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  • 1.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University.
    Vokáč Machalická, Klára
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS and Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade NOVA de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Key Structural Aspects for Adaptive Facades: Activity Progress from the EU-COST Action TU1403 ‘Structural’ Task Group2018In: International Journal of Structural Glass and Advanced Materials Research, ISSN 2616-4507, Vol. 2, p. 135-154Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Numerical Modelling of Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is largely used in engineering applications as a structural material, especially for laminated glass (LG) sections. However, the well-known temperature-dependent behaviour of visco-elastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for safety purposes, even in ambient conditions. The materials thermo-mechanical degradation with increase of temperature could further severely affect the load-bearing performance of such assemblies. Thermo-mechanical Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling, in this regard, can represent a robust tool and support for designers. Key input parameters and possible limits in FE models, however, should be properly taken into account and calibrated, especially for geometrically simplified models, to enable realistic and reliable estimations of real structural behavior. In this paper, FE simulations are proposed for monolithic (MG) and LG specimens under radiant heating, based on one-dimensional (1D) models. With the use of experimental results from the literature, parametric studies are discussed, indicating limits and issues at several modelling assuptions. Careful consideration is paid for various thermal material properties (conductivity, specific heat), boundary conditions (conductivity, emissivity) as well as geometrical features (thickness tolerances, etc.) and composition of LG sections (interlayer type, thickness). Comparative parametric results are hence discussed in the paper.

  • 3.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč Machalická, Klára
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Santos, Filipe
    NOVA University Lisbon, Portugal.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    An insight on possible classification and metrics, experimental testing and numerical modelling for adaptive facades: Activity report from the ‘Structural’ Task Group2018In: Proceedings of the COST Action TU1403 Adaptive Facades Network Final Conference, 2018, p. 325-336Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klara
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    LucerneUniversity of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe - Part II: Validity of conventional experimental testing methods and key issues2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25, article id 100797Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given their intrinsic features, adaptive facades are required to satisfy rigid structural performances, in addition to typical insulation, thermal and energy requirements. These include a minimum of safety and serviceability levels under ordinary design loads, durability, robustness, fire resistance, capacity to sustain severe seismic events or other natural hazards, etc. The overall design process of adaptive facades may include further challenges and uncertainties especially in the case of complex assemblies, where multiple combinations of material-related phenomena, kinematic effects, geometrical and mechanical characteristics could take place. In this context, experimental testing at the component and/or at the full-scale assembly level has a fundamental role, to prove that all the expected performance parameters are properly fulfilled. Several standards and guideline documents are available in the literature, and provide recommendations and procedures in support of conventional testing approaches for the certification and performance assessment of facades. These documents, however, are specifically focused on ordinary, static envelopes, and no provisions are given for the experimental testing of dynamic, adaptive skins. In this regard, it is hence expected that a minimum of conventional experimental procedures may be directly extended from static to dynamic facades. However, the validity of standardized procedures for adaptive skins is still an open issue. Novel and specific experimental approaches are then necessarily required, to assess the structural characteristics of adaptive facades, depending on their properties and on the design detailing. In this paper, existing fundamental standards for testing traditional facades are first recalled and commented. Special care is spent for the validity and reliability of conventional testing methods for innovative, adaptive envelopes, including a discussion on selected experimental methods for facade components and systems. Non-conventional testing procedures which may be useful for adaptive skins are then also discussed in the paper, as resulting from the research efforts of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group.

  • 5.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Machalická, Klára V.
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Eliášová, Martina
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Vokáč, Miroslav
    Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Wüest, Thomas
    Lucerne University of Applied Sciences and Arts, Switzerland.
    Santos, Filipe
    CERIS, Portugal.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural characterisation of adaptive facades in Europe – Part I: Insight on classification rules, performance metrics and design methods2019In: Journal of Building Engineering, E-ISSN 2352-7102, Vol. 25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive facades are increasingly used in modern buildings, where they can take the form of complex systems and manifest their adaptivity in several ways. Adaptive envelopes must meet the requirements defined by structural considerations, which include structural safety, serviceability, durability, robustness and fire safety. For these novel skins, based on innovative design solutions, experimentation at the component and / or assembly level is required to prove that these requirements are fulfilled. The definition of appropriate metrics is hence also recommended. A more complex combination of material-related, kinematic, geometrical and mechanical aspects should in fact be properly taken into account, compared to traditional, static facades. Accordingly, specific experimental methods and regulations are required for these novel skins. As an outcome of the European COST Action TU1403 ‘Adaptive facades network’ - ‘Structural’ Task Group, this paper collects some recent examples and design concepts of adaptive systems, specifically including a new classification proposal and the definition of some possible metrics for their structural performance assessment. The aim is to provide a robust background and detailed state-of-the-art information for these novel structural systems, towards the development of standardised and reliable procedures for their mechanical and thermo-physical characterisation.

  • 6.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden; Silesian University of Technology, Poland .
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Thermal assessment of glass façade panels under radiant heating: Experimental and preliminary numerical studies2018In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 049-064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, glass is increasingly being used as a load-bearing material for structural components in buildings and façades. Different structural member solutions (such as panels, beams, columns) and loading conditions were the subjects of several research studies in recent years. Most of them, however, were typically limited to experimental testing and numerical simulations on glass elements and assemblies at room temperature. Thermo-mechanical investigations, inclusive of the temperature-dependent behaviour of visco-elastic interlayers used in laminated glass solutions, as well as the typical thermo-mechanical degradation of glass properties in line with temperature increase, in this regard, are still limited. Such an aspect can be particularly important for adaptive façades, in which the continuous variation of thermal and mechanical boundary conditions should be properly taken into account at all the design stages, as well as during the lifetime of a constructed facility. Given the key role that thermo-mechanical studies of glazing systems can pe use of glass in façades, this paper focuses on Finite Element (FE) numerical modelling of monolithic and laminated glass panels exposed to radiant heating, by taking advantage of past experimental investigations. In the study discussed herein, being representative of some major outcomes of a more extended research project, one-dimensional (1D) FE models are used to reproduce the thermal behaviour of selected glass specimens under radiant heating, as observed in the past experiments. Given the high computational efficiency but very basic assumptions of 1D assemblies, a critical discussion of experimental-to-numerical comparisons is then proposed for a selection of specimens.

