Endre søk
Begrens søket
12 1 - 50 of 65
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Treff pr side
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sortering
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
  • Standard (Relevans)
  • Forfatter A-Ø
  • Forfatter Ø-A
  • Tittel A-Ø
  • Tittel Ø-A
  • Type publikasjon A-Ø
  • Type publikasjon Ø-A
  • Eldste først
  • Nyeste først
  • Skapad (Eldste først)
  • Skapad (Nyeste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Eldste først)
  • Senast uppdaterad (Nyeste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (tidligste først)
  • Disputationsdatum (siste først)
Merk
Maxantalet träffar du kan exportera från sökgränssnittet är 250. Vid större uttag använd dig av utsökningar.
  • 1.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Byström, Alexandra
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Försth, Michael
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Van Hees, Patrick
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och cirkulär ekonomi.
    Runefors, Marcus
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Innovativa elsystem i byggnader: konsekvenser för brandsäkerhet2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det sker en snabb teknikutveckling i den elektriska miljön i byggnader, framförallt i våra bostäder. Ett exempel är lokal produktion av el, där solcellsinstallationer blir alltmer populära. Sådan elproduktion medför även förändringar i övriga delar av byggnaders elektriska infrastruktur, såsom DC-nät och i vissa fall energilagring i batterisystem. Utvecklingen sker till stor del som ett svar på behovet av mer hållbara lösningar, ur ett växthuseffektperspektiv, för vår elförsörjning, och förstärks bland annat av statligt stöd och ökad tillgänglighet på marknaden.Ny elektrisk teknologi kan leda till ökad brandrisk och denna förstudie har haft som mål att undersöka denna problematik. Metoden har varit workshops med intressenter och experter inom området, intervjuer, samt litteraturstudier.Av de studerade områdena förefaller solcellsanläggningar skapa störst utmaningar i framtiden om inget görs. Detta beror dels på bristfälligt regelverk men även på att dessa system är distribuerade i byggnaderna med flera delar som kan orsaka brand och att delar är exponerade för utomhusklimat vilket får stora konsekvenser vad gäller uppkomst av fel.Brandsäkerheten i samhället har sett ur ett långt tidsperspektiv väsentligt förbättrats. Detta har huvudsakligen drivits fram med hjälp av ett förbättrat regelverk, som ofta inkluderat förbättrade provnings- och kvalificeringsmetoder. En generell observation i detta projekt är att regelverket inte hinner utvecklas i samma takt som tekniken. Detta är en ofta återkommande utmaning inom brandsäkerhet, men gäller speciellt för de teknikområden som behandlas i denna rapport där utvecklingen går mycket snabbt, och de ingående komponenterna nästan uteslutande har stor inneboende brandpotential. Rapporten konstaterar att för att skapa ett relevant regelverk behövs tillämpad forskning, så kallad prenormativ forskning, inom prioriterade områden för att besvara de frågor som ställs vid formulerandet av nya regler och standarder. Exempel på områden som bör prioriteras är 1) komplettering av det än så länge magra statistiska underlaget för bränder i solcellsinstallationer med olycksutredningar, och studier av redan befintliga olycksutredningar, 2) studier av branddynamiken i solcellsinstallationer, såväl byggnadsapplicerade som integrerade, och såväl tak- som fasadmonterade sådana, 3) studier av ljusbågars uppkomst och hur dessa kan undvikas, alternativt hur det kan undvikas att de ger upphov till bränder, 4) skapa underlag för säker installation av batterilager, samt 5) kvalitetssäkring av så kallade second-life batterier, dvs. begagnade batterier, som används i batterilager.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Boddaert, S.
    et al.
    CSTB, France .
    Bonomo, P
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Eder, G
    OFI, Austria .
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ishii, H
    LIXIL Corporation, Japan .
    Kim, J-T
    Kongju National University, Republic of Korea .
    Ko, Y
    National Research Council Canada, Canada .
    Kovacs, Peter
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Energi och resurser.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Olano, X
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Parolini, F
    SUPSI, Switzerland .
    Qi, D
    Université de Sherbrooke, Canada .
    Shabunko, V
    SERIS, Singapore .
    Slooff, L
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Valencia, D
    Tecnalia, Spain .
    Villa, S
    TNO, Netherlands .
    Wilson, H R
    Fraunhofer, Germany .
    Yang, R
    RMIT, Australia.
    Zang, Y
    RMIT, Australia.
    Fire safety of BIPV: International mapping of accredited and R&D facilities in the context of codes and standards 20232023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of Task 15 of the IEA Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to create an enabling framework to accelerate the penetration of BIPV products in the global market of renewables, resulting in an equal playing field for BIPV products, BAPV products and regular building envelope components, respecting mandatory issues, aesthetic issues, reliability issues, and financial issues.

    Subtask E of Task 15 is focused on pre-normative international research on BIPV characterisation methods and activity E.3 is dedicated to fire safety of BIPV modules and installations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway .
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    The effect of fire retardants on smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Building insulation products produced from renewable biomass is becoming increasingly common in buildings due to environmental lifecycle requirements. Biomass insulation products are combustible and can contribute to fires through flaming and smouldering combustion. Incidents have been reported where insufficient spacing between combustible insulation and heat-producing electrical appliances has led to smouldering and subsequent development of flaming fires. Insulation materials often contain fire retardants, though their performance with regard to smouldering fire is not well understood. [1, 2] This study investigates the temperature exposure needed to initiate self-sustaining smouldering fires in loose fill wood fibre building insulation, focusing on the effect of fire retardant content and fibre size. The study is a part of the EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires) project. The test set-up is shown in Fig 1a [3]. The tested material was 100 grams, 34 kg/m3 spruce wood fibre loose-fill insulation with 4 and 9 % added ammonium polyphosphate fire retardant. Tests with short, fine fibres (Fig 1b) were compared to testst with long, thin fibres. The sample was heated from below until a given temperature was obtained 20 mm above the heater. Temperature and mass loss measurements as well as visual observations of the residue after test (Fig 1c) were used to characterize the onset of self-sustained smouldering. An iterative process was used, with 5 to 8 tests per product. It was found that a high level (9 %) of fire retardant gave an onset of smoldering at lower temperatures (225 °C) compared to a low level (4 %) of fire retardant (290 °C). The lower onset temperature indicates that the insulation with the highest fire retardant content is more prone to smouldering, which is contradictory to the expected performance of the fire retardant. For the same fire retardant content, the onset of self-sustained smouldering combustion was obtained at lower temperatures in insulation materials with smaller fiber sizes than in insulation with larger fiber size (225 vs 280 °C). This study is indicative, the absolute temperatures relate to the given test set-up. Further studies should include a range of fire retardant types and content, to obtain knowledge on their effect on smouldering fires.

