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  • 1.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Physical properties and Raman Spectroscopy of mixed alkali/alkaline earth silicate glassesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 2.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Möncke, Doris
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Kamitsos, Efstratios I.
    National Hellenic Research Foundation, Greece.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mixed alkali/alkaline earth-silicate glasses: Physical properties and structure by vibrational spectroscopy2019Ingår i: International Journal of Applied Glass Science, ISSN 2041-1286, Vol. 10, nr 3, s. 349-362Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we investigate the correlation of selected physical properties with structural changes in quaternary mixed modifier alkali/alkaline earth oxide silicate glass  systems,  focusing  either  on  the  mixed  alkali  effect  [(20−x)Na2O–xK2O– 10CaO–70SiO2 (x = 0, 5, 10, 15, 20)] or on the mixed alkaline earth effect [20Na2O– (10−y)CaO–yBaO–70SiO2 (y = 0, 5, 10)]. A maximum microhardness and packing density, as well as a minimum glass transition temperature were observed for mixed alkali glasses. The mixed alkaline earth glasses do not exhibit any clear extrema in any  of  the  properties  studied.  The  hardness  and  glass  transition  temperature  de-creases, while the density and molar volume increases with increasing BaO content. Raman spectroscopy showed an increase in the Q3 group compared to the Q2 and Q4 groups as the high field strength ions Na+ or Ca2+ are substituted by their low field strength analogs K+  or Ba2+. In the mixed alkali series, the high field strength ion Na+, seems to push the low field strength ion K+ into lower energy sites when present simultaneously, while such an effect is not apparent for the mixed alkaline earth glasses, where the far IR spectra of mixed glasses are equivalent to the weighted averages of the pure glasses.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-06-04 14:58
  • 3.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. Linneaus Univerrsity, Sweden.
    Ali, Sharafat
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik. University of Jena, Germany.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    University of Jena, Germany.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    X-ray and UV–Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu (I) and Cu (II) coordination environments in mixed alkali-lime-silicate glasses2019Ingår i: Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids: X, ISSN 2590-1591, Vol. 3, artikel-id 100029Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The local structures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) in (20-x)Na2O-xK2O-10CaO-70SiO2 glasses with a copper content of 0.4 mol% have been investigated by Cu K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Complementary data for Cu(II) was derived using UV–Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Indication for mainly linear two-fold coordination of the Cu+ ion was found by both EXAFS and XANES, but other coordination between Cu+ and O2– cannot be excluded. The Cu(I)-O bond lengths were found to be 1.79–1.83 ± 0.02 Å. EXAFS results showed that Cu(II) was mostly present in a Jahn-Teller distorted environment with oxygen, an octahedron with four shorter Cu(II)-O bonds and two longer in axial position. The equatorial bond lengths were found to be 1.89–1.91 ± 0.02 Å and the axial 2.20–2.24 ± 0.02 Å with no effect of the Jahn-Teller distortion of the octahedron when the glass composition was altered.

  • 4.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lagerbielke, Erika
    Linneus University, Sweden.
    ETERNAL GLASS. Rapport - studie om återvinning av glas2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    I vilken omfattning kan ökad återvinning av glas leda till minskad energianvändningoch minskade koldioxidutsläpp vid glasproduktion, minskad miljöpåverkan genomdeponi samt på lång sikt möjligen minskad brytning av icke-förnyelsebar naturråvara?

  • 5.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Improved mechanical properties and chemical durability by modifying the float glass composition and thermo-chemical strengthening for photovoltaic cover glass2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy where glass is an important material and have a significant impact on the efficiency of the photovoltaic (PV) module. The cover glass of PV-modules constitutes a large part of the total weight of the unit. In a recent Solar-ERA.NET project, LIMES (www.limes.nu), have we been aiming towards developing 1 mm thin glass for PV modules by improving the indentation mechanical properties and by investigating a novel thermo-chemical strengthening method.

    Starting from traditional soda-lime-silicate float composition different components was studied in a DoE fashion. The mechanical properties were studied using nano- and microindentation, the chemical durability by P98 analysis and weathering experiments. The findings resulted in a suggested composition for improving the properties of float glass by adding small amounts of zinc and titanium oxide as well as increasing the amount of aluminum and magnesium oxide. The components found to improve the chemical resistance were alumina, zirconia, zinc, lanthanum and titanium oxide. The surface hardness, crack- and scratch resistance were improved when magnesia was replaced with zinc oxide. When magnesia was replaced with titania, the hardness was increased.

    Some results from the thermo-chemical strengthening experiments will be presented. Heating and quenching in a reactive gas atmosphere using aluminum precursors have resulted in chemically modified surface in addition to the thermal strengthening.

