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  • 1.
    Burgén, Julia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Safe and Suitable Firefighting2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

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  • 2.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.02022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

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  • 3.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Modelling of a vented corn starch dust explosion using an open source code2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders e.g. woodworking, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals and additive industries. Physics-based, well-verified and well-validated models and numerically efficient codes are important tools for designing dust explosion protection systems where the current standards are not applicable. This work aims at (i) presenting a physics-based dust explosion model based on an open source code OpenFOAM, (ii) comparing the computed pressure traces with the measured ones for a vented corn starch dust explosion in a 11.5 m3 vessel, and (iii) highlighting the future work.

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  • 4.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Modelling of premixed turbulent combustion of cornflour dust-air cloud using OpenFOAM2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. The present work aims atdeveloping a numerical tool by (i) implementing a premixed turbulent combustion model into an open-source CFD software OpenFOAM, (ii) verifying the implementation using analytical solutions,and (iii) validating the approach in unsteady 3D RANS simulations of cornflour dust explosions investigated experimentally using the Leeds fan-stirred bomb [1-3]. A detailed description of thiswork is reported in a recent publication [4].

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  • 5.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andrei, Lipatnikov
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Development of a numerical tool using an open-source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion has been a constant threat to the physical working environment of the Swedish process industries which deal with combustible powders. Examples of such industries are pellets, paper, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals, and additive industries. This project aims at (i) development of physics-based and well-validated models which address the important combustion phenomena in dust explosions, (ii) development of a well-verified and an efficient numerical tool based on an open-source toolbox OpenFOAM for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of large-scale dust explosions in the process industries. The project result improves the understanding of dust explosions, and it provides the process industries with a numerical tool for designing safer process plant regarding dust explosions.The model and code development were carried out in a step-by-step fashion. First, the so-called Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model for premixed turbulent combustion, was implemented into OpenFOAM. The implementation was verified against analytical solutions for 1-dimensional planar and 3-dimensional spherical turbulent flames. Second, the developed code including the model, i.e., FSCDustFoam, was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Third, the FSC model was extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the flame acceleration to address large-scale industrial dust explosions. An excellent agreement between measurements of vented corn starch dust explosions in an 11.5 m3 vessel and the simulations using the extended the FSC model was obtained.In spite of the successful development of FSCDustFoam, challenges remain. Specifically, the current version of FSCDustFoam cannot address the effect of different shapes of vent openings on dust explosions. Nevertheless, FSCDustFoam is a promising tool to be applied and further developed to resolve the challenging reality regarding dust explosions in the Swedish process industries.

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  • 6.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bisschop, Roeland
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    A Sensitivity Study of a Thermal Propagation Model in an Automotive Battery Module2023In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal runaway is a major concern for lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles. A manufacturing fault or unusual operating conditions may lead to this event. Starting from a single battery cell, more cells may be triggered into thermal runaway, and the battery pack may be destroyed. To prevent this from happening, safety solutions need to be evaluated. Physical testing is an effective, yet costly, method to assessing battery safety performance. As such, the potential of a numerical tool, which can cut costs and reduce product development times, is investigated in terms of capturing a battery module’s tolerance to a single cell failure. A 3D-FE model of a battery module was built, using a commercial software, to study thermal runaway propagation. The model assumes that when the cell jelly roll reaches a critical value, thermal runaway occurs. This approach was considered to study the module’s tolerance to a single cell failure, which was in reasonable agreement with what had been observed in full-scale experiments. In addition, quantitative sensitivity study on the i) model input parameters, ii) model space, and iii) time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The critical temperature was found to have the greatest influence on thermal runaway propagation. The specific heat capacity of jelly roll was found to significantly impact the thermal runaway time duration. The multi-physics model for battery thermal propagation is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with physical testing.