  • 4.
    Eidissen Jensen, Ulla
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. Stord/Haugesund University College, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Development of smouldering combustion in loose-fill wood fibre building insulation2016Inngår i: Book of Abstracts Nordic Fire & Safety Days 2016, 2016, s. 7-7Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Fernandez-Anez, N.
    et al.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Current Wildland Fire Patterns and Challenges in Europe: A Synthesis of National Perspectives2021Inngår i: Air, Soil and Water Research, E-ISSN 1178-6221, Vol. 14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in climate, land use, and land management impact the occurrence and severity of wildland fires in many parts of the world. This is particularly evident in Europe, where ongoing changes in land use have strongly modified fire patterns over the last decades. Although satellite data by the European Forest Fire Information System provide large-scale wildland fire statistics across European countries, there is still a crucial need to collect and summarize in-depth local analysis and understanding of the wildland fire condition and associated challenges across Europe. This article aims to provide a general overview of the current wildland fire patterns and challenges as perceived by national representatives, supplemented by national fire statistics (2009–2018) across Europe. For each of the 31 countries included, we present a perspective authored by scientists or practitioners from each respective country, representing a wide range of disciplines and cultural backgrounds. The authors were selected from members of the COST Action “Fire and the Earth System: Science & Society” funded by the European Commission with the aim to share knowledge and improve communication about wildland fire. Where relevant, a brief overview of key studies, particular wildland fire challenges a country is facing, and an overview of notable recent fire events are also presented. Key perceived challenges included (1) the lack of consistent and detailed records for wildland fire events, within and across countries, (2) an increase in wildland fires that pose a risk to properties and human life due to high population densities and sprawl into forested regions, and (3) the view that, irrespective of changes in management, climate change is likely to increase the frequency and impact of wildland fires in the coming decades. Addressing challenge (1) will not only be valuable in advancing national and pan-European wildland fire management strategies, but also in evaluating perceptions (2) and (3) against more robust quantitative evidence. © The Author(s) 2021.

  • 6.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Fighting flameless fires: Initiating and extinguishing self-sustainedsmoldering fires in wood pellets2018Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent domestic, environmental and industrial hazards. This flameless form of combustion is more easily initiated than flaming, and is also more persistent and difficult to extinguish. The growing demand for non-fossil fuels has increased the use of solid biofuels such as biomass. This represents a safety challenge, as biomass self-ignition can cause smoldering fires, flaming fires or explosions.

    Smoldering and extinguishment in granular biomass was studied experimentally. The set-up consisted of a cylindrical fuel container of steel with thermally insulated side walls. The container was closed at the bottom, open at the top and heated from below by a hot surface. Two types of wood pellets were used as fuel, with 0.75-1.5 kg samples.

    Logistic regression was used to determine the transition region between non-smoldering and self-sustained smoldering experiments, and to determine the influence of parameters. Duration of external heating was most important for initiation of smoldering. Sample height was also significant, while the type of wood pellet was near-significant and fuel container height was not.

    The susceptibility of smoldering to changes in air supply was studied. With a small gap at the bottom of the fuel bed, the increased air flow in the same direction as the initial smoldering front (forward air flow) caused a significantly more intense combustion compared to the normal set-up with opposed air flow.

    Heat extraction from the combustion was studied using a water-cooled copper pipe. Challenges with direct fuel-water contact (fuel swelling, water channeling and runoff) were thus avoided. Smoldering was extinguished in 7 of 15 cases where heat extraction was in the same range as the heat production from combustion. This is the first experimental proof-of-concept of cooling as an extinguishment method for smoldering fires.

    Marginal differences in heating and cooling separated smoldering from extinguished cases; the fuel bed was at a heating-cooling balance point. Lower cooling levels did not lead to extinguishment, but cooling caused more predictable smoldering, possibly delaying the most intense combustion. Also observed at the balance point were pulsating temperatures; a form of long-lived (hours), macroscopic synchronization not previously observed in smoldering fires.

    For practical applications, cooling could be feasible for prevention of temperature escalation from self-heating in industrial storage units. This study provides a first step towards improved fuel storage safety for biomass. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Mikalsen_DoctoralThesis_FightingFlamelessFires
  • 7.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Studie av synlighet til høytmonterte markeringsskilt i brannrøyk2015Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Durgun, Özum
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Systemomställning och tjänsteinnovation.
    Williams Portal, Natalie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Orosz, Katalin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Honfi, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Efficient emergency responses to vehicle collision, earthquake, snowfall, and flooding on highways and bridges: A review2020Inngår i: Journal of Emergency Management, ISSN 1543-5865, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 51-72Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This review article analyzes factors affecting emergency response to hazardous events on highways and their bridges, with focus on man-made and natural scenarios: heavy vehicle collision with a bridge, earthquake, heavy snowfall, and flooding. For each disaster scenario, selected historical events were compiled to determine influential factors and success criteria for efficient emergency response, both related to organizational and technical measures. This study constituted a part of a resilience management process, recently developed and demonstrated within the European Union (EU)-funded H2020 project IMPROVER and can be a useful approach in aiding operators of transportation infrastructure to improve their resilience to emergency incidents.

  • 9.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway.
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway.
    Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    I denne FRIC studien er den forebyggende effekten av Bjørnis for brannsikkerheten i norske husstander studert. Hovedkonklusjonen er at Bjørnis har ført til en tydelig og dokumenterbar forbedring av brannsikkerheten i norske hjem. Studien er utført som en del av prosjekt 4.3 Brannsikkerhetstiltak for boliger i FRIC, i samarbeid med Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis. Det er også et webinar på norsk og engelsk som presenterer studien, opptak av webinaret vil bli publisert her: https://fric.no/publikasjoner.

    | In this FRIC study, the effect of the fire mascot Bjørnis on the fire safety in Norwegian households is studied. The main conclusion is that Bjørnis has led to a clear and documentable improvement of the fire safety in Norwegian homes. This study is a part of project 4.3 Fire safety measures for dwellings in FRIC, in collaboration with the Bjørnis Foundation. There is also a webinar in Norwegian and English presenting the study, the webinar recording will be published at: https://fric.no/en/publications.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: Effekten av Bjørnis - Studie av effekten av Bjørnis på brannsikkerheten i norske husstander2024Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (mp4)
    film
  • 11.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fredagsvik, Nora
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Nergård, Annette
    Stiftelsen Brannbamsen Bjørnis, Norway..
    Lie, Anniken
    Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste IKS, Norway..
    FRIC webinar: The effect of Bjørnis the fire mascot - The effect of Bjørnis for the fire safety in Norwegian households2024Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (mp4)
    film
  • 12.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Holmvaag, Ole Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    EBOB – Solcelleinstallasjoner på bygg: Brannspredning og sikkerhet for brannvesen2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    EBOB - Solar cell installations on buildings. Fire spread and safety for fire services.

