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  • 1.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Assessment of the environmental impact of warehouse fires and fire service response2017In: Fire and Materials 2017: 15th International Conference, London, UK: Interscience Communications, 2017, p. 433-442Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fire Impact Tool- Measuring the impact of fire suppression operations on the environment2021In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, article id 103071Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden the responsibility for environmental damage when emergency responders are called to an incident is increasingly focussing on the responders. The problem is that most incident response personnel do not have the training and expertise to assess the environmental consequences of their suppression operations. The Fire Impact Tool was developed for training responders about how fire effluents and suppression media affect air, surface/groundwater and soil. The tool has three interdependent parts: fire models (for vehicles and enclosures), an environmental risk assessment (ERA) model for local impacts, and a life cycle assessment (LCA) model for global impacts. Users can create two scenarios that are compared with a reference case in which responders arrive at the incident and prevent the fire from spreading beyond the vehicle or enclosure but do not suppress the fire. The Fire Impact Tool is not intended for use during an actual fire incident. This work does not answer every question for every possible fire scenario, but it does provide a framework for deeper, broader, more comprehensive training and pre-planning. This is a necessary step toward a future in which responders are prepared to make informed decisions about firefighting strategies and tactics that include environmental consequences.

  • 3.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    McNamee, Robert
    Brandskyddslaget, Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Vilic, Azra
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Measuring the impact of fire on the environment (Fire Impact Tool, version 1): Project report and user manual2019Report (Other academic)
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  • 4.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stahl, Selim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 32-32Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Amon, Francine
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Stahl, Selim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tomida, Mai
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
    Meacham, Brian
    Worcester Polytechnic Institute.
    Development of an Environmental and Economic Assessment Tool (Enveco Tool) for Fire Events2016Book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Bleye, Jaime
    Centro de Seguridad Marítima Integral Jovellanos, Spain.
    Fire suppression and manual firefighting of batteryelectric vehicle fires on ro-ro ships2023In: Proceedings of Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles, 2023, p. 107-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of electric vehicles has raised a concern about firefighting measures including water spray fire suppression systems (often denoted “drencher systems”) and tactics and equipment used for manual firefighting on ro-ro cargo and ro-ro passenger ships. A test series involving testing of two pairs of geometrically similar internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEV’s) and battery electric vehicles (BEV’s) under as equal test conditions as possible were conducted to investigate the performance efficiency of the drencher system. In addition, manual firefighting equipment and tactics was evaluated on three BEV fire tests. It is concluded that a fire in the two types of vehicles is different but share similarities. However, a fire in a BEV does not seem to be more challenging than a fire in an ICEV for the drencher system design given in current international recommendations. Similarly, there are common (e.g., handheld fire extinguishers and hoses) and new (e.g., fire blanket and water-cooling device) manual firefighting equipment that effectively can be used to control or limit a BEV fire.

  • 7.
    Burgén, Julia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Safe and Suitable Firefighting2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The level of protection for personal protective equipment (PPE) in firefighting is important for Swedish shipowners; they want to be sure that the equipment they provide is sufficiently safe for the types of fires that can occur onboard. Shipowners also want to be updated on risks related to the carriage of alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs). Safety products and equipment used onboard ships with a European flag must be certified in accordance with the Marine Equipment Directive (MED) and follow the regulations in the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS). For fire suits, this means that they must be certified according to one of three standards listed in MED. Two of these standards cover suits used in special cases, with very intense radiant heat, and should only be worn for short periods. The third standard, EN 469, is the same standard that is referred to the PPE Regulation 2016/42, making EN 469-approved fire suits used among European firefighters ashore. However, EN 469 contains two different performance levels where the lower level is not suitable for protection against risks encountered when fighting fires in enclosures. Based on a user study and a risk assessment for AFVs, a set of suggested changes to MED and SOLAS were prepared, together with a set of recommendations for operators that were found important but not subject for regulations. A ready-to-use quick guide, containing the most important results, has been developed for operators.

