics for measuring user behavior, ecological validity, generalizability of findings, extraction of insights regarding how findings can be translated into actionable requirements, and the alternatives for conducting longitudinal field studies. It will be of an interactive nature and involve hands-on activities. The workshop will consolidate existing knowledge, identify recurring issues, and explore the path towards resolving these issues. The outcome will be compiled into a paper to share this valuable knowledge with a broader research community.

  • 5.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Let’s communicate: How to operate in harmony with automated vehicles2017Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    With autonomous cars on the road, not only will occupants need to communicate with their cars: pedestrians and autonomous vehicles will need to understand each other too. This article examines the vehicle HMI for road users other than the driver and passengers. 

  • 6.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 7.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?2019Ingår i: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, s. 91-102Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

  • 8.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Lagström, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sirkka, Anna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Fagerlönn, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    Edgren, Claes
    Volvo Cars Group, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Rikard
    Autoliv AB, Sweden.
    Krupenia, Stas
    Scania AB, Sweden.
    Saluäär, Dennis
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Larsson, Pontus
    Volvo Group AB, Sweden.
    Communicating Intent of Automated Vehicles to Pedestrians.2018Ingår i: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, artikel-id 1336Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    While traffic signals, signs, and road markings provide explicit guidelines for those operating in and around the roadways, some decisions, such as determinations of "who will go first," are made by implicit negotiations between road users. In such situations, pedestrians are today often dependent on cues in drivers' behavior such as eye contact, postures, and gestures. With the introduction of more automated functions and the transfer of control from the driver to the vehicle, pedestrians cannot rely on such non-verbal cues anymore. To study how the interaction between pedestrians and automated vehicles (AVs) might look like in the future, and how this might be affected if AVs were to communicate their intent to pedestrians, we designed an external vehicle interface called automated vehicle interaction principle (AVIP) that communicates vehicles' mode and intent to pedestrians. The interaction was explored in two experiments using a Wizard of Oz approach to simulate automated driving. The first experiment was carried out at a zebra crossing and involved nine pedestrians. While it focused mainly on assessing the usability of the interface, it also revealed initial indications related to pedestrians' emotions and perceived safety when encountering an AV with/without the interface. The second experiment was carried out in a parking lot and involved 24 pedestrians, which enabled a more detailed assessment of pedestrians' perceived safety when encountering an AV, both with and without the interface. For comparison purposes, these pedestrians also encountered a conventional vehicle. After a short training course, the interface was deemed easy for the pedestrians to interpret. The pedestrians stated that they felt significantly less safe when they encountered the AV without the interface, compared to the conventional vehicle and the AV with the interface. This suggests that the interface could contribute to a positive experience and improved perceived safety in pedestrian encounters with AVs - something that might be important for general acceptance of AVs. As such, this topic should be further investigated in future studies involving a larger sample and more dynamic conditions.

  • 9.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Strömberg, Helena
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hylving, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Karlsson, MariAnne
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Living Room on the Move: Autonomous Vehicles and Social Experiences2016Ingår i: Proceedings of the 9th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 2016, artikel-id 129Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Developing autonomous vehicles is technically complex and up to now research has focused on technical improvement and operative safety. As the level of automation increases the role of the driver will change; from controlling every movement of the vehicle into becoming an operator/passenger. Little is known about how this new context will affect the social experiences with and within the vehicle. This workshop focuses on three different kinds of social experience and socializing, namely; between other road users and the autonomous car, the social activities taking place within the autonomous car, and lastly the relationship between the car and the operator. The workshop aims at exploring possible practices, research and design directions of autonomous vehicles in relation to these social experiences. A human-centered design approach is the core of the workshop, with playful field excursions and ideation sessions.

  • 10.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Fransson, Tommy
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE., Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Large scale testing of wireless charging in Sweden2016Ingår i: EVS 2016 - 29th International Electric Vehicle Symposium, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless charging has the potential to simplify charging of electric cars, a technology that is now tested on a larger scale in Sweden in an ongoing project denoted WiCh (Wireless charging of electric vehicles). Inductive wireless chargers have been installed in a total of 20 electric vehicles located in Sweden, which means that so far the study is the largest demonstration activity of inductively charged vehicles in the world. The technology will be demonstrated and assessed during a year, and the experiences gained so far are outlined in this paper.

  • 11.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Fransson, Tommy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Olausson, Ellen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjesson, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Parking support for inductive charging2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inductive charging could give electric vehicles yet another competitive advantage over fossil-drivenvehicles in that users seldom or never have to think about refueling. However, when about to recharge thevehicle, the secondary, receiver coil must be precisely positioned above the primary, transmitter coil inorder to achieve high transmitted power and efficiency. Manually maneuvering a vehicle to this positionhas in our studies proven to be a challenging task, especially when using tight or public parking spaces.This article investigates the parking precision challenges connected with induction charging along withpossible solutions, including fully automated parking.