    The aim of the project has been to answer the following four research questions: 1. How do wind speed and air gap size affect the fire development in the cavity between the solar cell module and the underlying roof structure, and how do these factors affect the extent of damage to the underlying roof structure? 2. How do solar cell modules affect a fire on a realistic, Norwegian, pitched roof? 3. What work is ongoing in Europe and internationally to developing test methods for fire technical documentation of photovoltaic modules, and how should this be implemented in Norway? 4. How should fire service personnel be secured in their work when the fire includes solar cell installation? In this research question, larger installations beyond residential houses and detached houses are also relevant, including larger buildings, flat roofs and BIPV. To answer research questions 1 and 2, a total of 29 experiments were performed with fire spread in the cavity behind solar cell modules on pitched roof surfaces. The experiments were performed at RISE Fire Research's laboratory in Trondheim in 2021. This main report (RISE report 2022:82) summarizes the entire project, and additional details from the experiments performed are given in a separate technical report (RISE report 2022:83). The main findings from the experiments are that solar cell modules mounted parallel to the roof surface on pitched roofs can affect the fire dynamics of a fire on the roof surface. It was found that both the length of the damaged area on the roof and the temperature rise inwards in the roof (below the chipboard) increased when the distance between the simulated solar cell module and the roof surface decreased. Furthermore, the findings indicate that there is a relation between the size of the gap between the roof surface and the solar cell module, and how large initial fire is needed for the fire to spread. A larger distance between the roof surface and the solar module requires a larger initial fire for the fire to spread. The temperature increase inwards in the roof structure was not large enough in the experiments performed to pose a danger of immediate fire spreading inwards in the structure. Work is ongoing internationally on the development of test methods for fire technical documentation of solar cell modules. This work has so far not resulted in new standards or procedures that can be implemented in Norway. Information has been found from various guidelines and reports on what equipment and expertise the fire service needs to secure their efforts. It is important that the fire service has sufficient knowledge about the working principle of a solar cell installation, so that they understand that parts of the installation can conduct electricity, even if the switch-off switch is activated. The fire service must also be given training in how to handle a fire in a building with a solar cell installation, as well as what protective equipment and tools are needed. The answers from the various fire services to a questionnaire show that solar cell installations rarely are included in the risk and vulnerability analyses (ROS analyses). As a consequence, they do not currently have good enough training and knowledge about handling fires in buildings with solar cell installations. The questionnaire also shows that it seems somewhat unclear to the fire service what responsibility they have in the event of a fire in solar cell installations. This should be clarified, and in cases where solar cell installations pose an increased risk, the fire service must be provided with resources so that they have the right equipment, the right competence, and the right staff to handle such fires.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag Fire and Rescue Service, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection, Norway.
    Communication of fire safety2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is made by Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). The purpose is to find the best ways to communicate knowledge about fire and fire safety to different target groups and to learn from those working with communication of fire safety in Norway today. These include local fire services, organizations like the Norwegian Fire Protection Association (Norsk Brannvernforening), insurance companies and local, regional and national authorities. The study poses three main questions. Information is collected through a survey which 40 Norwegian fire services answered, through dialogue with relevant stakeholdersin meetings and in a webinar, and through the authors’ own experiences in their own organizations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vold, Mari
    TBRT Trøndelag brann og redningstjeneste, Norway.
    Fjellanger, Inger Johanne
    DSB Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap, Norway.
    Kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet av brannforsknings- og innovasjonssenteret Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC). Målsettingen er å finne ut hvordan man best kan kommunisere kunnskap om brann og brannsikkerhet til ulike målgrupper, og å lære av de som driver med kommunikasjon av brannsikkerhet i Norge i dag. Dette inkluderer lokalt brannvesen, organisasjoner slik som Norsk Brannvernforening, forsikringsselskaper, samt lokale, regionale og nasjonale myndigheter. Tre hovedspørsmål er belyst. Informasjon er samlet inn gjennom en spørreundersøkelse som 40 norske brannvesen besvarte, gjennom dialog med relevante aktører i møter og på et webinar, samt fra forfatternes egne erfaringer med arbeid på temaet i sine organisasjoner.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Daaland Wormdahl, Espen
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Jet fires and cryogenic spills: How to document extreme industrial incidents2019Inngår i: Sixth Magdeburg Fire and Explosion Days (MBE2019) conference proceedings, , 2019Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial plants, such as oil platforms, refineries or onboard vessels carrying fuel, a rupture event of a pipeline could have dramatic consequences, as was demonstrated both in the Piper Alpha and Deepwater Horizon accidents. If surfaces are exposed to extreme conditions, both extreme cold (cryogenic spills) and extreme heat (jet fires), this can affect exposed surfaces, and can cause a domino effect of severe events.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Ranneklev, Sissel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Branner i avfallsanlegg2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste facilities represent a vital function in society, but fires occur regularly. The aim of this study is to provide a knowledge base on risks associated with fires in waste facilities, and to identify measures that can prevent fire and limit the extent of fire damage and environmental impact.

    Information was obtained through meetings with the waste industry, two inspections at waste facilities, a survey, a literature review and a review of the events registered in the fire and rescue services' reporting solution BRIS, as well as communication with other stakeholders. The project included land-based waste management; facilities for the reception and storage of waste (N=661), reception and storage of hazardous waste (N=250), and treatment facilities for hazardous waste (N=38). Waste treatment plants (such as biogas- or incinerator plants) as well as landfills are not included.

    High-risk waste types have been found to be general, residual waste, batteries (especially batteries not correctly sorted), electrical and electronic (EE) waste, as well as paper, paperboard and cardboard. General, residual waste stands out as an important focus area for reducing the overall fire risk at Norwegian waste facilities, both based on reported frequency of fire ignition and potential consequences with regard to equipment, downtime, environment and health. Waste categorized as "Hazardous Waste" does

    not stand out, and is not ranked in the highest risk category in this study, since many preventive and damage reducing measures have been implemented, and appear to work. Chapter 9 provides details on rating of fire risk.

    In the period January 2016 - May 2019, 141 fires were reported in waste facilities in Norway in BRIS. The total number of fires (including small, medium and large fires) is unknown, but is believed to be far higher. Common sources of ignition have been found to be composting (self-ignition), thermal runaway in batteries, heat friction by grinding, human activity and unknown cause.