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  • 8.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Evaluation of Road Tunnel Fire Safety and Risk2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 217-228Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to help a decision maker to decide whether a road tunnel is safe enough with respect to fire safety. Safety objectives as well as societal, ethical and political objectives are identified for the decision. It is argued that most uni-directional tunnels that comply with minimum EC requirements, with a longitudinal ventilation system along the traffic flow fails safely in the event of fire. Catastrophic fires should not be an issue, even for a risk averse decision maker. Considering the issue of fairness the tunnel is argued to be safe enough, and resources are either better used elsewhere or should be allocated so that the utility is maximized. For high-risk bi-directional tunnels, catastrophic fires could be an issue, in particular if there is no separate emergency pathway. Then a risk aversive decision maker may take extra safety measures against such fires. A risk neutral decision maker would allocate resources so that the utility is maximized. Road tunnel regulation should set minimum requirements rather than cautionary requirements and allow for a probabilistic approach.

  • 9.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Evaluation of road tunnel fire safety and risk: How safe is safe enough?2016In: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, p. 41-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Policyutveckling av riskhantering för återvinning av avfall2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden and the EU today have high expectations and goals for a circular economy. In several areas, however, there is a large gap between these goals and how recycling decisions are handled in practice. A previous RE:Source project in 2019 identified several overarching principles and factors for recycling waste decisions (Gehandler & Millgård, 2020). This study is a continuation and argues that ambiguity is an important factor in reducing the gap between political goals and recycling in practice. Ambiguity is partly about the interpretation and application of laws and concepts such as what is waste or product, and about how risks and benefits should be valued.

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  • 11.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Risks with hydrogen in underground facilities2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    RISE has previously studied alternative fuels, such as batteries and gaseous fuels including liquid and compressed hydrogen (GH2). Each fuel has its unique risks. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is a cryogenic fluid and is thus stored in cooled liquid form, which entails specific risks. The purpose of this report is to, based on the current state of research, map the risks of hydrogen in underground facilities in relation to conventional fuels and investigate which technical measures can be taken to reduce the risks. Unlike diesel, hydrogen (and for instance methane or gasoline) has such a low flash point that an emission can be ignited at normal temperature by a small ignition source. Hydrogen is also very buoyant, with strong diffusion and dispersion characteristics, accordingly it accumulates at high points in a subsurface environment. Hydrogen requires very low energy to ignite at or near stoichiometric mixing with air at around 30%. The lower flammability limit is, compared to other flammable fuel/air mixtures high at around 4%, which means that many smaller releases in ventilated spaces will be too lean. Explosions would require a higher hydrogen concentration, above 8% or more. In subsurface environments, containment contributes to a higher increase in pressure, as well as an increased risk of explosion for both GH2 and LH2. The handling of hydrogen underground can therefore be seen as problematic. When it comes to hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, however, there are safety measures to achieve equivalent safety with conventional vehicles. For example, the shut-off valve (mandatory in regulation) on each tank that reduces the risk of leakage, and through the development of explosion-free composite tanks (not mandatory in regulation) in the event of fire that provide a less dangerous fire scenario than a diesel or gasoline tank in case of fire. When it finally comes to transporting hydrogen, pipelines are the long-term sustainable (and safe) alternative. Transport of compressed hydrogen gives a low amount of gas per trailer and entails relatively higher risks than CNG underground, for example in tunnels. The usage of liquid hydrogen, so far, has an impressive safety record, events like BLEVE or fireballs appear to be rare. The transport of liquid hydrogen provides a larger amount of hydrogen per trailer (than for compressed hydrogen) with a relatively lower risk than, for example, LNG in the open, but a slightly higher risk for explosion of accumulated gas compared to GH2 in enclosed spaces. The safety requirements for transport of compressed hydrogen are less stringent than for road vehicles, e.g., with regard to shut-off valves and melt-fuses and could be improved. Several risk mitigation measures for tunnels and other underground facilities have been identified.

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  • 12.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Road tunnel fire safety and risk: a review2015In: Fire Science Reviews, ISSN 2193-0414, Vol. 4, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Smartare väg mot tunnelsäkerhet2012In: Brandposten, no 47, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Safety.
    The theoretical framework of fire safety design: Reflections and alternatives2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, p. 973-981Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to contribute to discussions and reflections upon the practice and theory of fire safety design. Are we reaching the results we want by the best available means? The theoretical framework of fire safety design is today restricted by a linear design process where mainly quantitative data and methods matters. A deterministic approach to safety ignores the decision-making context and considers each objective in isolation. Alternative methods for the fire safety design could view the design work as an iterative problem solving process between the designers and the stakeholders. Then decision making theory can be applied to solve the problem. In the iterative process key objectives are identified and the problem and its solutions are being reframed, creative inherently safer (cannot fail) and fail safe (forgiving to errors) alternatives are initially aimed at. Design should further embrace a function-centred view of the human-technology-structure system. A utilitarian evaluation that includes also qualitative factors can identify the best trade-offs between conflicting objectives. With a diversity of perspectives on fire safety design, the field of fire safety will be strengthened and be able to assist a rapidly changing world.

