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  • 1. Bertilsson, Jan
    et al.
    Barr, U.K.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Borch, E
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Normann, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Nielsen, T
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lindbom, Ingela
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Lundh, Åse
    Nilsson, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Salomon, Eva
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sonesson, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Åström, annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hållbara matvägar – referens- och lösningsscenarier för mjölkproduktion och framställning av konsumtionsmjölk och lagrad ost.2014Report (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Hagsten, Carin
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience. Lund University, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Paulsson, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nylander, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Composition and structure of high temperature dairy fouling2016In: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 7, p. 13-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fouling structure and composition is dependent on the product, but also on the heating process applied to it. The structure will have profound effect on the cleaning process and the down time in the production plant. Here, the structure of high temperature (137 °C) milk fouling has been investigated, which so far has not been sufficiently studied in a systematic way. This particular fouling has a high content of the mineral calcium phosphate and a relatively low concentration of protein. Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) reveals a crystalline structure of calcium phosphate in agreement to the chemical analysis of the bulk layer. Microscopic investigations visualize the heterogeneous structure and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) shows a spatial variation of the elements through the radius of the sample.

  • 3.
    Hagsten, Carin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Lund University, Sweden.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Gustafsson, Stefan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Loren, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Paulsson, Marie
    Lund University,Sweden.
    Nylander, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Structural and compositional changes during UHT fouling removal—Possible mechanisms of the cleaning process2019In: Food Structure, ISSN 2213-3291, Vol. 21, article id 100118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ultra-high temperature (UHT) treatment of milk forms a deposit or fouling in the processing equipment that is mineral-based with an enclosed protein network. This study addresses the fundamental mechanisms that control the removal of this deposit. For this purpose, the structural and compositional changes during the cleaning process have been studied. The structure analysis was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) on samples that were quenched at different stages of the cleaning process. It was found for acid cleaning that the mineral content is rapidly decreasing in the fouling layer as the cleaning continues, but there is still an intact protein structure with the similar thickness as the original fouling. For alkali cleaning, part of the protein structure was subsequently removed from the outside towards the stain-less steel as a function of time, while the mineral structure was mostly remaining. The break-up of the organic network structure, which likely involves depolymerization of protein aggregates, were found to control the cleaning efficiency. The weakening of the protein network facilitates the removal of the UHT fouling layer during the acid cleaning step and allow for an efficient cleaning cycle. The chemical reactions that occur within the fouling layer between the hydroxyl ions and the protein network was modeled according to a depolymerization reaction and a mechanistic model of the cleaning process is presented. © 2019

  • 4.
    Hagsten, Carin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience. Lund University, Sweden.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems, Sweden.
    Trägårdh, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Paulsson, Marie
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Nylander, Tommy
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Removal of UHT dairy fouling — An efficient cleaning process by optimizing the rate controlling alkaline cleaning step2019In: Food and Bioproducts Processing, ISSN 0960-3085, E-ISSN 1744-3571, Vol. 113, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A rigid mineral-based deposit, termed ultra-high temperature (UHT) fouling, is formed on heat exchanger surfaces during milk processing at 140 °C. The removal of this type of fouling is for the first time assessed using a laser triangulation sensor and a camera, to measure changes in the thickness and to visualize structural changes in the fouling in situ. The process was monitored during both the alkali and acid cleaning steps. There was no global swelling of the fouling layer during alkali cleaning under the investigated conditions. However, significant degradation of the protein network was observed, which affected the acid cleaning step and the efficiency of the cleaning process. We conclude that treatment with alkali is required to facilitate the removal of deposits with high mineral content during the acid cleaning step. The results have implications for optimizing the cleaning process so as to minimize energy expenditure, while ensuring efficient heat transfer and maintaining product quality.