    Regularly occurring fires outdoors, increased use of indoor storage and new types of waste such as lithium batteries lead to a risk that is difficult to manage, which can be a challenge with regard to insurance of waste facilities. Increased use of indoor storage is motivated by consideration for the environment and neighbours, but it may conflict with fire safety, especially because it restricts the access for the fire fighters and because of possible high heat stress on the load-bearing structure of the building housing the waste.

    Any major fire, regardless of the type of waste burned, could potentially lead to the release of pollutants into the air, water or soil. All smoke from fires can be harmful to humans and exposure to it must be taken seriously. There is a need for more knowledge and expertise in assessing emissions and environmental consequences in connection with firefighting. The use of extinguishing foam can reduce the consumption of extinguishing water, but the foam itself can contribute to contamination if discharged into water. A more detailed list of chemical content in the foam product data sheet is needed in order to be able to assess environmental concerns during use.

    2

    © RISE Research Institutes of Sweden

    Measures have been proposed for the design of more firesafe facilities, for waste management and for limiting the environmental impact during and after a fire. Key measures that should be prioritized are detection and monitoring, limiting the amounts of waste, tidiness, sufficient training, reception control, available and properly dimensioned fire extinguishing equipment, as well as solutions to collect extinguishing water in order to prevent the release of environmental toxins. It has not been possible to verify the effect of individual measures based on available data and statistics. The industry’s own overall assessment has been found to be consistent with experience-based observations found in other studies, and this has been found to be the best available information on effective measures. The responsibility for most of the measures lies with the owner of the facility or the business, and the focus should be on the use of documented technical solutions and the assessment of whether measures are appropriate and practicable at each facility. A fire risk assessment, locally adapted to the respective facility is important, as there are large variations in the types of waste handled, the size and the design of facilities, as well as other local conditions that differ between waste facilities in Norway. The fire service should strive to achieve a close dialogue and cooperation with the waste facilities. The authorities should facilitate better knowledge transfer and learning after fires, between different fire departments. The authorities should also, in collaboration with the industry, develop a national attitude campaign to avoid faulty battery sorting.

    Further work should study extinguishing techniques and extinguishing tactics that can limit the amount of water needed and that can be used during large-scale fires. Various detection and extinguishing solutions for use at waste facilities should be surveyed, assessed with regards to suitability and documented in cases where documentation is lacking. This should be made available on an openly accessible platform. There is also a need for further studies on the chemical composition of smoke from different types of waste fires, as well as studies on the extent and spread of fire smoke and environmental impacts from fires on water recipients.

    Increased fire safety at waste facilities could facilitate a better dialogue between industry and insurance providers by reducing potential financial losses. Good handling of fire risk in waste facilities will not only affect the plants themselves, but will also limit potential societal costs and consequences for health and the environment.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 17.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne C.
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Synchronized smoldering combustion2018Inngår i: Europhysics letters, ISSN 0295-5075, E-ISSN 1286-4854, Vol. 121, nr 5, s. 50002-p1-50002-p2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Synchronized, pulsating temperatures are observed experimentally in smoldering fires.The entire sample volume (1.8 l) participates in the pulsations (pulse period 2–4 h). The synchronylasts up to 25 h and is followed by a spontaneous transition to either disordered combustion orself-extinguishment. The synchronization is obtained when the fuel bed is cooled to the brink ofextinguishment. Calculations for adiabatic conditions, including heat generation from combustion(nonlinear in temperature) and heat storage in sample (linear in temperature), predict divergingsample temperature. Experimentally, heat losses to surroundings (linear in temperature) preventtemperatures to increase without bounds and lead to pulsations.

  • 18.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires: Results from the EMRIS project2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires represent a severe, but often overlooked danger to society. Smoldering causes major economic losses for industrial facilities with production, transport and storage of biomass and biofuels worldwide. The smoke from post-flaming residual burning on the forest floor and in peatlands represents a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. [1]To prevent initiation of smoldering, and facilitate safe, efficient and complete extinguishment, a better fundamental understanding of smoldering is key. This is the aim of the research project EMRIS (Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires). The consortium consists of 6 research institutes and universities in 5 countries, coordinated by Western Norway University of Applied Sciences in Haugesund, Norway. EMRIS started in 2015 and is now in its final stage. We will here present some points of interest from the project.Materials in the study include wood pellets, other biopellets, cotton, waste (wood chips), coal, wood fiber insulation and various pyrolysis products. Both experimental and modeling work has been done.Experimental work in small-scale has studied the sensitivity of smoldering ignition to a range of parameters [2], the impact of changes in air flow on the combustion [3], the effect of fire retardant content and fiber size [4], the transition from smoldering to flaming fire [5,6], early detection of smoldering [7]and heat extraction from the fuel bed with successfulextinguishment [8,9]. In medium scale experiments, initiationand propagation of reaction fronts have been studied [10]. TheEMRIS team also studies how particulate matter fromsmoldering fires can affect large scale phenomena, such ascloud formations, climate and public health.A cellular automaton model has been found to give a realistic representation of smoldering spread [11]. The method is based on a network of cells that mimic processes taking place in the material, which is easier to program and requires less computing power than traditional tools.The EMRIS project therefore represents progress within many different aspects of fire safety science. A continuation of the project is very much of interest, we welcome interested parties to discuss with us.

  • 19.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Extinguishing smoldering fires in wood pellets through cooling2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Extinguishing smoldering fires is a severe challenge for fire brigades, and has proven to be difficult even on the lab scale. In this study, the influence of a closed water cooling loop located within the fuel bed was investigated experimentally. Increasing the cooling led to a system less prone to intense combustion at an early stage, and eventually to complete extinguishment of self-sustained smoldering fires. Extinguishment was obtained in half of the cases with maximum cooling. Extinguishment occurred soon after smoldering had been established, giving a significant reduction in fuel consumption compared to the self-sustained smoldering fires that continued to complete burn-out.

  • 20.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Smoldering combustion- from pulsations to extinguishment2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering is known as a slow, but unpredictable form of combustion. In this study we have looked at how smoldering is affected by water cooling of the fuel bed without direct contact between fuel and water flow. The study is a part of the EMRIS project, and its findings have possible implications for preventing and suppressing fires in industrial storage units.

