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  • 1.
    Cashion, Tim
    et al.
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Tyedmers, Peter
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Review and advancement of the marine biotic resource use metric in seafood LCAs: a case study of Norwegian salmon feed2016In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1106-1120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Seafood life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have adopted the primary production required (PPR) indicator to account for the impact of these production systems (e.g., capture fisheries or aquaculture) on the ecosystems they harvest wild inputs from. However, there exists a large diversity in the application of methods to calculate PPR, and current practice often does not consider species- and ecosystem-specific factors. Here, we critically examine current practice and propose a refined method for applying the PPR metric in seafood LCAs. Methods: We surveyed seafood LCAs that quantify PPR, or its derivatives, to examine the diversity of practice. We then defined and applied a refined method to a case study of the average Norwegian salmon feed in 2012. This refined method incorporates species-specific fishmeal and oil yields, source ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies and expresses results as a percentage of total ecosystem production that PPR represents. Results were compared to those using previously applied methods based on the literature review, and the impact of uncertainty and natural variability of key input parameters was also assessed using Monte Carlo simulation. Results and discussion: From the literature review, most studies do not incorporate species-specific fishmeal and oil yields or ecosystem-specific transfer efficiencies when calculating PPR. Our proposed method, which incorporated source species- and ecosystem-specific values for these parameters, provides far greater resolution of PPR than when employing global average values. When alternative methods to calculate PPR were applied to marine inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds, resulting PPR values were similar for some sources of fishmeal and oil. For other species, such as Atlantic herring from ecosystems with low transfer efficiencies, there was a large divergence in resulting PPR values. For combined inputs to Norwegian salmon feeds in 2012, the refined method resulted in a total PPR value that is three times higher than would result using the currently standard method signaling that previous LCA research may have substantially underestimated the marine biotic impacts of fishery products. Conclusions: While there exists a great diversity of practice in the application of the PPR indicator in seafood LCA, the refined method should be adopted for future LCA studies to be more specific to the context of the study.

  • 2.
    Cottrell, Richard
    et al.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Nash, Kirsty
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Halpern, Benjamin
    University of California, US; Imperial College London, UK.
    Remenyi, Tomas
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Corney, Stuart
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Fleming, Aysha
    University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Fulton, Elizabeth
    University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO, Australia.
    Johne, Alexandra
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Watson, Reg
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Blanchard, Julia
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Food production shocks across land and sea2019In: Nature Sustainability, ISSN 2398-9629, Vol. 2, p. 130-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sudden losses to food production (that is, shocks) and their consequences across land and sea pose cumulative threats to global sustainability. We conducted an integrated assessment of global production data from crop, livestock, aquaculture and fisheries sectors over 53 years to understand how shocks occurring in one food sector can create diverse and linked challenges among others. We show that some regions are shock hotspots, exposed frequently to shocks across multiple sectors. Critically, shock frequency has increased through time on land and sea at a global scale. Geopolitical and extreme-weather events were the main shock drivers identified, but with considerable differences across sectors. We illustrate how social and ecological drivers, influenced by the dynamics of the food system, can spill over multiple food sectors and create synchronous challenges or trade-offs among terrestrial and aquatic systems. In a more shock-prone and interconnected world, bold food policy and social protection mechanisms that help people anticipate, cope with and recover from losses will be central to sustainability. © 2019, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

  • 3.
    Hobday, Alistair J.
    et al.
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Fleming, Aysha
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO Land and Water, Australia.
    Ogier, Emily M
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Thomas, Linda
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia.
    Hartog, Jason R
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia; CSIRO Land and Water, Australia.
    Stephenson, Robert L
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Canada.
    Perceptions regarding the need for broad sustainability assessments of Australian fisheries2018In: Fisheries Research, ISSN 0165-7836, E-ISSN 1872-6763, Vol. 208, p. 247-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demonstration of fishery sustainability has expanded from a relatively narrow biological focus to one that includesa wide range of issues in response to environmental legislation, social factors, and demands from marketsand consumers. The Healthcheck for Australian Fisheries Sustainability (Healthcheck) is a new initiative designedto be comprehensive with regard to ecological, economic, social and governance aspects, presentingavailable information about a fishery for easy access and use. Here we report on the framework developmentprocess, including engagement with fishery managers, environmental non-government organisations, andfishery participants. All participants emphasized the need for a broad sustainability assessment with timelyreporting, easy availability, and wider coverage of seafood sustainability information than is currently accessible,and expressed the importance of trustworthy and transparent information. Differences were found whencomparing sustainability issues generally reported and issues of main concern to stakeholders. Subsequent refinementof the Healthcheck extended coverage into issues that are on the horizon for fishery reporting, but maysoon be of interest to a wide range of stakeholders.