  • 5.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Shaping of gelling biopolymer drops in an elongation flow2002In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 252, no 2, p. 297-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shaping, defined as deformation in combination with gel formation of gelatine and ?-carrageenan drops in an elongation flow, was studied. The focus was to investigate the possibility of shaping and fixating small drops in the diameter range 20 to 229 ?m. In the shaping progress and the influence of experimental properties, the viscosity, temperature, and flow of the deforming fluid were examined on the final drop shape. In the experiments a hot emulsion of an aqueous biopolymer solution in silicone oil was injected into cold silicone oil where a deforming elongation flow field existed. After injection, a temperature decrease in the drops resulted in a gel formation of the biopolymer and a fixation of the deformed drop in the flow. The shape was measured and the effect on the drop aspect ratio was determined by image analysis. Over the total drop diameter range, ?-carrageenan was more ellipsoid-shaped than gelatine, with a maximum aspect ratio of 6 compared to 4 for gelatine. For small drops, around 22 ?m, it is possible to shape ?-carrageenan, but for gelatine small drops tend to be unaffected. An increase in viscosity, temperature, and flow resulted in an increase in the final fixated shape of the drops. The differences in drop deformation between the biopolymers were explained by drop-viscosity/oil differences and differences in the kinetics of gel formation. The different gel formation kinetics resulted in a short, well-defined, shaping process for ?-carrageenan, while for gelatine the process was more complex, with both deformation and relaxation present at different stages. © 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  • 6.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Stading, Mats
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Aggregation, viscosity measurements and direct observation of protein coated latex particles under shear2001In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 139-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aggregation under shear, of latex particles coated with whey protein isolate was monitored, in a continuous phase with a complex behaviour in relation to temperature dependence and shear thinning. The monitoring was done with viscosity measurements and microscopy. An aggregating dispersion of whey coated polystyrene latex particles, salt, sucrose and gelatine was sheared in a rheometer at shear rates between 0.05 and 5 s-1. The viscosity was monitored as a function of time during a temperature increase from 30 to 60°C. The viscosity curves were interpreted with the aid of additional information from light microscopy micrographs. The aggregation was clearly visible as an increase in viscosity. Aggregation was observed to initiate at a temperature between 40 and 50°C. Unbound protein, i.e. protein not a part of particle coating, was found to be essential for the aggregation of latex particles. After aggregation, a shear thinning behaviour was detected. This was due to two phenomena: structural changes of the aggregates and shear thinning behaviour of the dispersion. The build-up of the aggregates was followed by direct observation in a confocal laser scanning microscope. A sequence of micrographs was taken, in an unstopped 3-D flow field generated in a four-roll mill, which showed the evolution of the size of the aggregates. The micrographs were in good agreement with the viscosity measurements. This showed that the four-roll mill and a confocal laser scanning microscope is a useful tool for studying aggregation in an undisturbed 3-D flow. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  • 7.
    Hamberg, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wohlwend, M.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Shapes and shaping of biopolymer drops in a hyperbolic flow2003In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 641-652Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shaping of drops in a model system based on ? -carrageenan-emulsion drops in the millimetre range in silicon oil has been studied. The drops were shaped by exposing them to drag forces in a hyperbolic flow, while their shape was fixed simultaneously by introducing gel formation of the biopolymer in the drop. The shape and the shaping process were studied and evaluated with image analysis of macrograph sequences of the shaping. The effect of process conditions, flow speed and cooling temperature on the final shape and shape progress was investigated as well as the effect of different ?-carrageenan drop characteristics, such as drop viscosity and gel strength. Drop viscosity was altered by addition of locust bean gum, LBG, and the gel strength was altered by addition of ions. The ?-carrageenan solutions in the drop were characterised by rheological investigations. With the same type of flow, different shapes could be achieved with small process changes and with high reproducibility. The fixation of the characteristic drop features, perimeter, area, Feret's X and Y, does not occur at the same time and position. For the different process parameters investigated, a change in speed affected the process in a similar way to a change in the viscosity ratio. This applies if the viscosity ratio is changed at a constant temperature, but if the change in the viscosity ratio is temperature-induced, the effect is different. The final shape of the produced drops could be graded into three classes, correlated to the position in the flow field where the drops were fixed. A shape map of the different drop shapes obtained was presented. © 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 8. Innings, F.
    et al.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tragardh, C.
    Dynamic modelling of the deformation of a drop in a four-roll mill2005In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 60, no 17, p. 4771-4779Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The deformation of a drop flowing along the centre streamline of a four-roll mill (4RM) has been investigated. The velocities and elongation rates along the centre streamline in the 4RM were measured using particle tracking velocimetry. The deformation and position of the deforming drops were photographed with a video camera. A dynamic, one-dimensional, analytical simulation model describing the drop deformation has been developed. The model is based on Taylor's [1964. International Congress on Applied Mechanics, vol. 11, 790-796] static conical drop shape model, but has been extended to include elliptic drops undergoing rapid deformation. The model was incorporated into a numerical scheme using Matlab and the drop deformation in the 4RM was simulated. The simulations were compared with the results of the experiments with the help of a dynamic Weber number incorporating the exact effect of the continuous phase stress on the deformation of the drop. With a dynamic Weber number of 0.42 the agreement between the experiments and the simulations along the whole deformation process was excellent for all three drop diameters studied. With this model the deformation of drops of all sizes in different elongation fields can be calculated, for example sub-micron-sized drops in a high-pressure homogeniser. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 9.