  • 7.
    Bedon, Chiara
    et al.
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Zhang, Xidong
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Santos, Filipe
    NOVA University Lisbon, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Arrigoni, Michel
    ENSTA Bretagne, France.
    Figuli, Lucia
    University of Žilina, Slovakia.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Performance of structural glass facades under extreme loads – Design methods, existing research, current issues and trends2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 163, p. 921-937Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass has been overwhelmingly used for windows and facades in modern constructions, for many practical reasons, including thermal, energy, light and aesthetics. Nevertheless, due to the relatively low tensile strength and mostly brittle behaviour of glass, compared to other traditional materials, as well as to a multitude of interacting structural and non-structural components, windows/facades are one of the most fragile and vulnerable components of buildings, being representative of the physical line of separation between interior and exterior spaces. As such, multidisciplinary approaches, as well as specific fail-safe design criteria and analysis methods are required, especially under extreme loading conditions, so that casualties and injuries in the event of failure could be avoided and appropriate safety levels could be guaranteed. In this context, this paper presents a review of the state of art on analysis and design methods in use for glass facades, with careful consideration for extreme loading configurations, including natural events, such as seismic events, extreme wind or other climatic exposures, and man-made threats, i.e. blast loads and fire. Major results of available experimental outcomes, current issues and trends are also reported, summarising still open challenges.

  • 8.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Gabrielsson, H.
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Fröderberg, M.
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, T.
    NCC AB, Sweden; ÅF Infrastructure AB, Sweden.
    Suitable degree of crudeness in engineering practice2019In: IABSE Symposium, Guimaraes 2019: Towards a Resilient Built Environment Risk and Asset Management - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2019, p. 1592-1599Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practicing structural engineers may be familiar with the main principles of structural reliability but may not necessarily be experts in using such methods. This may lead to a lack in understanding the effect of uncertainties on the ensuing structural safety and to sub-optimization of more traditional structural engineering aspects. The aim of the current paper is to highlight the importance of considering risks and uncertainties in design and to improve the awareness of practicing engineers to such considerations. The importance of a consistent treatment of uncertainties in structural engineering is brought to attention with focus on the modelling approaches which often underlie decisions. Different aspects discussed are: decision making in light of uncertainty, principles of consistent crudeness and the influence of engineering performance in practice on the safety of structures. A simplified model, considering strategies for improving engineering models, is considered and examples, based on simplified decision models, are also provided.

  • 9.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Decision support framework for bridge condition assessments2019In: Structural Safety, ISSN 0167-4730, E-ISSN 1879-3355, Vol. 81, article id 101874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An essential aspect in the maintenance of existing bridges is the ability to adequately and accurately assess and evaluate the condition of the structure. Condition assessments, which can be carried out in any number of ways, provide valuable information concerning the actual state of a bridge, including the severity of potential damages, and form the basis for further maintenance decisions. Any decision support concerning the management of existing structures thus requires attention towards the uncertainties associated with the assessment methods when applied in practice as well as the maintenance actions these support. These uncertainties cannot be solely described as model uncertainties but are also a result of the variation in engineering performance observed in practice. In the current paper a rational and systematic framework is presented which provides practical decision support concerning whether condition assessments are necessary, what assessment methods are recommended, if invasive actions are needed, or if some other non-invasive option may be more appropriate. The framework takes into account three main attributes of an enhanced condition assessment, namely, modelling sophistication, considerations of uncertainties and risks, and knowledge/information content. Increasing the level of one or more of these attributes may be advantageous only if the expected benefits or added value of information is considered appropriate in relation to the cost of implementation in practice. A decision making model, based on Bayesian decision theory, is adopted to evaluate this problem. Two case studies, in which the framework is applied, are provided for illustrative purposes; the first is a generic numerical example and the second a decision scenario related to the fatigue assessment of an existing railway bridge.

  • 10.
    Blomfors, Martin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zandi, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reliability analysis of corroded reinforced concrete beam with regards to anchorage failure2019In: Life-Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision - Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, IALCCE 2018, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement corrosion is a common problem in reinforced concrete infrastructure today, and it is expected to increase in the future. To simply replace the corroded structures with new ones requires large resources, both in financial and environmental terms. Therefore it is important that existing structures are used to their full potential, also after the onset of corrosion. This paper presents a reliability study of the anchorage capacity of a reinforced concrete beam including reinforcement corrosion. The sensitivity of the different input parameters is also studied. As expected, the results show that the reliability is reduced with corrosion; the magnitude depends to a large extent on the modelling uncertainty used for the bond model for corroded reinforcement. The sensitivity analysis shows an influence of corrosion also on the sensitivities of the input parameters, which is expected based on the properties of the underlying bond model. This paper demonstrates that probabilistic evaluations give valuable insight of the reliability, which can be used to prolong the service-life of existing infrastructure and save both money and the environment.

  • 11.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Techology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Reliability analysis of corroded reinforced concrete beam with regards to anchorage failure2018In: Life Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision, 2018, p. 337-344Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reinforcement corrosion is a common problem in reinforced concrete infrastructure today, and it is expected to increase in the future. To simply replace the corroded structures with new ones requires large resources, both in financial and environmental terms. Therefore it is important that existing structures are used to their full potential, also after the onset of corrosion. This paper presents a reliability study of the anchorage capacity of a reinforced concrete beam including reinforcement corrosion. The sensitivity of the different input parameters is also studied. As expected, the results show that the reliability is reduced with corrosion; the magnitude depends to a large extent on the modelling uncertainty used for the bond model for corroded reinforcement. The sensitivity analysis shows an influence of corrosion also on the sensitivities of the input parameters, which is expected based on the properties of the underlying bond model. This paper demonstrates that probabilistic evaluations give valuable insight of the reliability, which can be used to prolong the service-life of existing infrastructure and save both money and the environment.