  • 15.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    The transportation of water reactive substances through road tunnels equipped with sprinkler system: A literature review2014Report (Refereed)
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  • 16.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Eymann, Loriane
    Ecole des mines d’Ales, France.
    Regeffe, Maxime
    Ecole des mines d’Ales, France.
    Limit-Based Fire Hazard Model for Evaluating Tunnel Life Safety2015In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 585-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the simple one-dimensional symmetry of a tunnel with a longitudinal ventilation flow, risk analysis often comprises resource intensive and complex calculations. The purpose of this article is to present a simple yet precise limit-based model for assessing the possibility for a safe tunnel evacuation. To estimate the model uncertainty, fire dynamics calculations were compared to experimental data. The calculations performed well compared to experimental test data, showing an average difference between 5 and 40% in predicting the time available for evacuation, when criteria for visibility, air temperature, CO, CO2 and O2 concentration and heat flux were calculated. For steadily growing fires, visibility showed a low sensitivity to variability in input parameters with a relative difference at 9% compared to experimental data. Due to several factors it was not possible to estimate the accuracy of HCN calculations. Visualizing the hazards in a time–distance diagram revealed visibility to be the key indicator for calculating ASET for a broad set of plausible input parameters. This resulted in a simple expression for calculating ASET and consequently a simple condition for evaluating life safety.

  • 17.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Principer och strategier för ventilation vid brand i undermarksanläggningar2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report describes different underground systems including mines and tunnels during construction (tunneling). The key factors that affect fire development in underground systems are described. Proposal and recommendations for ventilation strategies in case of fire are given. The report covers both fuel- and ventilation-controlled fires. In general, a minimal ventilation limits the fire growth and may even inert the fire through ascended smoke. A minimal ventilation also contributes to improved conditions for a first fire extinguishing attempt and evacuation.

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  • 18.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Requirements and verification methods of tunnel safety and design2012Report (Refereed)
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  • 19.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Funktionsbaserade krav och rekommendationer för brandsäkerhet i vägtunnlar (FKR-BV12)2012Report (Refereed)
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  • 20.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: Proposal of new Swedish framework2014In: Case Studies in Fire Safety, ISSN 2214-398X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 18-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains a proposal of new Swedish framework for performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety derived from Swedish and European regulation. The overall purpose of the guideline is to protect life, health, property, environment, and key societal functions from fire. The guideline is structured into five key groups of requirements: #1 Proper management and organisation, #2 to limit the generation and spread of fire and smoke, #3 to provide means for safe self-evacuation, #4 to provide means and safety for the rescue service, and #5 to ensure load-bearing capacity of the construction. Each group contains a hybrid of prescriptive requirements, performance-based requirements, and acceptable solutions. Prescriptive requirements must be fulfilled, however, it is the choice of the design team to either adopt the proposed acceptable solutions, or to design alternative solutions by verifying that performance-based requirements are satisfied. For verification of performance-based requirements through risk analysis the operational, epistemic, and aleatory uncertainties are considerable. Therefore, a scenario-based risk analysis with several specified input variables and methods is recommended for verification of #3 and #5. Indispensable complements are scenario exercises, emergency exercises and similar methods that validate the design and highlight organisational aspects. The proposed design guide has been developed by the authors together with the advisory group established for the work.

  • 21.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based design of road tunnel fire safety: proposal of new Swedish framework2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 205-214p. 205-214Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Performance-based requirements and recommendations for fire safety in road tunnels (FKR-BV12)2013Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Strömgren, Michael
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Stort behov av funktionsbaserade regler för tunnlar2016In: Brandposten, no 55, p. 26-26Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Risker med nya energibärare i vägtunnlar och underjordiska garage2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to environmental concern, policy goals for transportation aim at using renewable fuels. These include gaseous fuels such as motor gas, methane or hydrogen and electric vehicles. This research project focuses on a literature review to understand the emerging risks with alternative propellants in road tunnels and underground garages. Gaseous fuels and electric vehicles pose new risks compared to the liquid fuels that we are more used to. In particular this concerns gaseous fuels and the risk for pressure vessel explosion, and the release of toxic substances such as hydrogen fluoride from Li-ion batteries undergoing thermal runaway. Two workshops were organized to get feedback from stakeholders and to initiate discussions. Future research, risk reducing measures, rescue service guidance and changes of regulation and guidelines are discussed and proposed.