  • 4.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Belgrano, A.
    Bartolino, V.
    Valentinsson, D.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Trophic indicators in fisheries: A call for re-evaluation2013In: Biology Letters, ISSN 1744-9561, E-ISSN 1744-957X, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1050-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mean trophic level (MTL) of landings and primary production required (PPR) by fisheries are increasingly used in the assessment of sustainability in fisheries. However, in their present form, MTL and PPR are prone to misinterpretation. We show that it is important to account for actual catch data, define an appropriate historical and spatial domain, and carefully consider the effects of fisheries management, based on results from a case study of Swedish fisheries during the past century. © 2012 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Främberg, Anton
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Carp (Cyprinidae) Fisheries in Swedish Lakes: A Combined Environmental Assessment Approach to Evaluate Data-limited Freshwater Fish Resources as Food2019In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of aquatic resources to food security is both promising and constrained since the global seafood consumption is increasing while marine fisheries approach the limit of what it can produce. In Sweden, the seafood consumption per capita is higher than the European and world average but the current dietary advice is to increase consumption. Freshwater fisheries have in general been paid less attention in food security discussions. Carp fishes (Cyprinidae) in Sweden have lost their historical value and are currently, both understudied and underutilized. Here we use a combined environmental assessment approach to examine the environmental sustainability of current and potential cyprinid fisheries. We found that current commercial fisheries for Swedish cyprinids in lakes have an average carbon footprint of 0.77 kg CO2e per kg of edible product, substantially smaller than most of the popular marine and terrestrial protein sources consumed in Sweden today. This could be even lower if cyprinid resources were better utilized than currently. The cyprinids however exhibited different vulnerability to fishing pressure and are today associated with data deficiencies. Hence, it is currently uncertain how much food for human consumption they can contribute to. Improved consumer interest and management attention is needed, but to the Swedish diet, cyprinids offer a promising opportunity for future more sustainable and nutritious food systems. © 2020, The Author(s).

  • 6.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hallström, Elinor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bergman, Kristina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Troell, Max
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Jonell, Malin
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden.
    Rönnbäck, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Patrik
    Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Sweden; WorldFish, Malaysia.
    Frisk med fisk utan risk?: Betydelsen av svensk konsumtion av sjömat för hälsa och miljö2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood is a diverse food commodity, comprising of over 2 500 species from capture fisheries and over 600 species from farming, with vast differences between production methods. Dietary advice often includes recommendations to increase consumption of seafood, based on health benefits and that seafood may be produced with less environmental impacts and resources use compared to many other animal-based foods. However, at the same time, there are frequent media alarms related to potential health risks (some species have diet restrictions) and destructive production practices from both fisheries and aquaculture. As a result, there is often confusion on which seafood to eat or not to eat.The aim of this report is primarily to collate available information on health risks and benefits of Swedish seafood consumption, and to combine this with environmental aspects (focus on carbon footprint).Around 40 seafood products consumed in Sweden were included in the analysis. Potential health risks could only be included qualitatively, since the collected data is risk-based and thus not all products are sampled. It was found that the nutritional content and carbon footprint vastly differ between species. There were also several data gaps identified, such as the need for more detailed data on performance from different production systems. The combined assessment of nutritional value and carbon footprint categorised some species as win-win in terms of nutritional content and environmental pressures (such as small pelagic fish), while others could be more categorised as having less nutritional value and with high environmental costs (such as Northern prawn) respectively.The report provides decision support for further data collection needed to enable combined assessment of nutritional risks, benefits and environmental sustainability of seafood products. Results may be used to discuss suitable level of details of dietary advice.