  • 12.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Engen, Morten
    Multiconsult ASA; NTNU, Norway.
    Partial safety factors for the anchorage capacity of corroded reinforcement bars in concrete2019In: Engineering structures, ISSN 0141-0296, E-ISSN 1873-7323, Vol. 181, p. 579-588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many reinforced concrete bridges in Europe and around the world are damaged by reinforcement corrosion and the annual maintenance costs are enormous. It is therefore important to develop reliable methods to assess the structural capacity of corroded reinforced concrete structures and avoid unnecessary maintenance costs. Although there are advanced models for determining the load carrying capacity of structures, it is not obvious how they should be used to verify the performance of existing structures. To confidently assess the bond of corroded reinforcement in concrete, for example, the calculation model must give a sufficient safety margin. When designing new structures, semi-probabilistic approaches (such as the partial safety factor method) are adopted to achieve the target reliabilities specified in structural design codes. This paper uses probabilistic methods to develop partial factors for application in an existing bond model, to assess the safety of corroded reinforced concrete structures. The response of the bond model was studied using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations for several design cases, with probability distributions fitted to the results. Partial factors were then derived, based on these distributions. Furthermore, an MC-based simulation technique called “importance sampling” was used to study the reliability of several deterministic bond assessments conducted using these partial factors. The results show that deterministic assessments which use the proposed partial factors lead to a safety level at least equal to the target value. The results presented in this paper will support the assessment of reinforced concrete structures with anchorage problems and give a reasonable approximation of the anchorage capacity with sufficient safety margin. When generalised to cover other failure modes and structural configurations, this will enable better utilisation of damaged structures and lead to major environmental and economical savings for society.

  • 13.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, CBI Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ivanov, Oskar L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Practical bond model for corroded RC bridges2017In: High Tech Concrete: Where Technology and Engineering Meet - Proceedings of the 2017 fib Symposium, 2017, p. 1793-1803Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is a common cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete bridges and many existing bridges are damaged to varying degrees. The rate of deterioration of the bridge stock has been shown to increase due to climate change. Unsympathetically, the demand for load-carrying capacity is however often increased with time. Therefore there is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess the load-carrying capacity and remaining service-life of existing infrastructure. A simple model for the assessment of Anchorage in corroded Reinforced Concrete structures (ARC) has previously been developed. It was originally based on fib Model Code 1990 and has been verified with experiments and three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (3D NLFE) analyses for both accelerated and natural corrosion as well as for different degrees of corrosion. The model was applied when assessing two road bridges in Sweden. The investigation demonstrated great cost savings but also areas for improvement, in particular regarding (a) applicability to practical cases and (b) incorporation of uncertainties in the assessment. The primary focal point of this paper is to present an overview of the development of the ARC model together with recent verifications against a large bond test database as well as foreseen future developments. It was found that the ARC model represents the physical behaviour reasonably well, and gives conservative values of bond strength compared to the bond tests database. In future works, among others, uncertainties of the input variables will be incorporated by means of probabilistic modelling, making way for implementation of the ARC model into semi-probabilistic safety concepts by extraction of modification factors. Overall, with more accurate and reliable assessment methods for corroded RC structures, environmental and economic savings are imminent as more of the potential of existing structures can be realized.

  • 14.
    Blomfors, Mattias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Lundgren, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Engineering Assessment Method for Anchorage in Corroded Reinforced Concrete2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2109-2116Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing need for reliable methods to assess load-carrying capacity and remaining service life of existing infrastructure. Several previous research projects have resulted in a verified, simple 1D model for assessment of anchorage in corroded reinforced concrete structures. Previous verification has involved both experiments and detailed 3D NLFE analyses. To further develop the 1D model it needs to be extended to comprise more practical situations. In order to facilitate an efficient extension procedure in the future, the size of 3D NLFE model that is required to capture the bond behaviour between corroded reinforcement and concrete is investigated. Beam-end models and models of sub-sections were studied, and the results in terms of bond stress and crack pattern were compared. Preliminary results indicate good agreement for some situations; however for some cases a section model seems to overestimate the capacity.

  • 15.
    Cabrero, José Manuel
    et al.
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yurrita, Miguel
    University of Navarra, Spain.
    A probabilistic study of brittle failure in dowel-type timber connections with steel plates loaded parallel to the grain2019In: Wood Material Science and EngineeringArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dowel-type connections in timber structures should be typically designed in a way that, if the load bearing capacity is exceeded, desirable ductile failure should likely occur, i.e. yielding of the metal dowel or embedment of the timber. However, the probability of brittle failures cannot be completely avoided in many cases. If the connection is loaded parallel to the grain direction, splitting, row-shear, plug/block shear and tensile failure are examples of such brittle failure modes. To ensure a beneficial structural performance locally and sufficient structural robustness globally, the probability of such brittle failures should be kept at a sufficiently low level. However, in the current version of EN1995, the probability of such failure is not considered explicitly. The final aim of the presented research study is to develop a rational approach for the consideration of brittle failure in timber connections with dowel-type fasteners and steel plates loaded parallel to the grain, consistently with the partial factor method. As a first step, a probabilistic model has been used to study the susceptibility to brittle failure and provide a rational basis for the calibration of a “brittle overstrength factor”. The results of this study are reported in the current contribution.

  • 16.
    Debuyser, Michael
    et al.
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sonck, Dolphine
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Belis, Jan
    Ghent University, Belgium.
    Behaviour of monolithic and laminated glass exposed to radiant heating2017In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 130, p. 212-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is seeing a growing interest as a structural material as a result of its relatively good strength to weight ratio and the obvious aesthetic benefits of its use in buildings. However due to the sensitivity of glass to thermal shock and the considerably temperature-dependent behaviour of interlayer materials as a result of their visco-elastic nature, the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass will be severely influenced by exposure to fire. Relatively little research has been conducted in the past to study the response of load bearing structural glass, and laminated glass in particular to radiant heating. This paper represents an effort to try to understand the effects of through depth radiation absorption and temperature conduction through laminated glass with a view to ultimately developing a model for studying load bearing glass exposed to elevated temperatures, such as those that would be expected in a fire. The paper reports on an experimental research programme in which several monolithic and laminated glass configurations were exposed to a radiant heat flux to study the different phenomena that occur upon exposure to fire conditions, including the ratios of absorbed, transmitted and reflected heat flux to the incident heat flux. The paper then presents a numerical heat transfer model which is developed based on these experimental results and that is able to determine the evolution of the temperature profile as a result of a given incident heat flux. The effectiveness of the heat transfer model is demonstrated through comparison with the temperatures measured during the experimental work.