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  • 25.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Vylund, Lotta
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Risks associated with alternative fuels in road tunnels and underground garages2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to environmental considerations, much current transportation policy development is aimed at increasing usage of renewable energy sources. These include gaseous fuels such as LPG, methane, and hydrogen, along with electricity. This research project focused on a literature review that was intended to research the risks involved in using alternative fuels in road tunnels and underground garages. Gaseous fuels and electric vehicles pose new risks that we, due to our greater familiarity with liquid fuels, are unused to. The greatest of these relate to gaseous fuels and pressure-vessel explosions, and the release of toxic gases such as hydrogen fluoride from Li-ion batteries undergoing thermal runaway. Two workshops were organised to obtain feedback from stakeholders and initiate discussion regarding the issue. Future research, risk-reducing measures, rescue service guidance, and changes to regulations and guidelines are discussed and proposed in this report.

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    fulltext
  • 26.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    CNG vehicle containers exposed to local fires2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fuels with a high energy density have contributed to the development of modern communities. On the other hand, fuels contain energy that, during some conditions, can result in incidents, not least within transportation. CNG vehicles are designed according to safety standards of UNECE, including events such as fire. In case of a fire a thermally activated Pressure Relief Device (TPRD) should empty the container before a pressure vessel explosion potentially can occur. CNG tanks are according to UNECE regulation 110 tested against a 1.65 m long pan fire. However, local fires are not included in these tests. This report presents fire tests of CNG containers performed both with a UNECE compatible fire source and with a local fire source. Any pressure vessel explosion and jet flames were characterized for two different types of CNG containers, namely steel and composite. In five out of six tests the safety of the CNG containers prevailed also in the event of a local (0.24 m by 0.24 m) pan fire, meaning that no pressure vessel explosion occurred. In real vehicle fires, where the fire extends from its local characteristics to a more developed fire that expose the CNG containers to a larger extent, these tests support that TPRDs most likely will activate. The experience from running these test series call for that the fire source should be more accurately defined with regards to fuel and dimensions and a local fire should be included in the UNECE Regulation 110.

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    RISE CNG container fire tests
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    RISE CNG steel tank fire tests (3 cameras)
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    RISE CNG composite tank fire tests (3 cameras)
  • 27.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Madsen, Dan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Egardt, Erik
    MSB Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, Sweden.
    Tactical depressurization of hydrogen containers with civilian rifle and ammunition2022Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There can be situations, for example if gas containers have been damaged in a vehicle crash, when the fire and rescue service would like to depressurize the gas containers through shooting with a civilian rifle. Modern high-pressure hydrogen containers are designed for a working pressure of 700 bars. This means that they have a very thick and strong shell made of composite material. At the same time the fire and rescue service only have access to civilian rifles and ammunition that can be bought for hunting purposes. Thus, tactical and safe depressurization of hydrogen containers is a big challenge. RISE have, together with the Södra Älvsborgs Fire and Rescue Services (SÄRF), Swedish Civil Contingency Agency, and Lund University conducted shooting tests of gas tanks mounted on a hydrogen gas vehicle and three stand-alone hydrogen gas tanks. The shooting tests were conducted at Remmene shooting field in Sweden. Thirteen shooting tests with hydrogen tanks placed in favouarable positions were performed. Out of these, only four tests were succesful in puncturing the individual gas tank in a single shot. Furthermore, two unwanted events occurred; one rupture (after 7 shots) and two powerful jets (after 20 and one shot respectively). This shows that further development and research is required in order to develop a method to safely depressurize high pressure hydrogen tanks.

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  • 28.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lunds University, Sweden.
    Amon, Francine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety Research.
    Interaktiv Miljöbedömning vid Insats: IMI-verktyget2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Programmet ”IMI-verktyget” (se länk till höger) är utvecklat för att ge räddningstjänst, studenter och forskare ett verktyg för att öka kunskapen angående konsekvenserna av taktiska val vid respons till en brand, exemplifierad av några fordons- och rumsbränder.