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  • 7.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Hobday, Alistair J
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Smith, Anthony DM
    CSIRO Oceans and Atmosphere, Australia; University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Green, Bridget S
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Gibbs, Mark
    Shaping sustainability of seafood from capture fisheries integrating the perspectives of supply chain stakeholders through combining systems analysis tools2018In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, article id fsy081Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafood from capture fisheries can be assessed in many ways and for different purposes, with sometimes divergent views on what characterizes “sustainable use”. Here we use two systems analysis tools—Ecological Risk Assessment for Effects of Fishing (ERAEF) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA)—over the historical development of the Australian Patagonian toothfish fishery at Heard and McDonald Islands since the start in 1997. We find that ecological risks have been systematically identified in the management process using ERAEF, and with time have been mitigated, resulting in a lower risk fishery from an ecological impact perspective. LCA inventory data from the industry shows that fuel use per kilo has increased over the history of the fishery. Our results suggest that LCA and ERAEF may provide contrasting and complementary perspectives on sustainability and reveal trade-offs when used in combination. Incorporation of LCA perspectives in assessing impacts of fishing may facilitate refinement of ecosystem-based fisheries management, such as improved integration of the different perspectives of supply chain stakeholders.

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  • 8.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Jonsson, P
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sköld, M
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Ulmestrand, M
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Valentinsson, D
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Eigaard, O. R.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Feekings, J. J.
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Nielsen, R
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Bastardie, F
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Lövgren, J
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    New policies may call for new approaches: the case of the Swedish Norway Lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) fisheries in the Kattegat and Skagerrak2017In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 134-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Common Fisheries Policy has in its 2013 reform increased in complexity, such as a call for coherence with the Marine Strategy Framework Directive and a landing obligation, posing new requirements and challenges to managers, scientists and the fishing industry. Therefore, re-evaluations of current practice are important as a basis for management actions. The Swedish fishery for Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in the Kattegat–Skagerrak area provides an interesting case study of relevance to emerging policies. Sprung from an unbalance in available fish- and Nephrops quotas and an ambition to protect coastal areas, the current fishery has been directed towards three separate fisheries (mixed trawling, directed trawling using a sorting grid and creeling). Studying direct and indirect effects from alternative Swedish quota allocations among gear types is therefore interesting. Accordingly, a screening study was conducted, taking into consideration area-gear interactions in catch rates, to compare the three different fisheries regarding quantified pressures on the target species, the by-catch species, and on the seafloor, as well as to qualitatively discuss social and economic dimensions. In the next step, alternative quota allocations were studied. In Swedish fisheries, we show that creeling offers a substantial reduction of fishing mortality of both undersized Nephrops and fish and a reduced seafloor pressure per landed kilo of Nephrops. Given that the fishing areas in many cases may be interchangeable between gears, allocating a larger quota share to creels in the Swedish fishery would therefore contribute to the integration of fisheries- and environmental management as called for in the new policies.

  • 9.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Mann, Madeleine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Broad sustainability analysis of Northern shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries for Northern shrimp

    Pandalus borealis in the Skagerrak have been given much media attention in recent years, initiated by the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) in Sweden listing the product as "avoid" in their consumer guide in 2014. Even with the current eco-certification by Marine Stewardship Council (MSC), there is still questions concerning the development in the fishery since 2014. The WWF has therefore commissioned a report to follow up what has happened in the fishery.

    The overall aim of the study is therefore to collate information on sustainability aspects of current shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak (Norwegian, Danish and Swedish fisheries) to provide a transparent report on current fisheries. Since sustainability comprise of many dimensions, the shrimp fisheries are e.g. in Sweden seen as an iconic cultural activity for coastal communities, broader evaluations are needed than those that currently are done. The point of departure is therefore to utilize the approach of the Australian Fisheries Healthcheck

    – a project aiming to provide transparent reporting of a broad range of indicators (sorted into environmental, social & cultural, economic, governance and external influences categories). The intention of Healthcheck is to support existing seafood guides, fishery reports and managers, and provide information to interested citizens.

    It was found that much data is already collected on an annual basis that may be used for the Healthcheck indicators, but the data was often not available and analysed on a fishery basis. The shrimp fishery, and many other European fisheries, is also different to most Australian fisheries since it is multijurisdictional, and thus associated to different management objectives between countries

    – this is markedly reflected by differences in the three countries’ fleets and fishing patterns, data collection and officially available documentation concerning the shrimp fishery. Few across-countries, standardized indicators could therefore today be reported on for the whole fishery, thus requiring further effort. Several indicators may also require further investigation in terms what may be appropriate metrics for the indicator that is aligned with European circumstances. The study can therefore be seen as a pilot collating which data is currently available to report on broader sustainability aspects of relevance to European fisheries, whereas a future, more detailed analysis of the fishery is needed to investigate the data more in detail.