  • 17.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kohler, Jochen
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Dietsch, Philipp
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Basis of Design Principles for Timber Structures: A state-of-the-art report by COST Action FP1402 / WG 12018Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB.
    Wlasak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Strutural performance of GFRP connectors in Composite sandwich facade elements2016In: Journal of Facade Design and Engineering, ISSN 2213-302X, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A systematic testing and modelling program has been developed for the verification of the structural performance of facade sandwich elements to take structural aspects into consideration in the SESBE research project, focusing on the development of “smart” facade elements.

    The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors of the novel type of facade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large facade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. The first series of the testing and modelling programme concerning connector performance are presented here. The results suggest that sufficient strength and ductility of the connectors can be ensured using GFRP in the proposed thin light-weight facade elements.

  • 19.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Vennetti, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Mueller, Urs
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, CBI Betonginstitutet AB, Betong & Berg.
    Własak, Lech
    Mostostal Warszawa SA, Poland.
    Structural Concept of Novel RPC Sandwich Façade Elements with GFRP Connectors2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment. Report, IABSE c/o ETH Hönggerberg , 2016, p. 2164-2171Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SESBE research project aims to develop novel smart sandwich façade elements with high insulating capabilities while providing a reduced thickness in conjunction with superior mechanical and durability properties. The present paper mainly focuses on the verification of the mechanical performance of the glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) connectors in the façade element composed of reactive powder concrete (RPC) panels with foam concrete insulation between them. Because of the reduced thickness of the large façade elements, the performance of the connectors is critical for the entire structural concept. A description of structural performance and results based on experimental methods and finite element (FE) analysis are presented.

  • 20.
    Flansbjer, Mathias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Hållfasthet (BMh).
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    Mueller, Urs
    Larraza, Inigo
    Edgar, Jan-Olof
    Wlasak, Lech
    Structural behaviour of RPC sandwich façade elements with GFRP connectors2015In: VII International Congress on Architectural Envelopes. San Sebastian-Donostia, Spain. 2015-05-27--29, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology. Lund University, Sweden.
    Time-variant reliability of timber beams according to Eurocodes considering long-term deflections2019In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a consistent level of failure probability, structural design codes are optimized using probabilistic methods. This optimization process traditionally focuses on the ultimate limit states (ULS). However, in the design of timber structures the performance of the structural members is often governed by the serviceability limit state (SLS) associated with different load levels than applied in the ULS. The probability of serviceability failure is strongly dependent on the loading sequence and the time-dependent response of timber; therefore, a time-variant probabilistic model is recommended to estimate them properly. This study aims to investigate the time-dependent reliability for long-term deflections of timber office and residential floor beams according to the specifications of the Eurocodes. A simple creep model is used to calculate the deflections and Monte Carlo simulation is carried out to determine the reliability index. It was found that the creep factor and the suggested deflection limits given in Eurocode 5 might not be appropriate to achieve the expected target reliabilities. To obtain a more consistent reliability, more suitable values for the mentioned parameters were suggested. However, the primary aim was to present a framework to determine appropriate deflection limits for structural codes.

  • 22.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    Lund University, Sweden ; Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lenk, Peter
    Arup, UK.
    Behavior of load-bearing glass at elevated temperature2018In: ce/papers, ISSN 2509-7075, Vol. 2, no 5-6, p. 533-540Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT The use of glass as a structural material has increased in the built environment over the last decades. Despite the large number of research projects and studies, it still poses difficulties in structural design. This particularly applies to the behaviour of glass in fire and under elevated temperatures since the available data on temperature dependent mechanical and thermal properties of glass is still limited. This contribution provides a brief overview of material properties of glass at elevated temperature and elaborates on current requirements for the fire safety included in standards.

  • 23.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Pursiainen, Christer
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Bjarte, Rød
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    On the contribution of technological concepts to the resilience of bridges as critical infrastructure assets2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, 2016, p. 975-982Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current paper reports about the progress in the ongoing European project IMPROVER (Improved risk evaluation and implementation of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure), in which a fundamental part is devoted to technological resilience concepts. Within the project a general methodology for resilience evaluation is developed, in which existing concepts in the field of structural engineering are aligned with non-technological domains (e.g. organizational and societal) contributing to resilience. A shift from protection to enhancing resilience leads to a shift in focus from traditional risk management towards crisis management. Some of these issues are exemplified here with the application on bridges as critical infrastructures.

  • 24.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden .
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Decision support for maintenance and upgrading of existing bridges2017In: IABSE Conference, Vancouver 2017: Engineering the Future - Report2017, IABSE, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering , 2017, p. 336-345Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maintenance of transportation infrastructure assets can be relatively expensive, since it does not traffic only include the direct cost of interventions, but also the indirect consequences of disruptions. To make optimal decisions about maintenance actions, including rehabilitation and upgrading, reliable information about the performance of existing structures is needed. However, obtaining such information might require significant efforts and can be done in various ways. The purpose of an ongoing Swedish research project BIG BRO is to develop a framework for a decision support methodology that can be used for implementing maintenance strategies for bridges on a rational basis. The present paper provides a brief overview about the project as well as describes some of the ongoing work

  • 25.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Decision support for bridge condition assessment2017In: SMAR 2017 Proceedings, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper presents the first steps of the development of a theoretical framework for a rational yet practical decision making process concerning the condition assessment of existing bridges in Sweden. The main focus is on how to choose the appropriate level of enhanced conditions assessment considering aspects of model sophistication, uncertainty consideration and knowledge content utilisation. A conceptual case study is presented exemplifying how the framework can be used to structure the assessment actions of a steel bridge subjected to fatigue deterioration.

  • 26.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Köhler, Jochen
    NTNU, Norway.
    Rational maintenance of timber bridges2017In: Conference proceedings, ICTB 2017. 3rd International Conference on Timber Bridges / [ed] Gustafsson, Anders; Pousette, Anna; Hagman, Olle; Ekevad, Mats, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper provides some ideas about how decisions concerning maintenance of timber bridges should be made in a rational way. First, a brief discussion is provided concerning the evolution of maintenance strategies in general and it is suggested that maintenance of timber bridges should follow a risk-based approach. Then the discussion moves on to the condition assessment of timber bridges with a main focus on inspection and monitoring. The use of non-destructive testing methods and structural health monitoring is highlighted with regard to collecting useful information for maintenance decisions. It is argued that the information collected, should be used in a Bayesian decision analysis framework, which is especially useful in quantifying to value of information and thus the worth of various inspection and monitoring alternatives.