  • 6.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Sharafat, Ali
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, Glafo Glasforskningsinstitutet. Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Wondraczek, Lothar
    Friedrich Schiller University of Jena, Otto Schott Institute of Materials Research.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET)..
    X-ray and UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy studies of the Cu(I) and Cu(II) coordination spheere in (mixed) alkali-lime-silicate glassesManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 7.
    Järn, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Mesoporous sol-gel based SiO2 thin films with ordered pore orientation as antireflective coatings on glass2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antireflective coatings on glass have increasing applications, on e.g. cover glass of PV modules, display glass, spectacle lenses or window glazing’s. Sol-gel derived mesoporous coatings can be tuned both in terms of porosity and thickness, thus allowing tuning of the refractive index. Additionally, the sol-gel approach is bottom-up, which facilitates easy upscaling. In the current work we present dip-coated mesoporous silica coatings of different pore orientation and film thickness prepared on microscope glass slides and silicon wafers. The silica coatings were derived from TEOS (tetraorthosilicates) mixed with ethanol and diluted HCl. Hexagonal and cubic pore ordering of the thin films with a pore size in the range of 5-10 nm were obtained. The thin films were characterized in terms of non-contact profilometry, stylus profilometry,  nanohardness, scratch resistance, UV-Vis-NIR transmittance and UV-Vis-NIR reflectance. The thicknesses of the studied films varied from 100 nm up to several hundreds of nm without jeopardizing the film homogeneity. All the mesoporous films exhibited higher transmittance than the uncoated glass substrate. The film with hexagonal pore orientation has a somewhat higher nanohardness than the cubic one, however,  no difference was found in the scratch resistance for the films with different pore orientations.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Andersson, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Sundberg, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lundstedt, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Sehati, Parisa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Stålhandske, Christina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Lätta Innovativa Material för Effektiva Solcellsmoduler (LIMES)2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utvinning av solenergi genom solceller är en lovande teknik för att öka andelen förnyelsebara energikällor både nu och i framtiden. Glas till solceller är en betydande del av kostnaden och en nödvändighet att utveckla för att öka livslängden och minska priset per utvunnen watt. I LIMES har man studerat dels att tillsätta optiskt aktiva komponenter som absorberar skadligt UV ljus och samtidigt konverterar det till synligt ljus som i sin tur kan konverteras till energi i solcellerna. Därmed är vinsten tvåfaldig, ökar både livslängden och effektiviteten med upp till 4%. Vidare har det studerats hur man kan optimera de mekaniska och kemiska egenskaperna av glas för att kunna öka den mekaniska och kemiska livslängden, detta genom att optimera glassammansättningen. Man har inom projektet visat att motstånd mot sprickbildning av en ny sammansättning ökar med en faktor 3 och att den kemiska resistensen ökar med en faktor 4. Termo-kemisk härdning av glas har demonstrerats i labskala som ger upphov till minst lika stor härdningsgrad samt ökar motstånd mot sprickbildning med en faktor 2. Det möjliggör användning av tunnare glas och därmed betydligt lättare solceller. Glasytans sammansättning modifieras signifikant genom att öka halten aluminiumoxid och det ger upphov till de förbättrade egenskaperna. Den termo-kemiska behandlingen ökar vattens kontaktvinkel mot glasytan vilket bidrar till ett självrengörande glas. Multifunktionella ytor på glas som är både antireflektiva och självrengörande har studerats genom två olika angreppssätt, nanostrukturerad ytmodifiering och porösa antireflektiva beläggningar med fotokatalytisk nedbrytningsförmåga. Nanostrukturerade glasytor ger upphov till en ökad ljusspridning och kan på så vis effektivt guida ner diffust ljus till solceller och samtidigt ändra vattens kontaktvinkel mot glaset. LIMES-koncepten har demonstrerats genom kvantitativa mätningar och tillverkande av små kiselsolcellsmoduler. Projektet har stått för att öka potentialen för kommersialisering ifrån TRL (Technology Readiness Level) nivå 2-4 till 4-6. Man undersöker i det närmaste hur man kan skala upp planglastillverkning för att kunna ta nästa steg mot kommersialisering.