    Concerning the sustainability of the Skagerrak shrimp fishery, the analysis indicates that the overall development shows some positive signals in recent years, such as improved selectivity and more area restrictions to protect sensitive habitats. However, the arguable most basic components of a sustainable fishery

    – exploitation level and stock status – exhibit some alarming signals. Furthermore, with landing per unit effort declining in recent years, pressure in the form of e.g. fuel use and habitat impact per kg landed shrimp may be negatively affected, requiring further attention.

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  • 10.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nilsson, P.
    Valentinsson, D.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Integrated environmental assessment of fisheries management: Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries evaluated using a life cycle approach2012In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1193-1201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management needs to broaden its perspective to achieve sustainable resource use. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO standardized method to evaluate the environmental impacts of products using a broad and systematic approach. In this study, the outcome of a management regime promoting species-selective trawling in Swedish Nephrops trawl fisheries was studied using LCA methodology by quantifying the impacts per kilogram of landing using two different fishing methods. Demersal trawling has previously been found to be both energy intensive and destructive in terms of seafloor impact and discards. It is demonstrated that species-selective trawling fulfils management objectives, although with tradeoffs in terms of fuel consumption and associated GHG emissions. To prioritize between impacts, one must be aware of and quantify these potential tradeoffs. LCA could be an important tool for defining sustainable seafood production as it can visualize a broad range of impacts and facilitate integrated, transparent decision making in the seafood industry. It is also concluded that, with current LCA methodology, use of total discarded mass could increasingly be distinguished from potential impact by applying two new concepts: primary production requirements and threatened species affected. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 11.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Baltic cod fisheries – current status and future opportunities2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study quantifies a set of sustainability indicators (environmental, economic, social and institutional) for the Baltic cod fisheries (western and eastern stock) and explores the effects of different alternative management options in short term (for both stocks) and longer term (for the eastern stock). Data collected are biased towards the Swedish fishing industry, but most findings are relevant for all countries exploiting the stocks.

    Based on results in this study, it is evident that management actions are needed at many levels to improve the current situation. Some of the observed problems with the cod fisheries today are due to external influences, outside of fisheries management remit (such as seal conflicts, oxygen-depleted areas). Nevertheless, this should not hinder management actions on what may be better understood and managed for in a fisheries context. For the eastern stock, the most pertinent issue is mitigation of density-dependence or feeding shortages. It is urgent with further investigations on what is the most important driver such as consider risks with current selectivity and effort regime, as well as act to improve herring and sprat availability where cod is abundant. Interestingly, it is found that increased seal predation may have a mitigating effect on density-dependence of cod in a trawl-based selectivity regime (i.e. result in higher landings and improved stock structure compared to lower predation pressure); for passive gears, it is the opposite. For the western stock, decreasing fishing effort and allowing the stock to rebuild is the most urgent action.

    To this end, the present governance system may improve in many ways, and it is recommended to do a thorough analysis of what may be done to improve effectiveness of accomplishing current aspirational policy objectives.

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  • 12.
    Hornborg, Sara
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Svensson, Mikael
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Per G.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    By-catch impacts in fisheries: Utilizing the iucn red list categories for enhanced product level assessment in seafood LCAS2013In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 1239-1248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Overexploitation of fish stocks causes concern not only to fisheries managers and conservation biologists, but also engages seafood consumers; more integrated product perspectives would be useful. This could be provided by life cycle assessment (LCA); however, further complements of present LCA methodology are needed to assess seafood production, one being by-catch impacts. We studied the scientific rationale behind using the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species™ for assessment of impacts relating to fish species' vulnerability. For this purpose, the current Red List status of marine fish in Sweden was compared to the advice given in fisheries as well as key life history traits known to indicate sensitivity to high fishing pressure. Further, we quantified the amount of threatened fish (vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered) that was discarded in demersal trawl fisheries on the Swedish west coast. The results showed that not only did the national Red List of marine fish have a high consistency with advice given in fisheries and indices of vulnerability, the different fishing practices studied were also found to have vastly different amounts of threatened fish discarded per kilo landing. The suggested approach is therefore promising as a carrier of aggregated information on the extent to which seafood production interferes with conservation priorities, in particular for species lacking adequate stock assessment. To enable extensive product comparisons, it is important to increase coverage of fish species by the global IUCN Red List, and to reconsider the appropriate assessment unit (species or stocks) in order to avoid false alarms.