    I rapporten till höger (”fulltext”) beskriver hur verktyget fungerar och innehåller också exempel på datorlabbar som skulle kunna genomföras inom en brandingenjörsutbildning eller räddningsledarutbildning.

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    fulltext
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    IMI-verktyget
  • 29.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Principles and policies for recycling decisions and risk management2020In: Recycling, E-ISSN 2313-4321, Vol. 5, no 3, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish recycling businesses argue that the Non-Toxic Environmental target gets too much weight and that resource efficiency gets too little focus, which results in decreased recycling. The purpose of this paper is to highlight different factors that recycling of waste decisions should consider, as well as contributing to a constructive discussion of the overall principles and policies for recycling. How recycling works in practice is explored based on nine interviews with stakeholders from the governmental agency level to recycling businesses. Theory with regards to ethics, risk, decision-making, governmental policy and laws is summarised. Finally, the discrepancy and connection between practice and theory is analysed. If recycling of waste is seen as a decision problem, the choice is between to recycle (in different ways) or not to recycle (i.e., energy recovery and/or landfill). Based on risk and decision theory, all relevant goals should be considered. This requires a broader problem framing when goals are in conflict. All parties agree that recycled and virgin material should be treated equally. From a higher policy perspective, it should then be demonstrated that any use of material (recycled and/or virgin) minimize environmental impact and promotes long-term sustainability. © 2020 by the authors.

  • 30.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    TUSC HANDBOK Brandskydd under byggtiden för tunnlar och andra undermarksanläggningar: Med exempel på risker och förslag på åtgärder2022 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ingen ska skadas eller drabbas av sjukdom på grund av sitt arbete. Detta ställer krav på genomtänkt utformning av brandskyddet och utrymningssäkerhet under byggtiden för tunnel eller andra undermarksanläggningar. Ett syfte med denna handbok är att tydliggöra vilka krav som ställs på brandskydd under byggtiden, samt ge exempel på vanliga brandrisker och förslag på hur dessa kan hanteras.

    Handboken vänder sig till aktörer, såsom byggherrar, projektörer, entreprenörer och byggarbetsmiljösamordnare, involverade i planering, projektering och byggnation av undermarksanläggningar. Med undermarksanläggning menas här väg-, järnväg-, vatten-, avlopps- kabel- och distributionstunnel, bergrum och slutförvar.  Handboken omfattar inte gruva, byggnader ovan mark, eller brandskydd i färdigställd anläggning.

    Handboken är avsedd att användas som vägledning och inspiration vid planering, projektering, genomförande, samt utbildning och övning med fokus på brandsäkerhet. 

    Klicka på länken ”TUSC Handbok” högst upp till höger för att öppna handboken. Strax under finns det en länk till en MS Power Point introduktion till handboken, ett övningsprotokoll och ett kommunikations material.