  • 9.
    Ludvigsson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Leisner, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson Ersman, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Dyreklev, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Nilsson, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Norberg, Björn
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Malmros, Ingemar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Falk, Krister
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Clausén, Ulf
    Forserum Saftey Glass AB, Sweden.
    Laminated display based on printed electronics2016Ingår i: Engineered Transparency 2016: Glass in Architecture and Structural Engineering, 2016Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 10.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2019Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, s. 487-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80-110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 mu m underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5 degrees to 45 degrees due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

  • 11.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2018Ingår i: 12th International Conference on Coatings on Glass and Plastics (ICCG 12), 2018Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The LIMES project (Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency), a Solar-ERA.NET project, was a fruitful collaboration to optimize many different properties in state-of-the-art solar glasses for photovoltaic (PV) modules. Here, we present results related to the effectiveness of combining chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass in a simultaneous process. The treated glass surfaces gets a markedly increase of Al2O3, which in previous studies has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. Successful thermal strengthening and in-situ Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) have repeatedly been performed on 4 and 2 mm flat glasses. The strengthening level has been quantified using SCALP (Scattered Light Polariscope). The samples were found to have a surface compressive stress in the range of 85-110 MPa which is comparable to the level of conventional thermally strengthened safety glass. The surface mechanical properties of the samples have been investigated by means of nano/microindentation and the strength of glasses has been quantified by ring-on-ring method. The transparency of the samples after washing was characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy.

    The in-situ CVD thermally strengthened glasses gets an Al2O3 coated surface which exhibits increased crack resistance and increased scratch resistance as compared to traditionally thermally strengthened glass. The nanohardness for low loads, ≤ 1 mN, follow the order thermo-chemically strengthened glass > thermally strengthened glass > annealed float glass. The results of the strength tests show that the 2 mm thin glass were positively affected by the Al2O3 coating while the 4 mm did not show any significant change. The light transmittance of the treated glasses was not markedly reduced. In summary, this novel process show possibilities to increase specific properties, in this case surface mechanical properties, by simultaneous CVD and thermal strengthening.

  • 12.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Simultaneous chemical vapor deposition and thermal strengthening of glass2018Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 669, nr 1, s. 487-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the current paper we present a concept combining metal organic chemical vapor deposition with thermal strengthening process of flat glass. As the flat glass is heated to be thermally strengthened, which takes up to 20 minutes, there is an opportunity for performing a surface modification. We describe the application of transparent and amorphous Al2O3 thin films during the thermal strengthening process. Al2O3 was chosen due to the following desirable properties: increased surface mechanical properties and increased chemical durability, the latter has not been investigated in the current paper. The residual surface compressive stresses after performed strengthening of the coated glasses were quantified to be in the range of 80–110 MPa. The Al2O3 content in the surface was measured using the Surface Ablation Cell employed with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy and found to be at least doubled at the surface and having an increased Al2O3 content at least 0.5 μm underneath the glass surface. During the surface reaction, sodium is migrating to the surface giving a hazy salt layer on the glass which can easily be washed off with water. The applied coatings are transparent and provide increased surface hardness and crack resistance at low indentation loads. At higher indentation loads the interaction volume is larger and displays the same effect on the surface mechanical properties as for thermally strengthened glass. The contact angle with water compared to annealed float glass is significantly increased from 5° to 45° due to the different surface chemistry and surface topography.

    Publikationen är tillgänglig i fulltext från 2020-11-28 08:05
  • 13.
    Sundberg, Peter
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Grund Bäck, Lina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Orman, Robin
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Johnson, Simon R.
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Booth, Jonathan
    Johnson Matthey Technology Centre, UK.
    Karlsson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Novel thermo-chemical strengthening of glass for solar energy applications and its impact on the physical properties2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The LIMES project (Light Innovative Materials for Enhanced Solar Efficiency), a Solar-ERA.NET project, have been a fruitful collaboration project to optimize many different properties in state-of-the-art solar glasses for photovoltaic (PV) modules. Here, we present results related to the effectiveness of reactive gas strengthening and its improvement of the physical properties of thin glasses. Novel thermo-chemical strengthening has been created using reactive chemicals that react with the glass surface during the thermal strengthening process. The glass surface gets a markedly increase of Al2O3, which in previous studies has been shown to have a beneficial effect on the mechanical properties. Successful thermo-chemical strengthening of 4 and 2 mm glasses to a similar strengthening level have repeatedly been performed, polariscope images in Figure 1. The strengthening level has been quantified using SCALP (Scattered Light Polariscope) and were found to be in the range of 85-110 MPa of compressive stresses in the surface which are comparable to values for conventional thermally strengthened glass.

    The strength of the glasses was quantified using the ring-on-ring method and the surface mechanical properties were evaluated by means of nano/microindentation. UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements have also been performed.

    Results for the ring-on-ring tests show that the 2 mm thin glass were positively affected by the while 4 mm did not show any significant change as compared to thermally strengthened. The thermo-chemically strengthened glasses have a significantly higher crack resistance than both the reference float glass and the traditionally thermally strengthened glass. The hardness results show that for low loads, ≥1 mN, the hardness follow the order thermo-chemically strengthened glass > thermally strengthened glass > annealed float glass. The scratch resistance for thermo-chemically strengthened glass is increased as compared to ordinary float glass. In addition, the transmission is not markedly reduced.

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