    Loren, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Measuring shapes for application in complex food structures2006In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 712-722Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The image analysis method of Fourier shape description is implemented to analyse shaped food microstructural entities, independent of their complexity, because entity shape is an important and nearly unexploited possibility for designing food material properties. The method is described in four steps: the accuracy of image acquisition, representation of the object outline, calculation of components and interpretation of the components, all focusing on colloidal food system applications. Three different common food systems are used to emphasise the possibilities that Fourier shape description offers for food structure design and food processing. Fourier shape measurements make it possible to quantify, present a typical shape and determine the distribution of shape independently of size of model food suspension consisting of complex shaped entities. This was done in an automatic and replicable way. The time evolution of entities structured in a flow field during model processing is analysed using Fourier shape descriptors. Graphs of time-dependent, low order single Fourier components allow control of the entity shape during processing. Differences in the shape of water domains in heterogeneous emulsions are quantified and classified on different length scales using a multivariate hypothesis test. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of particulate foods at high temperatures2017In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of particulate pumpable foods, designed and implemented at RISE Agrifood and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a particulate, viscous model food at high-temperature conditions at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the centre of the tube, and two cavities fed by TM120 modes that heat primarily in the tube periphery. In this paper, combined TM020 and TM120 tubular microwave heating is evaluated as an alternative to high-temperature short-time (HTST) processing for a high-concentrated particulate model product. Rapidness in heating of the product was evaluated after tubular microwave heating for different time-temperature conditions, corresponding to the required microbiological inactivation for a model product intended for storage at ambient conditions. Moreover, the effects on product quality of the microwave heated model soup were investigated in terms of texture, piece integrity and colour. Microstructural analysis was used to gain an understanding of the effects of heating at a microscopic scale. It was found that the microwave-assisted HTST system results in large process flexibility. Additionally, it offers advantages in product quality in terms of piece integrity and texture.

  • 11.
    Raaholt, Birgitta
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Isaksson, Sven
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Fhager, Andreas
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hamnerius, Yngve
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Continuous tubular microwave heating of homogeneous foods: evaluation of heating uniformity2016In: The Journal of microwave power and electromagnetic energy, ISSN 0832-7823, Vol. 50, no 1, p. 43-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A pilot-scale process for continuous in-flow microwave processing of foods, designed and implemented at SP Food and Bioscience, was evaluated for heat treatment of a homogeneous model food for high-temperature short-time (HTST) conditions, at constant total input microwave power, at 2450 MHz. The microwave system has three consecutive cavities, one excited by the TM020 microwave mode that heats primarily in the tube centre, and two TM120 mode cavities that heat primarily in the tube periphery. The temperature uniformity of the homogeneous model food after microwave heating is here evaluated in terms of spatial distribution, for different set-ups of input microwave power in each cavity and for different order of the placement of the cavities, while maintaining the total input microwave power. The microwave heating uniformity is evaluated, based on measured and calculated radial temperature profiles. Combined TM020 and TM120 heating was found to result in more uniform heating by means of spatial temperature uniformity over the tube cross section. Furthermore, appropriately selected microwave power distribution between the centre and periphery heating cavities results in a stable heating profile in the studied food, that differs only about 10 °C or less between highest and lowest average values directly after microwave heating.

  • 12.
    Sonesson, Ulf Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Lorentzon, Katarina
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Andersson, Annica
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Bertilsson, Jan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Brunius, Carl
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Emanuelsson, Margareta
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Göransson, Leif
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Stefan
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Hessle, Anna
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Kumm, Karl-Ivar
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Lundh, Åse
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Tim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Östergren, Karin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Salomon, Eva
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Sindhöj, Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Stenberg, Bo
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Stenberg, Maria
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Martin
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, JTI Institutet för Jordbruks- och Miljöteknik.