  • 13.
    Landquist, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Litteraturstudie av miljöpåverkan från konventionellt och ekologiskt producerade livsmedel: Fokus på studier utförda med livscykelanalysmetodik2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    De nya kostråd som Livsmedelsverket publicerade i april 2015 tog även hänsyn till miljöaspekter, förutom närings- och hälsoaspekter. Den här rapporten sammanställer skillnaderna i miljöpåverkan mellan ekologiskt och konventionellt producerade livsmedel och är ett kunskapsunderlag som Livsmedelsverket kan använda för att belysa frågan om det finns några livsmedelsgrupper där ekologiskt alternativt konventionellt bör lyftas fram. Arbetet har fokuserat på ett antal större livsmedelsgrupper och prioriterat studier som har använt livscykelanalys, LCA. Den senare är en miljösystemanalysmetod som kartlägger den potentiella miljöpåverkan en produkt ger upphov till under sin livscykel, från ”vaggan till graven” (eller en väl avgränsad del av livscykeln, till exempel primärproduktionen).

  • 14.
    Landquist, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Nordborg, Maria
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Slutsatsen saknar stöd i vår rapport, Debattreplik i DN2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Longo, Catherine S.
    et al.
    University of California, USA; Marine Stewardship Council, UK.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bartolino, Valerio
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Tomczak, Maciej T.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Ciannelli, Lorenzo
    Oregon State University, USA.
    Libralato, Simone
    OGS National Institute of Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics, Italy.
    Belgrano, Andrea
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden; SIME Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden.
    Role of trophic models and indicators in current marine fisheries management2015In: Marine Ecology Progress Series, ISSN 0171-8630, E-ISSN 1616-1599, Vol. 538, p. 257-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The previous decade has witnessed a flourishing of studies on how fisheries and marine food webs interact, and how trophicmodels and indicators can be used for assessment and management purposes. Acknowledging the importance of complex interactions among species, fishermen and the environment has led to a shift from single species to an ecosystem-wide approach in the science supporting fisheries management (e.g. Johannesburg Declaration, Magnuson-Stevens Act). Moreover, fisheries managers today acknowledge that fishing activities are linked to a range of societal benefits and services, and their work is necessarily amulti-objective practice (i.e. ecosystem-based management). We argue that the knowledge accumulated thus far points to tropho-dynamic models and indicators as key tools for such multi-dimensional assessments. Nevertheless, trophodynamic approaches are still underutilised in fisheriesmanagement. More specifically,most management decisions continue to rely on single species and sector-specific models. Here we review examples of applications of trophodynamic indicators within fisheries assessments in wellstudied ecosystems, and discuss progressmade (as well as lack thereof) towards increased integration of these metrics into marine resource management. Having clarified how trophic indicators fit within current policy and management contexts, we propose ways forward to increase their use in view of futuremanagement challenges.