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    PPT_Introduktion
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    Övningsprotokoll
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    Communication material
    Download full text (pdf)
    TUSC Handbook
  • 31.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Millgård, Ulrika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport.
    Återvinning av avfall: Beslut och riskbedömning2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to highlight different factors that waste recycling decisions can consider, as well as contributing to a constructive discussion of goals and overall principles for waste recycling. The background of the project is that it has been shown that the recycling of construction material has decreased with the application of the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency's handbook (2010:1). One view that emerged from an evaluation of the handbook is that the non-toxic environmental target (“Giftfri miljö”) gets too much weight and that resource management gets too little focus. As the climate crisis becomes more acute, and since recycling in many cases reduces the climate impact, this limitation can be questioned. However, it is currently unclear how a non-toxic environment and resource efficiency should be balanced.A literature study has been carried out in two parts: 1) decision and risk management theory, and 2) ethics. The first part was aimed at providing theory about risk decisions and basic steps that should be included in a decision-making process. The second part of the literature study, ethics, presents theory of ethical aspects linked to decisions. Ethics is central because it has long sought answers to the question of how we should act.Furthermore, nine interviews have also been conducted with various stakeholders, from the governmental agency level to recyclers, to capture how waste recycling works in practice. From the interview result, the theme "The goal Non-toxic environment and the difficulties that can arise in its practical application" crystallized. Which was discussed further in a workshop. Invited to the workshop were mainly those who had been interviewed and had relevant roles for the chosen theme.If waste recycling is seen as a decision problem, the choice is between to recycle (in different ways) or not to recycle (ie. landfill, incineration or energy recovery). Based on decision theory, all the relevant goals should be considered. This is likely to require a broader perspective for more difficult cases, which includes environmental risks linked to the different alternatives.With a broader perspective, it is recognized that no alternative is risk-free. A multi-criteria analysis can weigh the various factors against each other to see what weighs most, which from the perspective of the environmental code is most reasonable, ie. provides the most environmental benefit. A broader perspective favours long-term sustainability and, in the long run, all environmental goals. On a higher level, recycled and virgin material should be treated equally. Similarly, from a circular perspective, it should be demonstrated that the choice of material (recycled and virgin) promotes long-term sustainability.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Olofsson, Anna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Hynynen, Jonna
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Andersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, System Transition and Service Innovation.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Huang, Chen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    BREND 2.0 - Fighting fires in new energy carriers on deck 2.02022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project BREND investigated risk with alternative fuel vehicles inside ro-ro spaces. BREND 2.0 is a continuation and has in particular investigated two of the major risks identified in BREND, namely the risk of toxic gases from electric vehicle fires and the risk of a pressure vessel explosion for fire exposed biogas or hydrogen vehicle tanks. Simulations of electric vehicle fires inside a ro-ro space based on real input fire data has been performed. Field experiments that investigate the conditions that can lead to pressure vessel explosion were made with fire exposed biogas and hydrogen tanks. Recommendations are given about how ro-ro space fires in alternative fuel vehicles, or indeed any vehicle fire, can be managed.

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    fulltext
  • 33.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Qualitative Risk Analysis of Dangerous Goods with Alternative Propellants2016In: Proceedings from the 4th International Conference on Fire in Vehicles - FIVE 2016, 2016, p. 247-248Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This qualitative risk analysis of dangerous goods transports with alternative propellants was ordered by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB). Scenario combinations consisted of five alternative fuels, six accident scenarios and five types of dangerous goods cargo. The alternative fuels were: methane, hydrogen, ethanol, methanol and dimethyl ether. The accident scenarios consisted of refuelling, fire in tire or engine, tunnel accident, road collision and sabotage of fuel tank. The dangerous goods were limited to: ammonium nitrate, petrol/diesel, methane, ethyl chloride, and EX/II cargo as defined in the ADR regulation. The main identified risks are due to the risk of pressure vessel explosion of gaseous fuels as it: 1) Threatens to detonate explosive load or ammonium nitrate. 2) Cause rescue service to take a defensive approach which will lead to larger consequences. Since there are sustainable liquid fuel alternatives such as bio diesel, this may be a better choice for dangerous goods transportation.

  • 34.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Wickström, Ulf
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Estimation of tunnel temperature downstream a tunnel fire considering time dependent wall heat losses2014In: Proceedings of Sixth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security., SP Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut , 2014, , p. 195-203Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Appel, Glenn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    Nyman, Hans
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Development of a test method for fire detection in road tunnels2015Report (Refereed)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 36.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Appel, Glenn
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Nyman, Hans
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Peter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Arvidson, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Lundström, Ulf
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Modig, Henric
    Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden.
    Test Method and Performance of Fire Detection Systems in Tunnels2016In: Proceedings from the 7th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security, 2016, p. 485-496Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a study carried out for the Swedish Transport Administration on fire detection in road tunnels is presented. Laboratory tests and numerous large-scale tests were carried out in order to verify a proposal for a test method for fire detection systems. The main aim was to investigate possible fire detector systems and to see if they could fulfil the requirement given by the Swedish Transport Administration to detect the fire within 90 seconds. The tests are presented as well as a recommendation for testing detection systems in Swedish road tunnels. In order to perform the fire test, pans of different sizes were tested in order to obtain a reasonable fire size. The method proposed requires the use of three 0.6 m diameter standard pans, each containing eight litres of 95 octane gasoline, and air flow velocities of 2 m/s and 6 m/s. It was found out that using only one 0.6 m pan is sufficient if early warning is required without identifying the position for the fire-fighting system.