  • 21.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge. Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Krause, Ulrich
    Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Frette, Vidar
    Western Norway University of Applied Science, Norway.
    Extinguishing Smoldering Fires in Wood Pellets with Water Cooling: An Experimental Study2019Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 25, nr 1, s. 257-284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Smoldering fires in stored or transported solid biofuels are very difficult to extinguish. The current study has explored heat extraction from the combustion zone as a method for extinguishing such flameless fires. Heat extraction from the sample was made feasible using water flowing through a metal pipe located inside the sample. The fuel container was a steel cylinder with insulated side walls, open at the top and heated from below. Wood pellets (1.25 kg, 1.8 l) was used as fuel. Results from small-scale experiments provide proof-of-concept of cooling as a new extinguishing method for smoldering fires. During self-sustained smoldering with heat production in the range 0 W to 60 W, the heat loss to the cooling unit was in the range 5 W to 20 W. There were only marginal differences between non-extinguished and extinguished cases. Up-scaling is discussed, cooling could be feasible for preventing smoldering fires in silos.

  • 22.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Haraldseid, Ingunn
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Villacorta, Edmundo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hagen, Bjarne C.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Frette, Vidar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Emerging Risks from Smoldering Fires2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kjølsen Jernæs, Nina
    NKU, Norway.
    Moltubakk Kempton, Hanne Moltubakk Kempton
    Hovedorganisasjonen KA, Norway.
    Fire-protective textiles for cultural historic objects: Part 3 of the BraTeK project2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten beskriver den eksperimentelle studien i BraTeK (Brannbeskyttende tekstiler for kulturhistoriske objekter) prosjekets del 3. Det er utviklet en metode for småskala eksponering av strålevarme etterfulgt av vanneksponering for å imitere scenarioet med en kirkebrann som inkluderer slokking med vann. Seks tekstiler er evaluert med hensyn på deres varme- og vannbeskyttende egenskaper for beskyttelse av kulturhistoriske gjenstander. Den samlede konklusjonen for hvert tekstil viser at to ble rangert som gode, tre som middels og én som dårlig. Begge tekstilene som er rangert som gode har et aluminiumslag på eksponert side. Kombinert med resultatene fra BraTeK del 1 og 2 (NIKU-rapporter), kan konklusjonene fra denne rapporten støtte eiernes valg av brannverntekstiler.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 24.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Anez, Nieves
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne C
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Melia, Cristina S
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Holmvaag, Ole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. The Arctic University of Norway, Norway.
    Smouldering fires - scalability, simulation and application2021Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 25.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Lönnermark, Anders
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    McNamee, Margaret
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fires in waste facilities: Challenges and solutions from a Scandinavian perspective2021Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 120, artikkel-id 103023Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in waste facilities represent significant potential social, economic and environmental challenges. Although the awareness of fires in waste facilities and their consequences has increased in recent years, significant fire safety challenges remain. Fires in waste facilities in Norway and Sweden have been studied to make an overall fire safety assessment and propose measures for increased fire safety. Common ignition causes include self-heating, thermal runaway in batteries, friction, human activity, technical or electrical error and unfavourable combined storage. High-risk wastes include general, residual waste, batteries, electrical and electronics waste, and paper and cardboard. Frequent fires in outdoor storage, increasing indoor storage and new types of waste appear to result in an increased reluctance by insurance companies to work with waste facilities. Measures are suggested for fire safe facility design, operations, waste handling and storage, as well as actions to limit the consequences for the environment and the facility during and after a fire. These actions may prevent fires and minimise the impact of fires that do occur. Increased fire safety at waste facilities may foster a better dialogue between the industry and insurance providers by reducing the potential economic impacts, and limit potential social costs and environmental impacts. © 2020 The Authors

  • 26.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Hagen, Bjarne Christian
    HVL, Norway.
    FRIC webinar: Numerical simulation of smouldering fires2020Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Fulltekst (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC - General Introduction2022Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (mp4)
    fulltext
  • 28.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Glansberg, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Sesseng, Christian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brandt, Are W.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Energieffektive bygg og brannsikkerhet2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Stolen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fra bensinstasjon til energistasjon: Endring av brann- og eksplosjonssikkerhet2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From petrol station to multifuel energy station: Changes in fire and explosion safety

    A multifuel energy station is a publicly available station which offers refueling of traditional fossil fuels in combination with one or more alternative energy carriers, such as hydrogen or electric power to electric vehicles. The goal of this study is to survey how the transition from traditional petrol stations to multifuel energy stations affects the fire and explosion risk.

    Relevant research publications, regulations and guidelines have been studied. Four interviews with relevant stakeholders have been conducted, in addition to correspondence with other stakeholders. The collected information has been used to evaluate and provide a general overview of fire and explosion risk at multifuel energy stations. The scope of the project is limited, and some types of fueling facilities (in conjunction with supermarkets, bus- and industrial facilities), some types of safety challenges (intended acts of sabotage and/or terror), as well as transport of fuel to and from the station, are not included.

    Availability of different types of fuel in Norway was investigated and three types were selected to be in focus: power for electric vehicles, gaseous hydrogen, as well as hydrogen and methane in liquid form. The selection was based on expected future use, as well as compatibility with the goal of the National Transport Plan that all new vehicles sold from 2025 should be zero emission vehicles. Currently, the category zero emission vehicle includes only electric- and hydrogen vehicles.

    In facilities that handle flammable, self-reactive, pressurized and explosive substances there is a risk of unwanted incidents. When facilities with hazardous substances comply with current regulations, the risk associated with handling hazardous substances is considered not to be significant compared to other risks in society. When new energy carriers are added, it is central to understand how the transition from a traditional petrol station to a multifuel energy station will change the fire and explosion risk. Factors that will have an impact include: number and type of ignition sources, number of passenger vehicles and heavy transport vehicles at the station, amount of flammable substances, duration of stay for visitors, complexity of the facility, size of the safety distances, fire service’s extinguishing efforts, environmental impact, maintenance need etc. In addition, each energy carrier entails unique scenarios.

    By introducing charging stations at multifuel energy stations, additional ignition sources are introduced compared to a traditional petrol station, since the charger itself can be considered as a potential ignition source. The charger and connected car must be placed outside the Ex-zone in accordance with NEK400 (processed Norwegian edition of IEC 60364 series, the CENELEC HD 60364 series and some complementary national standards), in such a way that ignition of potential leaks from fossil fuels or other fuels under normal operation conditions is considered unlikely to occur. A potential danger in the use of rapid charging is electric arcing, which can arise due to poor connections and high electric effect. Electric arcs produce local hot spots, which in turn can contribute to fire ignition. The danger of electric arcs is reduced by, among others, communication between the vehicle and charger, which assures that no charging is taking place before establishing good contact between the two. The communication also assures that it is not possible to drive off with the charger still connected. There are requirements for weekly inspections of the charger and the charging cable, which will contribute to quick discovery and subsequent repair of faults and mechanical wear. Other safety measures to reduce risk include collision protection of the charger, and emergency stop switches that cut the power delivery to all chargers. There is a potential danger of personal injury by electric shock, but this is considered most relevant during installation of the charger and can be reduced to an acceptable level by utilizing certified personnel and limited access for unauthorized personnel. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with charging stations, it is important to take into account the added ignition sources, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors.