  • 27.
    Honfi, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Leander, John
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Plos, Mario
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Zandi, Kamyab
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Carneiro, Erica
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Lechner, Thomas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Magnusson, Jonas
    NCC AB, Sweden.
    Gabrielsson, Henrik
    Tyréns AB, Sweden.
    Inspection and monitoring of bridges in Sweden2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview about recent research activities and current practice concerning inspection and monitoring of the structural performance of bridges and the related decision-making process. A brief review of common methods of collecting information on structural performance of bridges is presented, followed by a description of the use of the information collected in structural analysis and maintenance planning. An overview about the state of the art is given including recent scientific developments. Finally, the current Swedish practice for bridge management is presented.

  • 28.
    Ioannou, Ioanna
    et al.
    University College London, UK.
    Aspinall, Willy
    University College London, UK.
    Bouffier, Christian
    INERIS, France.
    Carreira, Elisabete
    INOV, Portugal.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik, Strukturer och Komponenter.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    DBI, Denmark.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Rosetto, Tiziana
    University College London, UK.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Teixeira, Rui
    DAS Divisão de Águas e Saneamento, Portugal.
    IMPROVER D2.1 Methodology for identifying hazard scenarios to assess  the resilience of critical infrastructure2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Critical infrastructure is exposed to a wide range of hazards, capable to disrupt its operations in various degrees. This raises the question of which hazard scenario an operator shall use to assess the resilience of their critical infrastructure asset. Various techniques aiming to prioritize the various risks are commonly used in the literature. This study proposed an 8-step methodology, which aims to rank the risks of pre-defined hazard scenarios by eliciting the opinions of the stakeholders through a structured expert elicitation technique termed paired comparison. The novelty of the proposed technique is its ability to quantify the degree of disagreement regarding the ranking order of the scenarios and thus to capture the uncertainty associated with these risks.

     

    The proposed methodology has been applied to four living labs, namely: the Oresund region, the port of Oslo, the A31 Highway in France and the potable water network in Barreiro. The applications aims to rank scenarios of natural and operational hazards according to their disaster- and emergency-risk. Despite the small number of participants, the results provide an excellent basis for further discussion regarding the most likely disaster or emergency risk scenarios. For most living labs, the ranking of the hazards using paired comparison was successful in identifying the scenarios associated with the highest risk. Overall, ranking the natural hazards according to their disaster- or emergency-risk has been associated with a higher degree of consensus than the ranking of the operational hazards reflecting on the higher complexity and perhaps the limited understanding of the later.

     

    In more detail, snow storm is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the A31 Highway. Similarly, earthquake is the hazard with the highest disaster risk for the water network in Barreiro. Three meteorological hazards ranked the highest for both the likelihood to occur and to cause disaster to the Øresund region. By contrast, the ranking of the hazards for the port of Oslo identified several scenarios with similar likelihood to cause disaster, which ranked very different in their likelihood to occur in the next 5 years. This raises question as to whether the most of least likely to occur scenarios is most suitable which can be answered in collaboration with the stakeholders.

     

    With regard to the operational hazards, the contamination of the water in the water source or the distribution network due to an accident at the high-risk industrial SEVECO operations has been identified as the single scenario with the highest risk of disaster for the water network in Barreiro. Three events including a multiple day strike and two accidents in the wet bulk terminal have been identified as having the highest disaster risk for the port of Oslo. By contrast, no operational hazards can be identified as having the highest risk of occurrence for the A31 highway and the Øresund region

  • 29.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Stripple, H.
    IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, Sweden.
    Prolca—treatment of uncertainty in infrastructure LCA2019In: Life-Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision - Proceedings of the 6th International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering, IALCCE 2018, CRC Press/Balkema , 2019, p. 2923-2930Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction, operation and maintenance of transportation infrastructure require energy and materials which impact the environment. Large infrastructure projects thus use resources intensively and leave a significant environmental footprint. To demonstrate and support the sustainability of such large-scale projects, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a common tool to evaluate environmental impacts in all stages of infrastructure life cycle, from raw material production through end-of-life management. However, the various phases of the assessment are all associated with uncertainties. If decisions are made without consideration of these uncertainties, they might be misleading and suboptimal. In this paper, results are presentedwhere variations associated with different parameters and tools for life cycle assessment have been considered using probabilistic methods. A categorization of common uncertainties in LCA is also included. The most influential parameters can be identified with sensitivity analysis methods, since for LCA with a large number of parameters it may be unreasonable to incorporate all in a probabilistic simulation. For a limited amount of influential variables, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to assess the effects of uncertainties on the results.A bridge has been used as a case study to find important aspects in infrastructure LCA. The results indicate that if the most influential parameters are considered as random variables, it is possible to estimate the uncertainty and increase the validity of the life cycle assessment.

  • 30.
    Kozlowski, Marcin
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology,Poland ; Lund University, Sweden.
    Lenk, Peter
    ARUP, UK.
    Dorn, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Structural Considerations on Timber-Glass Composites at Fire Scenarios2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on a recently developed concept, in which glass is combined with timber to provide post-breakage strength and ductility. This combination allows for good post-breakage performance and overall robustness of timber-glass composite beams and wall elements, which has been reported in several publications. The application of timber-glass elements in practice, however, raises important issues related to structural fire performance. The paper elaborates on this issue and provides general information about the behavior of glass, timber and adhesives at elevated temperatures and under fire conditions. Furthermore, it presents ideas and strategies developed for potential application of timber-glass composites in practical situations. The paper presents also initial results from an on-going research project on fire performance of timber-glass composites.