  • 12.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Fransson, Tommy
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Olausson, Ellen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Börjessonn, Conny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Demonstration och utvärdering av induktiv laddning2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trådlös, induktiv, laddning skulle kunna ge elbilar ytterligare en, och kanskeavgörande, fördel gentemot fossilbränsledrivna genom att användarna i principaldrig behöver åka någonstans för att ”tanka”. Istället laddas bilarna enkelt ochbekvämt trådlöst utan sladd när de står parkerade.Teknologin i sig är inte komplicerad men tillämpningen för fordon i verklighetenär fortfarande i sin linda. Det finns därför behov av att förstå såväl de praktiskasom tekniska svårigheterna hur verkliga användare utnyttjar och upplever den nyatekniken. Av denna anledning initierades WiCh-projektet 2012 efter en förstudiesom förutsättningslöst studerade lämpliga lösningar för bekväm laddning.Projektet har, i världens fortfarande största enskilda fältstudie avinduktionsladdning, utrustat 20 personbilar i kommunal och enskild verksamhetoch följt upp användningen under ett och ett halvt års tid. Resultaten av studienvisar att trådlös laddning kan vara attraktiv jämfört med laddning med sladd, ochatt ladd-beteendet sannolikt kommer att förändras med trådlös laddning.Utrustningen levererades av den enda leverantör som finns på den öppnamarknaden, amerikanska Evatran Group. För att få tillstånd till en fältstudie iSverige genomfördes ett antal tekniska prov vilka också gav viktig kunskap tilltestorganisationer och tillståndsgivande myndigheter.

  • 13.
    Strömberg, Helena
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Ingrid
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Rydström, Annie
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Dey, Debargha
    Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Forlizzi, Jodi
    Carnegie Mellon University, USA.
    Designing for social experiences with and within autonomous vehicles – exploring methodological directions2018Ingår i: Design Science, Vol. 4, artikel-id e13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The introduction of autonomous vehicles (autonomous vehicles) will reshape the many social interactions that are part of traffic today. In order for autonomous vehicles to become successfully integrated, the social interactions surrounding them need to be purposefully designed. To ensure success and save development efforts, design methods that explore social aspects in early design phases are needed to provide conceptual directions before committing to concrete solutions. This paper contributes an exploration of methods for addressing the social aspects of autonomous vehicles in three key areas: the vehicle as a social entity in traffic, co-experience within the vehicle and the user–vehicle relationship. The methods explored include Wizard of Oz, small-scale scenarios, design metaphors, enactment and peer-to-peer interviews. These were applied in a workshop setting with 18 participants from academia and industry. The methods provided interesting design seeds, however with differing effectiveness. The most promising methods enabled flexible idea exploration, but in a contextualized and concrete manner through tangible objects and enactment to stage future use situations. Further, combinations of methods that enable a shift between social perspectives were preferred. Wizard of Oz and small-scale scenarios were found fruitful as collaboration basis for multidisciplinary teams, by establishing a united understanding of the problem at hand.

  • 14.
    Thill, Serge
    et al.
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Riveiro, Maria
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lagerstedt, Erik
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Lebram, Mikael
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Hemeren, Paul
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Driver adherence to recommendations from support systems improves if the systems explain why they are given: A simulator study2018Ingår i: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 56, s. 420-435Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a large-scale simulator study on driver adherence to recommendations given by driver support systems, specifically eco-driving support and navigation support. 123 participants took part in this study, and drove a vehicle simulator through a pre-defined environment for a duration of approximately 10 min. Depending on the experimental condition, participants were either given no eco-driving recommendations, or a system whose provided support was either basic (recommendations were given in the form of an icon displayed in a manner that simulates a heads-up display) or informative (the system additionally displayed a line of text justifying its recommendations). A navigation system that likewise provided either basic or informative support, depending on the condition, was also provided. Effects are measured in terms of estimated simulated fuel savings as well as engine braking/coasting behaviour and gear change efficiency. Results indicate improvements in all variables. In particular, participants who had the support of an eco-driving system spent a significantly higher proportion of the time coasting. Participants also changed gears at lower engine RPM when using an eco-driving support system, and significantly more so when the system provided justifications. Overall, the results support the notion that providing reasons why a support system puts forward a certain recommendation improves adherence to it over mere presentation of the recommendation. Finally, results indicate that participants’ driving style was less eco-friendly if the navigation system provided justifications but the eco-system did not. This may be due to participants considering the two systems as one whole rather than separate entities with individual merits. This has implications for how to design and evaluate a given driver support system since its effectiveness may depend on the performance of other systems in the vehicle.

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