    Gaseous hydrogen has different characteristics than conventional fuels at a petrol station, which affect the risk (frequency and consequence). Gaseous hydrogen is flammable, burns quickly and may explode given the right conditions. Furthermore, the gas is stored in high pressure tanks, producing high mechanical rupture energy, and the transport capacity of gaseous hydrogen leads to an increased number of trucks delivering hydrogen, compared with fossil fuels. On the other hand, gaseous hydrogen is light weight and easily rises upwards and dilute. In the case of a fire the flame has low radiant heat and heating outside the flame itself is limited. Important safety measures are open facilities, safe connections for high pressure fueling, and facilitate for pressure relief in a safe direction by the use of valves and sectioning, so that the gas is led upwards in a safe direction in case of a leakage. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with gaseous hydrogen, it is important to take into account the explosion hazard, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors.

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid methane (LNG, LBG) are stored at very low temperatures and at a relatively low pressure. Leakages may result in cryogenic (very cold) leakages which may lead to personal injuries and embrittlement of materials such as steels. Critical installations which may be exposed to cryogenic leakages must be able to withstand these temperatures. In addition, physical boundaries to limit uncontrolled spreading of leakages should be established. Evaporation from tanks must be ventilated through safety valves. During a fire, the safety valves must not be drenched in extinguishing water, as they may freeze and seal. Leakages of liquid methane and liquid hydrogen will evaporate and form flammable and explosive gas clouds. Liquid hydrogen is kept at such a low temperature that uninsulated surfaces may cause air to condense and form liquid oxygen, which may give an intense fire or explosion when reacting with organic material. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with liquid hydrogen and liquid methane, it is important to take into account the cryogenic temperatures during storage and that it must be possible to ventilate off any gas formed by evaporation from a liquid leakage, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors.

    For the combination of more than one alternative energy carrier combined with fuels of a conventional petrol station, two areas of challenges have been identified: area challenges and cascade effects. Area challenges are due to the fact that risks to the surroundings must be evaluated based on all activity in the facility. When increasing the number of fueling systems within an area, the frequency of unwanted incidents at a given point in the facility is summarized (simply put). If two energy carriers are placed in too close proximity to each other, the risk can be disproportionately high. During construction, the fueling systems must be placed with sufficient space between them. In densely populated areas, shortage of space may limit the development. Cascade effects is a chain of events which starts small and grows larger, here due to an incident involving one energy carrier spreading to another. This may occur due to ignited liquid leakages which may flow to below a gas tank, or by explosion- or fire related damages to nearby installations due to shock waves, flying debris or flames. Good technical and organizational measures are important, such as sufficient training of personnel, follow-up and facility inspections, especially during start-up after installing a new energy carrier. The transition from a traditional petrol station to a multifuel energy station could not only give negative cascade effects, since sectionalizing of energy carriers, with lower storage volume per energy carrier, as well as physical separation between these, may give a reduction in the potential extent of damage of each facility. Apart from area challenges and cascade effects no other combination challenges, such a chemical interaction challenges, have been identified to potentially affect the fire and explosion risk.