  • 31.
    Kozłowski, Marcin
    et al.
    Silesian University of Technology, Poland; Lund University, Sweden.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Numerical Analysis and 1D/2D Sensitivity Study for Monolithic and Laminated Structural Glass Elements under Thermal Exposure2018In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 8, article id E1447Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Glass is largely used in architectural and engineering applications (i.e., buildings and vehicles) as a structural material, especially in the form of laminated glass (LG) sections. To achieve adequate and controlled safety levels in these applications, the well-known temperature-dependent behavior of viscoelastic interlayers for LG sections should be properly accounted for during the design process. Furthermore, the materials' thermomechanical degradation with increases of temperature could severely affect the load-bearing performance of glass assemblies. In this context, uncoupled thermomechanical finite element (FE) numerical models could represent a robust tool and support for design engineers. Key input parameters and possible limits of the FE method, however, should be properly calibrated and assessed, so as to enable reliable estimations for the real behavior of glazing systems. In this paper, FE simulations are proposed for monolithic (MG) and LG specimens under radiant heating, based on one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) models. A special attention is focused on thermal effects, being representative of the first step for conventional uncoupled, thermomechanical analyses. Based on experimental results available in the literature, FE parametric studies are discussed, giving evidence of limits and issues due to several modeling assumptions. In particular, careful consideration is paid for various thermal material properties (conductivity, specific heat) and thermal boundaries (conductivity, emissivity), but also for other influencing parameters like the geometrical features of samples (thickness tolerances, cross-sectional properties, etc.), the composition of LG sections (interlayer type, thickness), the loading pattern (heat transfer distribution) and the presence of additional mechanical restraints (i.e., supports of different materials). Comparative FE results are hence critically discussed, highlighting the major effects of such influencing parameters.

  • 32.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Application of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure: the IMPROVER project2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 53-53Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Novel techniques and approaches for risk based application of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure: An introduction to the IMPROVER project2017In: Risk, Reliability and Safety: Innovating Theory and Practice - Proceedings of the 26th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2016, 2017, p. 2168-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of disasters and crises in Europe is char-acterised by a highly interconnected society–a society which is increasingly reliant on critical infrastructures providing services which are centralised, if not terri-torially then contextually. Through cascading failures through interdependent systems the indirect consequences of natural and man-made disasters may be more severe than expected.

  • 34.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Resilient infrastructures for resilient communities2017In: Proceedingsof the 12th International Conference on Structural Safety and Reliability: Safety,Reliability, Risk, Resilience and Sustainability of Structures andInfrastructure, 2017, p. 3155-3164Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Bygg och Mekanik.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    IMPROVER: Improved risk evaluation and application of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure2015In: Brandposten, no 53, p. 18-19Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Petersen, Laura
    EMSC Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre, France.
    Bjarte, Rød
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Pursiainen, Christer
    UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Application of resilience concepts to critical infrastructure in the IMPROVER project2016In: Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Resilience, 2016, p. 39-40Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Giannopoulos, Georgios
    European Commission Joint Research Centre, Italy.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Research Norway.
    Incorporation of resilience assessment in critical infrastructure risk assessment frameworks2017In: Safety and Reliability - Theory and Applications - Proceedings of the 27th European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2017, CRC Press/Balkema , 2017, p. 1031-1038Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of Critical Infrastructure (CI) resilience and its relationship with current Risk Assessment (RA) processes. It proposes a framework for resilience assessment of CI, which integrates the resilience paradigm into the RA process according to ISO 31000. The framework consists of three levels, namely (a) asset (focus on individual CI assets), (b) system (focus on dependencies between CI assets) and (c) national or regional (focus on societal aspects). It is applicable to individual CI or their combinations, accounting both for existing RA processes, for interdependencies and their effect on interconnected CI, while at the same time employing current, available resilience analysis tools and methodologies. This approach is also compatible with the current European guidelines for national RA applied by the EU Member States. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, London.

  • 38.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL, Sweden.
    Consideration of uncertainties in LCA for infrastructure using probabilistic methods2019In: Structure and Infrastructure Engineering, ISSN 1573-2479, E-ISSN 1744-8980, Vol. 15, no 6, p. 711-724Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction and usage of transport infrastructure are major causes of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. The effects of resource consumption and pollutant emissions are often quantified through Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models. All decisions made in infrastructure projects during the whole life cycle are afflicted by uncertainty, e.g. physical properties of materials or amount of pollutants emitted by certain processes. The pervasive role of uncertainty is reflected in LCA models, which therefore should consider uncertainty from various sources and provide a sound quantification of their effects. The aim of the work presented in this paper is to give an overview of different sources of uncertainty in LCA of infrastructure projects and to describe systematic methods to evaluate their influence on the results. The possibility of including uncertainty in a LCA-tool for infrastructure is presented, studying the sensitivity of the model output to the input parameters and two alternative approaches for propagation of uncertainty using two case studies. It is shown that, besides the influence of uncertainty in emission factors, other inputs such as material amounts and service life could contribute significantly to the variability of model output and has to be considered if reliable results are sought. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s).

  • 39.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Santandrea, Fabio
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL, Sweden.
    ProLCA—treatment of uncertainty in infrastructure LCA2018In: Life Cycle Analysis and Assessment in Civil Engineering: Towards an Integrated Vision, 2018, p. 2923-2930Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The construction, operation and maintenance of transportation infrastructure require energy and materials which impact the environment. Large infrastructure projects thus use resources intensively and leave a significant environmental footprint. To demonstrate and support the sustainability of such large-scale projects, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a common tool to evaluate environmental impacts in all stages of infrastructure life cycle, from raw material production through end-of-life management. However, the various phases of the assessment are all associated with uncertainties. If decisions are made without consideration of these uncertainties, they might be misleading and suboptimal. In this paper, results are presentedwhere variations associated with different parameters and tools for life cycle assessment have been considered using probabilistic methods. A categorization of common uncertainties in LCA is also included. The most influential parameters can be identified with sensitivity analysis methods, since for LCA with a large number of parameters it may be unreasonable to incorporate all in a probabilistic simulation. For a limited amount of influential variables, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to assess the effects of uncertainties on the results.A bridge has been used as a case study to find important aspects in infrastructure LCA. The results indicate that if the most influential parameters are considered as random variables, it is possible to estimate the uncertainty and increase the validity of the life cycle assessment.