    Wall, Helena
    SLU Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Paths to a sustainable food sector: integrated design and LCA of future food supply chains: the case of pork production in Sweden2016In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 664-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To describe a more sustainable food sector, a supply chain approach is needed. Changing a supply chain inevitably means that various attributes of the product and its system will change. This project assumed this challenge and delivered detailed descriptions, life cycle assessment (LCA) evaluations, and consequence assessments of the supply chains of six commodities, i.e., milk, cheese, beef, pork, chicken, and bread, from a Swedish region. This paper presents results for the pork supply chain. Methods: In the project setup, experts on production along supply chains designed three scenarios for environmentally improved systems. These scenarios, i.e., the ecosystem, plant nutrients, and climate scenarios, were intended to address different clusters of environmental goals. The next step was to challenge these scenarios by considering their possible consequences for products and systems from the food safety, sensory quality, animal welfare, consumer appreciation, and (for primary production only) cost perspectives. This led to changes in production system design to prevent negative consequences. The final supply chains were quantified using LCA and were again assessed from the three perspectives. Results and discussion: The scenario design approach worked well, thoroughly and credibly describing the production systems. Assessment of consequences bolstered the credibility and quality of the systems and results. The LCA of pig production and smoked ham identified large potentials for improvement by implementing available knowledge: global warming potential (GWP) could be reduced 21–54 % and marine eutrophication by 14–45 %. The main reason for these improvements was improved productivity (approaching the best producers’ current performance), though dedicated measures were also important, resulting in increased nitrogen efficiency, more varied crop rotations for crop production and better production management, and improved animal health and manure management for animal production. Reduced post-farm wastage contributed as did reduced emissions from fertilizer production. Conclusions: The working approach applied was successful in integrating LCA research with food system production expertise to deliver results relevant to supply chain decision-makers. The consequence assessments brought considerable value to the project, giving its results greater credibility. By introducing constraints in the form of “no negative consequences and no increased costs,” the work was “guided” so that the scenario design avoided being hampered by too many opportunities.

  • 13.
    Walther, Bernhard
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Walkenström, Pernilla
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Formation of shaped drops in a fast continuous flow process2004In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 270, no 1, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop shaping, i.e., flow-induced deformation and fixation by gel formation, was studied under dynamic conditions in a fast continuous process for a water-in-oil system. The system consisted of sunflower oil with different surfactant concentrations (0.1-2% Admul Wol) and a 1.5% ?-carrageenan solution with different Na+ and K+ concentrations. The continuous phase flowed in a 10-mm-wide straight channel into which the dispersed phase was injected via a thin needle. A subsequent shaping channel with a width of 1 or 2 mm deformed the drops. Gel formation was induced by a temperature gradient between the continuous and dispersed phase. Drop sizes in the range 220-roughly 1000 ?m were produced at the needle tip by varying the ratio between the oil and carrageenan flow rate. A diffusion zone before the narrow channel allowed the surfactant to adsorb at the interface. In the elongation flow at the entrance of the shaping geometry, drops underwent initial elongation. In the narrow channel, the drops developed a parabolic shape within a residence time of 0.03-0.15 s. Choosing the correct parameter combinations made it possible to fix the deformation by gel formation within this time period. Shaped drops were shown to be functional. At a concentration of 25% in an emulsion, they increased the viscosity by about 15-20% compared to spherical drops even though 45% of the shaped drops had an aspect ratio of less than 1.2. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 14.
    Walther, Bernhard
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Tiemeyer, A.
    Hamberg, Lars
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Fischer, P.
    Windhab, E.J.
    Drop deformation dynamics and gel kinetics in a co-flowing water-in-oil system2005In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 286, no 1, p. 378-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Drop deformation and superimposed gel kinetics were studied in a fast continuous-flow process for a water-in-oil system. Highly monodisperse drops were generated in a double capillary and then deformed passing through a narrowing rectangular channel geometry. Nongelling deformation experiments were used to establish the process and compare it with existing theories. Thereafter, temperature induced drop gelation was included to study its effect on deformation and gel kinetics on short timescales and at high temperature gradients. The disperse phase was a ?-carrageenan solution with additional sodium and potassium ions for gelation experiments. Sunflower oil was used for the continuous phases. Nongelling experiments showed that shear forces are able to deform drops into ellipsoids. A comparison with the small deformation theory by Taylor was surprisingly good even when drop deformation and flow conditions were not in steady state. Superimposed gelation on the deformation process showed clearly the impact of the altered rheological properties of the dispersed and continuous phase. Deformation first increased on cooling the continuous phase until the onset of gel formation, where a pronounced decrease in deformation due to increasing droplet viscosity/viscoelasticity was observed. Drop deformation analyses were then used to detect differences in gelation kinetics at high cooling rate within process times as short as 1.8 s. © 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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