    For future work it will be important to keep an eye on the development, nationally and internationally, since it is still too early to predict which energy carriers that will be most utilized in the future. If electric heavy transport (larger batteries and the need for fast charging with higher effect) become more common, it will be necessary to develop a plan and evaluate the risks of charging these at multifuel energy stations. For hydrogen there is a need for more knowledge on how the heat of a jet fire (ignited, pressurized leakage) affects impinged objects. There is also a general need for experimental and numerical research on liquid hydrogen and methane due to many knowledge gaps on the topic. During operation of the facilities and through potential unwanted incidents, new knowledge will be gained, and this knowledge must be utilized in order to update recommendations linked to the risk of fire and explosion in multifuel energy stations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 30.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    From petrol station to multifuel energy station: Changes in fire and explosion safety2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A multifuel energy station is a publicly available station which offers refueling of traditional fossil fuels in combination with one or more alternative energy carriers, such as hydrogen or electric power to electric vehicles. The goal of this study is to survey how the transition from traditional petrol stations to multifuel energy stations affects the fire and explosion risk. Relevant research publications, regulations and guidelines have been studied. Four interviews with relevant stakeholders have been conducted, in addition to correspondence with other stakeholders. The collected information has been used to evaluate and provide a general overview of fire and explosion risk at multifuel energy stations. The scope of the project is limited, and some types of fueling facilities (in conjunction with supermarkets, bus- and industrial facilities), some types of safety challenges (intended acts of sabotage and/or terror), as well as transport of fuel to and from the station, are not included. Availability of different types of fuel in Norway was investigated and three types were selected to be in focus: power for electric vehicles, gaseous hydrogen, as well as hydrogen and methane in liquid form. The selection was based on expected future use, as well as compatibility with the goal of the National Transport Plan that all new vehicles sold from 2025 should be zero emission vehicles. Currently, the category zero emission vehicle includes only electric- and hydrogen vehicles. In facilities that handle flammable, self-reactive, pressurized and explosive substances there is a risk of unwanted incidents. When facilities with hazardous substances comply with current regulations, the risk associated with handling hazardous substances is considered not to be significant compared to other risks in society. When new energy carriers are added, it is central to understand how the transition from a traditional petrol station to a multifuel energy station will change the fire and explosion risk. Factors that will have an impact include: number and type of ignition sources, number of passenger vehicles and heavy transport vehicles at the station, amount of flammable substances, duration of stay for visitors, complexity of the facility, size of the safety distances, fire service’s extinguishing efforts, environmental impact, maintenance need etc. In addition, each energy carrier entails unique scenarios. By introducing charging stations at multifuel energy stations, additional ignition sources are introduced compared to a traditional petrol station, since the charger itself can be considered as a potential ignition source. The charger and connected car must be placed outside the Ex-zone in accordance with NEK400 (processed Norwegian edition of IEC 60364 series, the CENELEC HD 60364 series and some complementary national standards), in such a way that ignition of potential leaks from fossil fuels or other fuels under normal operation conditions is considered unlikely to occur. A potential danger in the use of rapid charging is electric arcing, which can arise due to poor connections and high electric effect. Electric arcs produce local hot spots, which in turn can contribute to fire ignition. The danger of electric arcs is reduced by, among others, communication between the vehicle and charger, which assures that no charging is taking place before establishing good contact between the two. The communication also assures that it is not possible to drive off with the charger still connected. There are requirements for weekly inspections of the charger and the charging cable, which will contribute to quick discovery and subsequent repair of faults and mechanical wear. Other safety measures to reduce risk include collision protection of the charger, and emergency stop switches that cut the power delivery to all chargers. There is a potential danger of personal injury by electric shock, but this is considered most relevant during installation of the charger and can be reduced to an acceptable level by utilizing certified personnel and limited access for unauthorized personnel. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with charging stations, it is important to take into account the added ignition sources, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors. Gaseous hydrogen has different characteristics than conventional fuels at a petrol station, which affect the risk (frequency and consequence). Gaseous hydrogen is flammable, burns quickly and may explode given the right conditions. Furthermore, the gas is stored in high pressure tanks, producing high mechanical rupture energy, and the transport capacity of gaseous hydrogen leads to an increased number of trucks delivering hydrogen, compared with fossil fuels. On the other hand, gaseous hydrogen is light weight and easily rises upwards and dilute. In the case of a fire the flame has low radiant heat and heating outside the flame itself is limited. Important safety measures are open facilities, safe connections for high pressure fueling, and facilitate for pressure relief in a safe direction by the use of valves and sectioning, so that the gas is led upwards in a safe direction in case of a leakage. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with gaseous hydrogen, it is important to take into account the explosion hazard, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors. Liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid methane (LNG, LBG) are stored at very low temperatures and at a relatively low pressure. Leakages may result in cryogenic (very cold) leakages which may lead to personal injuries and embrittlement of materials such as steels. Critical installations which may be exposed to cryogenic leakages must be able to withstand these temperatures. In addition, physical boundaries to limit uncontrolled spreading of leakages should be established. Evaporation from tanks must be ventilated through safety valves. During a fire, the safety valves must not be drenched in extinguishing water, as they may freeze and seal. Leakages of liquid methane and liquid hydrogen will evaporate and form flammable and explosive gas clouds. Liquid hydrogen is kept at such a low temperature that uninsulated surfaces may cause air to condense and form liquid oxygen, which may give an intense fire or explosion when reacting with organic material. For risk assessments and risk evaluations of each individual facility with liquid hydrogen and liquid methane, it is important to take into account the cryogenic temperatures during storage and that it must be possible to ventilate off any gas formed by evaporation from a liquid leakage, as well as the other mentioned factors, in addition to facility specific factors. For the combination of more than one alternative energy carrier combined with fuels of a conventional petrol station, two areas of challenges have been identified: area challenges and cascading effects. Area challenges are due to the fact that risks to the surroundings must be evaluated based on all activity in the facility. When increasing the number of fueling systems within an area, the frequency of unwanted incidents at a given point in the facility is summarized (simply put). If two energy carriers are placed in too close proximity to each other, the risk can be disproportionately high. During construction, the fueling systems must be placed with sufficient space between them. In densely populated areas, shortage of space may limit the development. Cascading effects is a chain of events which starts small and grows larger, here due to an incident involving one energy carrier spreading to another. This may occur due to ignited liquid leakages which may flow to below a gas tank, or by explosion- or fire related damages to nearby installations due to shock waves, flying debris or flames. Good technical and organizational measures are important, such as sufficient training of personnel, follow-up and facility inspections, especially during start-up after installing a new energy carrier. The transition from a traditional petrol station to a multifuel energy station could not only give negative cascading effects, since sectionalizing of energy carriers, with lower storage volume per energy carrier, as well as physical separation between these, may give a reduction in the potential extent of damage of each facility. Apart from area challenges and cascading effects no other combination challenges, such a chemical interaction challenges, have been identified to potentially affect the fire and explosion risk. For future work it will be important to keep an eye on the development, nationally and internationally, since it is still too early to predict which energy carriers that will be most utilized in the future. If electric heavy transport (larger batteries and the need for fast charging with higher effect) become more common, it will be necessary to develop a plan and evaluate the risks of charging these at multifuel energy stations. For hydrogen there is a need for more knowledge on how the heat of a jet fire (ignited, pressurized leakage) affects impinged objects. There is also a general need for experimental and numerical research on liquid hydrogen and methane due to many knowledge gaps on the topic. During operation of the facilities and through potential unwanted incidents, new knowledge will be gained, and this knowledge must be utilized in order to update recommendations linked to the risk of fire and explosion in multifuel energy stations.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 31.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Rømning ved brann i litium-ion batteri i elsparkesykkel2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire evacuation during lithium-ion battery fires in electric scooters

    This study deals with escape in the event of a lithium-ion battery fire. The study is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK). The main objective is to evaluate the consequences of a thermal runaway in an electric scooter in an enclosed space in terms of the spread of gas and smoke from the battery and the potential to prevent escape via escape routes. The scenarios examined are representative of public buildings, schools, office buildings, and other buildings that require many people to escape via large open spaces (e.g., classrooms, open-plan offices) and corridors (escape routes). In addition to the experimental study, information about incidents involving fires in electric scooters in Bergen in recent years has been collected, and the Bergen Fire Service’s experiences from these incidents are presented. A total of 6 large-scale experiments were carried out with a fire in an electric scooter, 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 55 m2 large room corresponding to a classroom, and 3 of the experiments were carried out in a 15 m long corridor (38 m2 ). The ceiling height in the building was around 3 m. The concentrations of the gases CO2, CO, O2, HCl, HF, HCN, SO2, CH2O, NO and NO2 were measured in the experiments. The measurements are used to establish an experimental basis for evaluating whether and when critical gas values (according to ISO 13571:2012 "Lifethreatening components of fire") are achieved and thus lead to reduced ability to escape. The temperature change caused by the fire was measured at different heights in the room. In addition, video documentation is used to assess how the spread of smoke affects escape in a situation where there is a fire in an electric scooter in an escape route. The study has shown that a thermal runaway in a lithium-ion battery leads to a rapid fire development where the battery essentially bursts into flames, with jet fires and potential ejections of burning battery cells far away from where the fire started. The duration of this fire behavior with jet fires and flying debris was between 3 and 7 minutes. In the fire experiments, the emitted energy was not high enough to raise the room temperature to a critical level. Near the fire, however, there is a hazard of fire spread to other combustible materials in the room due to the behavior of the fire and high temperature of the jet flame. Ejection of burning battery cells poses a hazard of fire spread even to areas far away from the start location. Fires in an electric scooter battery or similar lithium-ion batteries can cause a rapid spread of smoke to the entire room. In the conducted experiments, the fire room was no longer smoke-free at the height of 1.9 m already after 1-2 minutes. Due to this rapid spread of smoke, visibility in the room will be affected after a short time and make escape more difficult. In the corridor, the smoke spread was relatively evenly distributed in height, while the smoke in the large room ("classroom") spread in a layer under the roof. Both forms of dispersion are thus possible, depending on the room and ventilation configuration. The gas measurements in the fire experiments detected both asphyxiant and irritant gases. Due to the battery size, which affects how much gas is formed, in relation to room size and ventilation conditions, the calculated FEC, i.e., the critical concentration of irritant gases, was below the selected limit value of 0.1 in all experiments. Although the FEC value was below 0.1 in all the experiments, people in the fire room would have begun to feel an effect from some of the toxic gases. However, this effect would not have been disabling. The FED, that is, the critical dose for asphyxiant gases, was only obtained after 23 to 30 minutes. It is important to remember that the concentration of toxic gases in a room due to a fire in a lithium-ion battery depends on the ratio of battery size, room size, and ventilation conditions. This means the limit values could have been exceeded for a larger battery or in a smaller room. The most important recommendation from this study is: Avoid storing and charging electric scooters and similar in living areas and escape routes. Chapter 7 also presents 8 tips and recommendations for the population, as well as 1 for the building owner and 1 for the fire service.