  • 16. Svedang, H.
    et al.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Selective fishing induces density-dependent growth2014In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 5, p. 4152-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decades, views on fisheries management have oscillated between alarm and trust in management progress. The predominant policy for remedying the world fishing crisis aims at maximum sustainable yield (MSY) by adjusting gear selectivity and fishing effort. Here we report a case study on how striving for higher yields from the Eastern Baltic cod stock by increasing selectivity has become exceedingly detrimental for its productivity. Although there is a successive increase in numbers of undersized fish, growth potential is severely reduced, and fishing mortality in fishable size has increased. Once density-dependent growth is introduced, the process is self-enforcing as long as the recruitment remains stable. Our findings suggest that policies focusing on maximum yield while targeting greater sizes are risky and should instead prioritize catch rates over yield. Disregarding the underlying population structure may jeopardize stock productivity, with dire consequences for the fishing industry and ecosystem structure and function. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    et al.
    SIME Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, Sweden; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Historic changes in length distributions of three Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks: Evidence of growth retardation2017In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 7, no 16, p. 6089-6102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how combinations of fishing effort and selectivity affect productivity is central to fisheries research. We investigate the roles of fishing regulation in comparison with ecosystem status for Baltic Sea cod stock productivity, growth performance, and population stability. This case study is interesting because three cod populations with different exploitation patterns and stock status are located in three adjacent but partially, ecologically different areas. In assessing stock status, growth, and productivity, we use survey information and rather basic stock parameters without relying on age readings. Because there is an urgent interest of better understanding of the current development of the Eastern Baltic cod stock, we argue that our approach represents partly a novel way of interpreting monitoring information together with catch data in a simplified yet more informative way. Our study reports how the Eastern and Western Baltic cod have gone toward more truncated size structures between 1991 and 2016, in particular for the Eastern Baltic cod, whereas the Öresund cod show no trend. We suggest that selective fishing may disrupt fish population dynamic stability and that lower natural productivity might amplify the effects of selective fishing. In support of earlier findings on a density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod, management is advised to acknowledge that sustainable exploitation levels for Eastern Baltic cod are much more limited than perceived in regular assessments. Of more general importance, our results emphasize the need to embrace a more realistic view on what ecosystems can produce regarding tractable fish biomass to facilitate a more ecosystem-based fisheries management.

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  • 18.
    Svedäng, Henrik
    et al.
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Waiting for a flourishing Baltic cod (Gadus morhua) fishery that never comes: old truths and new perspectives2015In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 2197-2208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the declared recovery of the stock, the density-dependent growth of Eastern Baltic cod (Gadus morhua, Gadidae), probably related to increased gear selectivity, may have disrupted the size structure and substantially lowered the productivity of the stock. This naturally affects the profitability and future development of industry as well as ecosystem objectives in relation to policies such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. As a result, current management frameworks need to be reconsidered with a clear priority on setting objectives related to both socio-economic and ecosystem considerations. We explore various management options, using bioeconomic modelling to visualize potential trade-offs, and form an integrated decision support to inform managers regarding potential yield in biomass, revenue at both the fleet and individual levels, and environmental impact of fishing. We also investigate the consequences of preventing density-dependence by lowering selectivity, Lc, while optimizing for economic revenue and minimizing ecosystem impacts. Our findings indicate that new strategies need to be adopted by reducing Lc as well as fishing mortality, F, to restore individual growth and, hence, stock productivity. We also note that these more risk-averting strategies are positively linked to better profitability at both the individual and fleet levels as well as with enhanced ecosystem functioning and lower ecological stress.

  • 19.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Groen, Evelyne A.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Bokkers, Eddie A. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Karlsen, Kine M.
    Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research, Norway.
    de Boer, Imke J. M.
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Assessing broad life cycle impacts of daily onboard decision-making, annual strategic planning, and fisheries management in a northeast Atlantic trawl fishery2018In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 23, no 7, p. 1357-1367Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Capture fisheries are the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management. Methods: We analyzed the variability in broad environmental impacts of a demersal freeze trawler targeting cod, haddock, saithe, and shrimp, mainly in the Norwegian Sea and in the Barents Sea. The analysis was based on daily data for fishing activities between 2011 and 2014 and the functional unit was a kilo of landing from one fishing trip. We used biological indicators in a novel hierarchic approach, depending on data availability, to quantify biotic impacts. Landings were categorized as target (having defined target reference points) or bycatch species (classified as threatened or as data-limited). Indicators for target and bycatch impacts were quantified for each fishing trip, as was the seafloor area swept. Results and discussion: No significant difference in fuel use was found between years, but variability was considerable within a year, i.e., between fishing trips. Trips targeting shrimp were more fuel intensive than those targeting fish, due to a lower catch rate. Steaming to and from port was less important for fuel efficiency than steaming between fishing locations. A tradeoff was identified between biotic and abiotic impacts. Landings classified as main target species generally followed the maximum sustainable yield (MSY) framework, and proportions of threatened species were low, while proportions of data-limited bycatch were larger. This improved considerably when reference points were defined for saithe in 2014. Conclusions: The variability between fishing trips shows that there is room for improvement through management. Fuel use per landing was strongly influenced by target species, fishing pattern, and fisheries management. Increased awareness about the importance of onboard decision-making can lead to improved performance. This approach could serve to document performance over time helping fishing companies to better understand the effect of their daily and more long-term decision-making on the environmental performance of their products. Recommendations: Fishing companies should document their resource use and production on a detailed level. Fuel use should be monitored as part of the management system. Managing authorities should ensure that sufficient data is available to evaluate the sustainability of exploitation levels of all harvested species.