  • 40.
    Larsson, Oskar
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stripple, Håkan
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    A probabilistic approach for handling uncertainty in infrastructure LCA2016In: IABSE Congress Stockholm 2016: Challenges in Design and Construction of an Innovative and Sustainable Built Environment, 2016, p. 1677-1685Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To demonstrate and support sustainability of large-scale infrastructure projects, life cycle assessment (LCA) has become a common tool used in the evaluation of environmental impact. However, LCA includes a number of phases, which are all associated with uncertainties. Decisions made without regard to these uncertainties may be suboptimal and/or misleading. The current paper discusses some important issues about how to deal with uncertainties in LCA. Two case studies are presented that shows the effect of including uncertainty in various parameters. The results show that a reduction in uncertainty due to manufacturing improvements can increase the reliability of the results significantly. It was also found that the uncertainty assumptions for parameters where data is not available have a large impact on the LCA-results.

  • 41.
    Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Björnsson, Ívar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Risk-based planning of assessment actions for fatigue life prediction2017In: procedia structural integrity, Vol. 5, p. 1221-1228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is vital to extend the service life of existing bridges as far as possible as a means for improved sustainability leading to reduced economic cost and resource consumption. This requirement is especially valid for bridges which are critical components of highly vulnerable infrastructure systems. Achieving this aim requires enhanced methods involving various actions and methods influencing different aspects of the assessment process. A framework is presented in this paper based on three common factors used to describe the assessment actions of existing bridges; (i) model sophistication, (ii) uncertainty consideration, and (iii) knowledge content. The framework elucidates the influence of different decisions on the assessment process and facilitates the planning of appropriate assessment actions. Furthermore, it provides a basic scheme for a risk-based decision analysis for determining suitable assessment actions or activities. A fatigue assessment of an existing bridge detail is used to demonstrate the application of the framework in practical cases.

  • 42.
    Leander, John
    et al.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    A decision support framework for fatigue assessment of steel bridges2018In: Engineering Failure Analysis, ISSN 1350-6307, E-ISSN 1873-1961, Vol. 91, p. 306-314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many bridges are approaching or have already passed their expected service life. For steel bridges, fatigue is often the decisive degradation phenomenon that theoretically puts restrictions on a continued use. At the same time, fatigue is also afflicted with large uncertainties on the resistance side as well as on the action effect side. An accurate assessment of the service life will require measures outside the governing regulations but understanding what steps to take and how to consider the outcome for decisions on interventions can be a difficult task for a non-expert. This paper presents possible assessment actions and a decision support framework for rational decisions on interventions to extend the theoretical service life of existing bridges. A case study of a critical railway bridge is incorporated to demonstrate the framework. The aim is to provide a tool for bridge managers on how to evaluate and procure different assessment actions.

  • 43.
    Lenk, Peter
    et al.
    Arup, UK.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Resilience, Damage Tolerance & Risk Analysis of a Structure Comprising Structural Glass2016In: Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2016, p. 639-646Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increased popularity of structural glass applications, questions about structural safety and risk associated with such applications to the general public shall be examined in detail. Often these types of applications are used in public or semi-public spaces thus they receive increased attention and the consequences of failure or underperformance are crucial. Further, a comprehensive, standardised methodology of designing glass structurally is still lacking. In this paper we will review resilient con-cepts currently adopted by engineers designing with structural glass to ensure that structural reliability and robustness criteria are met. This is especially challenging, since a well-established probabilistic basis, that is (at least partly) available for traditional construction materials, has not yet been devel-oped for structural glass. To ensure the consideration of a system and life-cycle perspective, opera-tional objectives, damage sensitivity and damage tolerance for possible load exposures during the design lifetime will be outlined.

  • 44.
    Melkunaite, Laura
    et al.
    Dansk Brand- og sikringsteknisk Institut (DBI).
    Alheib, Marwan
    INERIS.
    Baker, Greg
    SPFR.
    Cadete, Gonçalo
    INOV.
    Carreira, Elisabete
    INOV.
    Eriksson, Kerstin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gaspar, C.
    INOV.
    Gattinesi, Peter
    Joint Research Centre (JRC).
    Guay, Fanny
    Dansk Brand- og sikringsteknisk Institut (DBI).
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ioannou, Ioanna
    University College, London.
    Kinscher, J.
    INERIS.
    Lange, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Petersen, Laura
    EMSC (Euro-Mediterranean Seismological Centre).
    Reilly, Paul
    University of Sheffield.
    Rød, Bjarte
    The Arctic University of Norway.
    Salmon, Romuald
    INERIS.
    Stevenson, Rebecca
    University of Sheffield .
    Theocharidou, Marianthi
    Joint Research Centre (JRC).
    Utkin, A.
    INOV.
    IMPROVER Deliverable 1.1 International Survey: Improved risk evaluation and implementation of recilience concepts to critical infrastructure2016Report (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Nasr, A.
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Ivanov, O. L.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    A qualitative prioritization of the risks imposed on bridges due to climate change2019In: IABSE Symposium, Guimaraes 2019: Towards a Resilient Built Environment Risk and Asset Management - Report, International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) , 2019, p. 80-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and its impacts on infrastructures may seriously affect the functionality of societies. Despite the alarming potential consequences climate change pose, not enough effort has been directed towards averting these impacts or managing them in some other way (e.g. mitigation, reduction, etc.). Well-functioning infrastructure networks play a key role in societies’ resilience and their ability to cope with climate-induced hazards. Therefore, ensuring the efficient performance of infrastructure networks, even during climate related emergencies, is central to the resilience of societies in the face of climate change. At the heart of a resilient transportation infrastructure network lays robust bridge structures. This paper builds on previous work where the potential risks from climate change on bridges were surveyed. Here, a qualitative risk prioritization scheme for bridges to rank these risks is presented. The aim of this work is hence to provide a tool for determining which of these risks are more worthy of closer investigation. The suggested framework is based on the basic elements of risk; i.e. hazard, exposure, vulnerability, and consequences. Several indices reflecting these four components and their different characteristics are introduced. Subsequently, a method for ranking the different risks based on these indices is presented. This framework can be used to optimize investments in adapting bridges to climate change.