  • 7.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Bloching, Marius
    IND EX®, Germany.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel: Experimental and numerical study2022In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ISSN 0950-4230, E-ISSN 1873-3352, Vol. 75, article id 104707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied using both experimental and numerical methods. The reduced explosion overpressure in the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors mounted on the wall inside of the vessel. Unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performed using the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model of the influence of turbulence on premixed combustion. The model was thoroughly validated in previous studies and was earlier implemented into OpenFOAM CFD software. The self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel is associated with the influence of combustion-induced pressure perturbations on the flow of unburned reactants ahead of the kernel. Accordingly, the FSC model is extended by adapting the well-known experimental observations of the self-similarity of the kernel acceleration. Influence of different turbulence models on the simulated results is also explored. Thanks to the extension of the FSC model, the measured time-dependence of the pressure is well predicted when the k-omega-SST turbulence model is used. © 2021 The Authors

  • 8.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bloching, Marius
    IND EX®, Germany.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vented dust explosions: comparing experiments, simulations and standards2022In: Proceedings of the Tenth International Seminar on Fire and Explosion Hazards, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vented corn starch dust explosion in an 11.5 m3 vessel is studied by comparing experiments, simulations and thestandards. The reduced explosion overpressure inside the vessel is recorded using two pressure sensors installed on theinner wall of the vessel. 3D Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the experiment are performedusing the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model and its extended version. The FSC model predicts the influence of turbulenceon premixed combustion, and the extended version allows for self-acceleration of a large-scale flame kernel, which isassociated with the combustion-induced thermal expansion effect. Such an extension is highly relevant to large-scaleindustrial application. The explosion overpressure-time trace computed using the extended FSC model agrees reasonablywell with the experimental data. Furthermore, the effect of vent size and ignition location on the explosion overpressureis studied by comparing the simulation results and the standards. The developed numerical tool and model is especiallyuseful for scenarios, which are not addressed in the standards, and it deserves further study in simulations of other largescalesdust or gaseous explosions together with comparison with experiments.

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    ISFEH10_paper_33
  • 9.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    De Grahl, Johanna
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Nessvi, Ken
    Process Safety Group, Sweden.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Explosion characteristics of biomass dust: comparisonbetween experimental test results and literature data2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of explosion mitigation strategies e.g. vent design is mainly based on dust explosioncharacteristics such as the maximum explosion pressure XÇïÓ and the deflagration index n! of dustcloud, which are defined in various standards.The wood dust explosion characteristics can be directly obtained by performing standard tests, and testresults are also available in the literature. However, the parameters for one type of dust may varysubstantially in the literature. For example, the n! value for one wood dust is 11.4 times higher thananother wood dust in Gestis-Dust-Ex database. The reason for such large variation in explosionparameters is due to factors such as material properties, particle size distribution, particle shape, moisturecontent, turbulence level during tests and so on.The objectives of this paper are (i) to carry out dust explosion tests for XÇïÓ and n! for two wood dustswith well-described material parameters such as particle size distribution and moisture content accordingto European standards, (ii) to perform statistical analysis of wood dust explosion characteristics includingXÇïÓ and n! in the literature, (iii) to identify the effects of dust material parameters such as particle sizeand moisture contents on XÇïÓ and n! and (iv) to highlight the variation in XÇïÓ and n! and theimportance of obtaining knowledge about these properties of an individual dust, e.g. via dust explosiontests.

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  • 10.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Modelling of cornflour dust explosion using an open source code2020Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. The current standards regarding dust explosion venting protecting system are based on empirical correlations and neglecting complex geometry, which may lead to failure in estimating explosion overpressure and therefore risk for fatalities at workplaces. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a reliable tool for vent protection design in the process plants. The objectives of this presentation are (i) to implement a model that focuses on turbulent burning of a dust-air cloud in an open source platform OpenFOAM, (ii) to verify the implementations against analytical solutions for 1-D planar and 3-D spherical premixed turbulent flames and (iii) to validate the model against Leeds cornflour dust explosion vessel experiments.