  • 37.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Metoder för att testa dukar och membran i tunnlar och bergrum2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunnel and rock lining systems are used for drainage and icing protection. These systems can consist of any combination of concrete, metal, plastic or textile. The report summaries the available methods, both for testing and for installation. The large variation in both systems and test methods often make it difficult for constructors or designer to understand the importance of different methods. The report gives indication of what type of linings exists and how to ensure the fire safety of such systems. Fire safety properties can be verified in three different ways: #1 Full systems can be tested in full scale fire tests, #2 a section of the system can be tested in standardized furnace tests, or #3 plastic and/or textile membrane can be tested with regards to requirements on fire spread. It is suggested to require that a fire should not be able to propagate in the system. This can be verified with #3 above requiring class B, C or D according to EN 13501-1. If the lining system offers structural fire protection, it can be verified suing #2 above.

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    fulltext
  • 38.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    SP anordnade ISTSS tunnelkonferens i Montreal2016In: Brandposten, no 54, p. 12-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Ingason, Haukur
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    ISTSS Tunnelkonferens i Marseille2014In: Brandposten, no 50, p. 8-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Lönnermark, AndersRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Ingason, HaukurRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Proceedings from the Tenth International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This publication includes the Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS) held in Stavanger, Norway, April 26-28, 2023. The Proceedings include 45 papers and 16 posters. The papers were presented in 16 different sessions, i.e., Keynote sessions, Alternative Fuel Vehicle Safety, Risk Management & Explosion, Digitization, Explosion, Poster Corner, Ventilation 1&2, Fixed Fire Fighting Systems, Tenability and Evacuation, Emergency Management, Evacuation, Safety Management, Fire Dynamics and Resistance. Each day was opened by invited Keynote Speakers (in total five) addressing broad topics of pressing interest. The Keynote Speakers, selected as leaders in their field, consisted of Ove Njå (University of Stavanger, Norway), Vladimir Molkov (Ulster University, UK), Ulf Lundström (Swedish Transport Administration, Sweden), Mirjam Nelisse (TNO, The Netherlands), and Gunnar Jenssen (SINTEF, Norway). We are grateful that the keynote speakers were able to share their knowledge and expertise with the participants of the symposium.

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    Full text
  • 41. Nyman, Hans
    et al.
    Dittmer, Torkel
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Model scale tests of a single exit underground station2012Report (Refereed)
  • 42. Ochoterena, Raul
    et al.
    Gehandler, Jonatan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Branddynamik.
    Ingason, Haukur
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Extern detektering av brand på tåg i rörelse2013In: Brandposten, no 48, p. 9-Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Willstrand, Ola
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Gehandler, JonatanRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.Andersson, PetraRISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Proceedings from the Seventh International Conference on Fires in Vehicles: STAVANGER, NORWAY, APRIL 24-25, 20232023Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    These proceedings include papers and extended abstracts from the 7th International Conference on Fires in Vehicles – FIVE 2023, held in Stavanger, Norway, April 24-25, 2023. The proceedings include an overview of research and regulatory actions coupled to state-of-the-art knowledge on fire related issues in vehicles, such as passenger cars, buses, trucks and trains, or related infrastructure, such as car parks or vehicle transport at sea. Fires in transport systems are a challenge for fire experts. New fuels that are efficient and environmentally friendly are rapidly being introduced, with emphasis on high energy density batteries. This rapid development, however, introduces new fire risks not considered previously and we risk getting a situation where we do not have enough knowledge to tackle them. In this context FIVE represents an important forum for discussion of the fire problem and for exchange of ideas. Fire protection in road, rail, air, and sea transport is based on international regulations since vehicles cross borders and the safety requirements must be the same between countries. Therefore, understanding of safety and regulations must be developed internationally and the FIVE-conference has a significant role to play as a place to exchange knowledge. FIVE attracts researchers, operators, manufacturers, regulators, rescue services and other key stakeholders. Of particular value is the mix of expertise and the international participation in the conference. The conference is unique as it includes fires in different types of vehicles. In recognition of the fact that many of the fire problems faced by these vehicles are the same, the solutions to them can also be similar. In the proceedings you will find papers on vehicle fire development, bus fires, alternative fuel and electric vehicles, and car park fires. We are grateful to the renowned researchers and engineers presenting their work and to the keynote speakers setting the scene. We sincerely thank the scientific committee for their expert work in selecting papers for the conference.

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