  • 46.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Larsson Ivanov, O.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI, Sweden.
    A review of the potential impacts of climate change on the safety and performance of bridges2019In: Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure, ISSN 2378-9689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTAn overabundance of evidence, both observational and from model projections, indicate that changes to the climate system are taking place at unprecedented rates. Although the magnitudes of these changes involve large uncertainties, the fact that our climate is changing is unequivocal. To ensure an unimpaired functionality of our societies,it is therefore of crucial importance to study the potential climate change impacts on infrastructure. Taking into account that bridges have a considerably long service life, it is of direct relevance to ascertain their reliable performance against climate change risks. This paper synthesizes the findings of over 190 research articles to identify the potential risks climate change may pose on bridges. Over 30 potential risks, supported by pertinent previous bridge damage (or failure) cases, are identified, categorized, and linked to the projected future climate changes. The identified risks can be used as a basis for future risk prioritization by bridge managers.

  • 47.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Towards a holistic prioritization of climate-change risks for bridges2019In: 13th International Conference on Applications of Statistics and Probability in Civil Engineering, ICASP13, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the projected changes in the climate include considerable uncertainties, especially with downscaling, there is irrefutable evidence that the climate is changing at an unprecedented and alarming rate. In recent studies, some of the potential climate-change risks on bridges have been identified. The sheer number of these potential risks provokes two questions. Firstly, for a certain risk of interest (e.g. increased scour rate) which bridges should be prioritized from an inventory of bridges? Secondly, for a specific bridge, which of these risks are more critical? This paper proposes a method that can be used for addressing these two questions while considering the uncertainties intrinsic to the problem. Although this paper focuses on addressing the first question, a discussion on how the proposed method can be used for answering the second is also presented. The suggested method is based on four risk components

  • 48.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Johansson, Jonas
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI Swedish Meteorological andHydrological Institute, Sweden.
    Klimatförändringars inverkan på broars säkerhet och prestanda : En översyn av potentiella effekter och anpassningsåtgärder2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår infrastruktur kommer att påverkas av klimatförändringar, både nu och i framtiden.För att kunna säkerställa infrastrukturens funktion och uppfylla de säkerhetskrav somfinns kommer det därför att krävas investeringar i anpassningsåtgärder. Men åtgärder börinte tas på utifrån bristfällig kunskap, det är därför väsentligt att i förväg kartlägga vilkatyper av påverkan som kan förväntas och vilka åtgärder som är rimliga att genomföra.Denna rapport sammanfattar resultat från studier av risker med klimatförändringar ochdess potentiella effekter på broar, då dessa konstruktioner kan komma att påverkas avolika ändringar i klimatet. I studierna har 243 forskningsartiklar och rapporter från helavärlden gåtts igenom för att identifiera potentiella risker för broar på grund av ändringari klimatet. Det bör nämnas att resultaten i rapporten inte är fokuserade på Sverige utanhar ett internationellt perspektiv; de flesta av de identifierade riskerna är dock relevantaför svenska förhållanden, medan andra är mer relevanta i andra delar av världen.Totalt har 31 olika risker identifierats och kategoriserats i sju olika huvudkategorier enligtföljande:• Beständighet (riskgrupp D),• Funktion (riskgrupp S),• Geoteknik (riskgrupp G),• Ökad belastning (riskgrupp I),• Olyckslaster (riskgrupp A),• Extrema naturhändelser (riskgrupp E)• Drift (riskgrupp O).

    Utöver dessa riskkategorier har även en kortare analys av samverkande händelser gjorts,dvs. händelser där två eller flera klimatfaktorer eller effekter samverkar och ger en störresammantagen effekt än om de inträffar var för sig. En avslutande del om möjligaanpassningsåtgärder har även inkluderats, där metoder funna i litteraturen för att hanterade olika riskerna som identifierats beskrivs.Den viktigaste slutsatsen i rapporten är att ett stort antal risker finns för broar.Föreliggande rapport bidrar därmed till att lyfta fram dessa risker och synliggöra desseffekter. De två klimatfaktorer som påverkar flest risker för broar är temperaturhöjningoch ökad eller minskad nederbörd, de kan individuellt eller kombinerat påverka 25 av de31 identifierade riskerna. Beroende på förutsättningarna för en specifik bro (dvs.geografiskt läge, platsegenskaper, konstruktivt system, etc.) varierar de potentiellaklimateffekterna och deras möjliga konsekvenser. En bedömning av sannolikheten för enviss risk att inträffa, eller en prioritering av de olika riskerna, tas därmed inte upp irapporten. Sådana mer detaljerade kontextspecifika studier pågår och kommer attredovisas framöver inom ramen för projektet.

  • 49.
    Nasr, Amro
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Larsson Ivanov, Oskar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björnsson, Ivar
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Johansson, J.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kjellström, E.
    SMHI, Sweden.
    Climate change impact on safety and performance of existing and future bridges2018In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Life-Cycle Civil Engineering (IALCCE 2018), 2018, p. 1735-1741Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent decades have seen an increased attention towards the threat of climate change to our built environment and not least our infrastructure. Accounting for the different ways in which potential climate change scenarios can affect our infrastructure is paramount in determining appropriate adaptation and risk management strategies. This paper presents the initial findings of a new research project which is concerned with establishing an improved management of the risks to our infrastructure, especially bridges, in light of a changing climate. In this paper, a preliminary survey of the climate change related risks on bridges is conducted. Timely consideration of these impacts is of utmost importance to ensure a satisfactory performance of our bridges in the future. The interplay between the different risks and how the occurrence of one risk may influence other risks is also briefly discussed. The future stages of the project are mentioned as well. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Swedish Transport Administration. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions in this work are those of the authors and are not necessarily in accordance with those of the Swedish Transport Administration.

  • 50.
    Nogal, Maria
    et al.
    Trinity College Dublin, Ireland.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Assessment of road traffic resilience assuming stochastic user behaviour2019In: Reliability Engineering & System Safety, ISSN 0951-8320, E-ISSN 1879-0836, Vol. 185, p. 72-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When assessing the resilience of road transport networks, users’ response should be considered as they represent the main capability of the system to adapt to changes when any disruptive event occurs and to recover afterwards. Given the variability in users’ response, it seems deterministic approaches might not be adequate to represent the real system performance, thus, a stochastic perspective is required. This paper presents a new approach to assess the resilience of a traffic network when suffering from a disruptive event, considering the stochastic behaviour of the users, where their decisions will be biased by their perception of the traffic conditions rather than by the actual conditions. This approach provides more realistic patterns than the deterministic approach, mainly in terms of recovery times. The real traffic network Luxembourg-Metz has been used to illustrate the approach.

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