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  • 11.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Nessvi, Ken
    BSL Industri, Sweden.
    Unsteady 3-D RANS simulations of dust explosion in a fan stirred explosion vessel using an open source code2020In: Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, ISSN 0950-4230, E-ISSN 1873-3352, Vol. 67, article id 104237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to industries which deal with combustible powders such as woodworking, metal processing, food and feed, pharmaceuticals and additive industries. The current standards regarding dust explosion venting protecting systems, such as EN 14491 (2012) and NFPA 68 (2018), are based on empirical correlations and neglect effects due to complex geometry. Such a simplification may lead to failure in estimating explosion overpressure, thus, increasing risk for injuries and even fatalities at workplaces. Therefore, there is a strong need for a numerical tool for designing explosion protecting systems. This work aims at contributing to the development of such a tool by (i) implementing a premixed turbulent combustion model into OpenFOAM, (ii) verifying the implementation using benchmark analytical solutions, and (iii) validating the numerical platform against experimental data on cornflour dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel, obtained by Bradley et al. (1989a) under well-controlled laboratory conditions. For this purpose, the so-called Flame Speed Closure model of the influence of turbulence on premixed combustion is adapted and implemented into OpenFOAM. The implementation of the model is verified using exact and approximate analytical solutions for statistically one-dimensional planar and spherical turbulent flames, respectively. The developed numerical platform is applied to unsteady three-dimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations of the aforementioned experiments. The results show that the major trends, i.e. (i) a linear increase in an apparent turbulent flame speed St,b with an increase in the root mean square (rms) turbulent velocity u' and (ii) and an increase in St,b with an increase in the mean flame radius, are qualitatively predicted. Furthermore, the measured and computed dependencies of St,b(u') agree quantitatively under conditions of weak and moderate turbulence. © 2020

  • 12.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of a numerical tool using an open source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions: Part report (from 2019-02-01 until 2020-01-31)2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to the Swedish industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. This project aims at (i) development of high-fidelity and well-validated models which address important combustion phenomena during a dust explosion, (ii) development of an efficient numerical tool based on an open source toolbox for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of dust explosions in scenarios of process industries in cooperation with the reference group members of this project. The project result will improve the understanding of complicated combustion phenomena associated with dust explosions, and it will help the process industries in designing better vent system in case of dust explosion. During the first year, the Flame Speed Closure (FSC) model for premixed turbulent combustion, has been implemented in the open source platform OpenFOAM, which was installed at RISE in the beginning of the project. The implementation of FSC model has been verified against analytical solutions for 1-D planar and 3-D spherical turbulent flames. Verification shows correct implementation of model in the OpenFOAM platform. Currently, the developed code is being validated against small-scale dust-explosion experiments performed using the well-known Leeds combustion vessel. The first test of the code show that the trend, i.e. an increase in turbulent velocity fluctuation, an increase in flame speed, is predicted by the code. A further test shows that the code and model can predict the flame speed quantitatively using proper model parameters. In the next step, the model and code will be developed for considering the heat losses and radiation. Later the developed numerical platform will be applied to unsteady 3-D RANS simulations of large-scale experiments performed at REMBE® Research and Technology Center for vent relieving with different vent geometry.

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  • 13.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Lipatnikov, Andrei
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Development of a numerical tool using an open source code for creating a safer working environment for the Swedish industries regarding dust explosions: Part report (from 2020-02-01 until 2021-01-31)2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Dust explosion is a constant threat to the Swedish industries which deal with combustible powders such as pellets producers, food industry, metal industry and so on. This project aims at (i) development of high-fidelity and well-validated models which address important combustion phenomena during a dust explosion, (ii) development of an efficient numerical tool based on an open source toolbox for predicting consequences of dust explosions and (iii) simulation of dust explosions in scenarios of process industries in cooperation with the reference group members of this project. The project result will improve the understanding of dust explosions, help the process industries in designing better vent system in case of dust explosion, and create a safer working environment. During the end of the first and the beginning of the second year, the developed numerical platform including the dust explosion model was validated against experimental data on corn starch dust explosion in a fan-stirred explosion vessel, obtained by Bradley et al. (1989), under well-controlled laboratory conditions. After that, a collaboration was established between the project members and Rembe Research and Technology Center in order to apply the developed numerical platform for simulating large-scale industrial vented dust explosions. In parallel with the collaboration with Rembe, a collaboration with Gexcon was established in order to perform a joint study of dust explosion modelling using the developed numerical platform and the commercial code FLACS-DustEx.