  • 20.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Groen, Evelyne
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Bokkers, Eddie
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Karlsen, Tine
    Nofima, Norway.
    de Boer, Imke
    Wageningen University, Netherlands.
    Life cycle environmental impacts of a northeast Atlantic trawler on a fishing trip basis, including a novel approach to assess biotic impacts of fishing2016In: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food 2016: Book of Abstracts, 2016, article id 118Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capture fisheries is the only industrial-scale harvesting of a wild resource for food. Temporal variability in environmental performance of fisheries has only recently begun to be explored, but only between years, not within a year. Our aim was to better understand the causes of temporal variability within and between years and to identify improvement options through management at a company level and in fisheries management

  • 21.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stock size matters more than vessel size: The fuel efficiency of Swedish demersal trawl fisheries 2002-20102014In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 44, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management determines how much of each stock can be landed when, where and how fishing is permitted. It has been identified to strongly influence the environmental performance of the fishing industry, including fuel use. As fuel data for fisheries is scarce, especially on a detailed level, the aim of this study was to develop an approach for utilizing fleet-wide fuel data to estimate the fuel use of individual fisheries and mapping how fuel efficiency in Swedish fisheries is influenced by management. Swedish demersal trawl fisheries were studied between 2002 and 2010. Results show that the overall fuel efficiency has improved and interesting patterns between different fisheries and vessel sizes emerged. The difference in fuel efficiency per kilo landing between large and small trawlers was generally small, unless catch capacity was lowered e.g. by selective grids. Stock rebuilding was shown to be highly important for fuel efficiency, as fuel use was inversely correlated to the biomass of eastern Baltic cod. However, rebuilding can also lead to trade-offs e.g. in the case of selective trawling, where protection of depleted stocks comes at the cost of higher fuel intensity per landing. Finally, tax exemption of fuel use in fisheries was shown to maintain inefficient fisheries. These results could be used to reduce overall environmental impacts of fishing further by incorporating fuel use as an additional aspect into the fisheries management system. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  • 22.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Green, Bridget S.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Farmery, Anna K.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Hammar, Linus
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hartmann, Klaas
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Molander, Sverker
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Parker, Robert W. R.
    University of Tasmania, Australia.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Vázques-Rowe, Ian
    Pontifical Catholic University of Peru, Peru; University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
    Smith, Anthony D. M.
    CSIRO Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, Australia.
    Expanding the concept of sustainable seafood using Life Cycle Assessment2016In: Fish and Fisheries, ISSN 1467-2960, E-ISSN 1467-2979, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 1073-1093Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fisheries management and sustainability assessment of fisheries more generally have recently expanded their scope from single-species stock assessment to ecosystem-based approaches, aiming to incorporate economic, social and local environmental impacts, while still excluding global-scale environmental impacts. In parallel, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has emerged as a widely used and recommended framework to assess environmental impacts of products, including global-scale impacts. For over a decade, LCA has been applied to seafood supply chains, leading to new insights into the environmental impact of seafood products.

    We present insights from seafood LCA research with particular focus on evaluating fisheries management, which strongly influences the environmental impact of seafood products. Further, we suggest tangible ways in which LCA could be taken up in management. By identifying trade-offs, LCA can be a useful decision support tool and avoids problem shifting from one concern (or activity) to another. The integrated, product-based and quantitative perspective brought by LCA could complement existing tools. One example is to follow up fuel use of fishing, as the production and combustion of fuel used dominates overall results for various types of environmental impacts of seafood products, and is also often linked to biological impacts of fishing. Reducing the fuel use of fisheries is therefore effective to reduce overall impacts. Allocating fishing rights based on environmental performance could likewise facilitate the transition to low-impact fisheries. Taking these steps in an open dialogue between fishers, managers, industry, NGOs and consumers would enable more targeted progress towards sustainable fisheries.