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  • 14.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Kumm, Mia
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Open Source CFD programvara för brandmodellering2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 34-35Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Huang, Chen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Ramachandra, Vasudev
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Modelling thermal runaway initiation and propagation for batteries in dwellings to evaluate tenability conditions2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal propagation is one of the major challenges when batteries will be used in dwellings in large scale. It means the exothermic reactions in the cell are out of control and can lead to a fast release of flammable and toxic gases. In a system involving a large number of cells, thermal runaway can rapidly propagate from one battery cell to the whole system, which means substantial fire and explosion risks, an event that is important to mitigate and prevent. Multi-physics simulations together with full-scale testing is a cost-effective method for designing safer batteries. This project aims at simulating thermal runaway initiation and propagation using a multi-physics commercial software GT-Suite. 

    A battery thermal runaway model containing 12 prismatic cells based on 3-D Finite Element approach was built using GT-Suite. The computed thermal runaway time instants versus thermal runaway cell number were compared with full-scale experimental data with reasonable agreement. Quantitative sensitivity study on the model input parameters and model space and time resolutions on the computed start time instant and time duration of thermal runaway were performed. The thermal runaway model was then extended with an electric equivalent sub-model to simulate the short circuit. With the electrical model acting as the input to the thermal model, the most interesting output of the simulation is the change in temperature of the cells, dependent on the current in the cells, with respect to time. The current is determined by the value of the external resistance through which the short takes place and the voltage level of the battery pack. The obtained results from the above short circuit simulations can only be used as a starting point and not as absolute values for neither triggering the thermal model nor for accurately simulating a battery under an electrical load. Furthermore, GT-Suite was applied to simulate the gas dispersion inside a room. A comparative study of the dispersion of toxic gases during thermal runaway, utilising an arbitrary release of HCN to represent the battery gases, in a small compartment with natural ventilation was investigated and the results compared the same situation simulated in FDS. The pipe based modelling supported by GT-Suite has limited applicability and overestimated the concentrations close to the ceiling whereas the lateral concentrations where underestimated. 

    The multi-physics model for battery thermal runaway process is promising and worth to be applied with care for designing safer batteries in combination with full-scale testing. 

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  • 16.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Svensson, Robert
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Wahlqvist, Jonatan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Verification, validation and evaluation of FireFOAM as a tool for performance design2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The open source CFD code FireFOAM has been verified and validated against analytical solution and real fire tests. The verification showed that FireFOAM solves the three modes of heat transfer appropriately. The validation against real fire tests yielded reasonable results. FireFOAM has not been validated for a large set of real fires, which is the case for FDS. Therefore, it is the responsibility of the user to perform the validation, before using the code. One of the advantages of FireFOAM compared to the Fire Dynamic Simulator is that FireFOAM can use unstructured grid. FireFOAM is parallelised and scales reasonable well, but is in general considerably slower in computation speed than the Fire Dynamic Simulator. Further, the software is poorly documented and has a steep learning curve. At present it is more a tool for researchers than for fire consultants.

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  • 17.
    Runefors, Marcus
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Wahlqvist, Jonathan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Husted, Bjarne
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A comparison of radiative transfer models in firefoam and FDS2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 59-69Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Vylund, Lotta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonathan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Peraic, Klara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Evergren, Franz
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire-fighting of alternative fuel vehicles in ro-ro spaces2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire in alternative fuel vehicles in ro-ro spaces (BREND)

    A literature study has been carried out that compiles the body of research regarding hazards related to fire in alternative fuel vehicles (AFV) in ro-ro spaces. Alternative fuels include liquefied gas (e.g. LNG), compressed gas (e.g. CNG) and batteries. Hazards related to a conventional vehicle on fire are heat, smoke and toxic gases. Another hazard is projectiles related to small explosions of e.g. tyres or airbags. AFVs also include hazards of large explosion, jet flames, more apparent re-ignition, etc.

    The study also includes land based fire fighting tactics related to AFV fires. If the fuel storage on an AFV is affected, land-based firefighters often use a defensive tactic, which means securing the area around the vehicle and preventing fire propagation from a distance. This tactic has been evaluated in the context of a ro-ro space and the results are compiled in a test report (Vylund et al 2019). The project has resulted in guidelines on how to handle AFV fires in roro spaces (see appendix 1).

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