  • 23.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Sövik, Guldborg
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Same stock, different management: Quantifying the sustainability of Skagerrak shrimp fisheries from a product perspective2016In: LCA Food 2016: 10th International Conference on Life Cycle Assessment of Food 2016, 2016, article id 119Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Ziegler, Friederike
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Valentinsson, Daniel
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Skontorp Hognes, Erik
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Søvik, Guldborg
    Institute of Marine Research, Norway.
    Ritzau Eigaard, Ole
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Same stock, different management: Quantifying the sustainability of three shrimp fisheries in the Skagerrak from a product perspective2016In: ICES Journal of Marine Science, ISSN 1054-3139, E-ISSN 1095-9289, Vol. 73, no 7, p. 1806-1814Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis L.) stock in the Skagerrak is shared by Sweden, Norway, and Denmark. Although the fishery is regulated by an annual agreement between the EU and Norway, there are also national regulations as well as differences in fleet composition and shrimp markets. In early 2014, the World Wildlife Fund gave all Skagerrak shrimp a red light in their seafood consumer guide, which led to an extensive debate, especially in Sweden, about the sustainability of this fishery. The aim of this study was to quantify a set of indicators that together give a broad picture of the sustainability of the three fisheries to provide an objective basis for a discussion on needed measures. The different indicators concerned environmental, economic or social aspects of sustainability and were quantified per tonne of shrimp landed by each country in 2012. The Danish fishery was most efficient in terms of environmental and economic indicators, while the Swedish fishery provided most employment per tonne of shrimp landed. Fuel use in all fisheries was high, also when compared with other shrimp fisheries. Interesting patterns emerged, with smaller vessels being more fuel efficient than larger ones in Sweden and Norway, with the opposite trend in Denmark. The study also demonstrated major data gaps and differences between the countries in how data are collected and made available. Various improvement options in the areas data collection and publication, allocation of quotas and enforcement of regulations resulted. Product-oriented studies could be useful to follow-up performance of fisheries over time and to identify how to best utilize the Skagerrak shrimp stock. This could involve evaluating novel solutions in terms of technology and management, based on current and future scenarios aiming to maximize societal benefits generated from this limited resource, at minimized environmental impacts.

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  • 25.
    Zurek, Monika
    et al.
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Hebinck, Aniek
    University of Oxford, UK; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Leip, Adrian
    European Commission, Italy.
    Vervoort, Joost
    University of Oxford, UK; Utrecht University, The Netherlands.
    Kuiper, Marijke
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Garrone, Maria
    KU Leuven University, Belgium.
    Havlík, Petr
    International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Austria.
    Heckelei, Thomas
    University of Bonn, Germany.
    Hornborg, Sara
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Ingram, John
    University of Oxford, UK.
    Kuijsten, Anneleen
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Shutes, Lindsay
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Geleijnse, Johanna
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Terluin, Ida
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    van't Veer, Pieter
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    Wijnands, Jo
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Zimmermann, Andrea
    Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Italy.
    Achterbosch, Thom
    Wageningen Economic Research, The Netherlands.
    Assessing sustainable food and nutrition security of the EU food system-an integrated approach2018In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 4271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Steering the EU food system towards a sustainability transformation requires a vast and actionable knowledge base available to a range of public and private actors. Few have captured this complexity by assessing food systems from a multi-dimensional and multi-level perspective, which would include (1) nutrition and diet, environmental and economic outcomes together with social equity dimensions and (2) system interactions across country, EU and global scales. This paper addresses this gap in food systems research and science communication by providing an integrated analytical approach and new ways to communicate this complexity outside science. Based on a transdisciplinary science approach with continuous stakeholder input, the EU Horizon2020 project 'Metrics, Models and Foresight for European SUStainable Food And Nutrition Security' (SUSFANS) developed a five-step process: Creating a participatory space; designing a conceptual framework of the EU food system; developing food system performance metrics; designing a modelling toolbox and developing a visualization tool. The Sustainable Food and Nutrition-Visualizer, designed to communicate complex policy change-impacts and trade-off questions, enables an informed debate about trade-offs associated with options for change among food system actors as well as in the policy making arena. The discussion highlights points for further research related to indicator development, reach of assessment models, participatory processes and obstacles in science communication. © 2018 by the authors.

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