    Fulltekst (mp4)
    Video Test 2
    Fulltekst (mp4)
    Video Test 4
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Hansen, Per Arne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    Drangsholt, Geir
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Wighus, Ragnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Tåleevne til brannvegger2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne rapporten er utarbeidet på oppdrag fra Petroleumstilsynet (Ptil). Bakgrunnen for rapporten er at Ptil har sett eksempler på tilfeller i bransjen der brannmotstanden til brannvegger reduseres, ved at det benyttes en risikobasert beslutningsmodell som er svært avhengig av hvilke frekvenser som tillegges forskjellige branner. Det finnes eksempler på at brannvegger med brannmotstand A-60 benyttes der disse grenser mot områder der det kan oppstå en hydrokarbonbrann. I dagens NORSOK S-001 benyttes en grenseverdi på 100 kW/m2.Hvis varmeflukstettheten til den dimensjonerende brannen overstiger 100 kW/m2, skal det anvendes skiller med minst klasse H-60. Opphavet til denne verdien er gammel. Kunnskapen om relevante brannpåkjenninger må oppdateres. Det er behov for en vurdering utført av brannfaglig ekspertise som kan fastslå dagens beste kunnskap innenfor temaet tåleevne for forskjellige veggtyper.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    Jernæs, Nina Kjølsen
    et al.
    NIKU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    In the Heat of the Moment: Testing Fire-Protective Covers for Mitigating Damage to Large Historic Inventories2023Inngår i: Studies in Conservation, ISSN 0039-3630, E-ISSN 2047-0584Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, the Norwegian management for cultural heritage has increased its focus on finding effective solutions for protecting Norway?s wooden cultural heritage from fire damage. The medieval churches in general, including the wooden stave churches, with their interiors and inventories, are of special interest. However, the usefulness of protecting valuable interiors and inventories when fighting fire has been questioned. An experiment was carried out to find manageable solutions for protecting large inventories by using fire covers in case of fire. An experiment using seven commercially available products was conducted by fire fighters to investigate whether these products could protect historic interiors from water and fire. The preliminary results show that it is possible to find manageable, large format covers for the protection of large, immovable historic inventories.

  • 34.
    Meraner, Christoph
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fridolf, Karl
    WSP Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Brannsikkerhet i jernbanetunnel: Dimensjonerende brannscenario og forventninger til redningsinnsats2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Denne studien belyser ulike aspekter ved personsikkerheten ved brann i tunnel og svarer ut konkrete spørsmål omkring temaet.

    Oppdragsgiver er Bane NOR. Prosjektet har fått innspill fra en arbeidsgruppe som er koordinert og ledet av hhv. KS Bedrift og Bane NOR – med fagressurser fra Vestfold Interkommunale Brannvesen IKS (VIB), Bergen brannvesen (BB), Oslo brann- og redningsetat (OBRE), Bane NOR, operatørselskaper (Vy og Flytoget), Direktoratet for samfunnssikkerhet og beredskap (DSB) og Statens havarikommisjon for transport (SHT).

    Rapporten er delt inn i to hoveddeler. Del 1 omhandler kartlegging av relevante forskningsprosjekt, dimensjonerende brannscenarier og røykkontroll, se sammendrag og forslag til veien videre i underkapittel 3.5. Del 2 omhandler kartlegging av kunnskap om menneskelig atferd i forbindelse med tunnelbrann, se sammendrag og forslag til veien videre i underkapittel 4.5. Denne delen er utarbeidet av Lunds Tekniska Högskola og WSP Sverige, og er følgelig på svensk.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Olsø, Brynhild Garberg
    et al.
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Stølen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Bunkholt, Nora Schjøth
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Hjertnes, Jostein
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Factors Affecting the Fire Safety Design of Photovoltaic Installations Under Performance-Based Regulations in Norway2023Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of Photovoltaic (PV) installations on the fire safety of buildings must be considered in all building projects where such energy systems are established. The holistic fire safety of the building largely depends on how the fire safety of the PV installation is considered by the different actors during the design and construction process. Research has therefore been undertaken to study how performance-based regulations in combination with the lack of national guidelines affect the overall fire safety considerations for PV installations in Norway. Four factors were found to govern to which extent PV installations are emphasised in the fire safety design phase: (1) whether the building was first of its kind as a pioneering building, (2) whether the building was built before or after the publication of the 2018 revision of the norm NEK 400, (3) The level of knowledge and experience of the fire safety consultant, which in turn affects the use of performance-based engineering tools and the level of detailing in the design and construction phases, and (4) The degree of integration in the building. The main goal of the study is to give an insight and a contribution to the development of in-depth knowledge on how fire safety design for PV installations on buildings is handled in Norway, which may also be relevant to other countries with similar performance-based regulations.

  • 36.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Silo fire guideline 13 measures and 4 warnings2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 37.
    Persson, Henry
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Veileder silobrann 13 tiltak og 4 advarsler2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a guideline about silo fires, based on the handbook “Silo Fires”. The guideline summarizes 13 measures and decisions needed in connection with a suspected or confirmed silo fire and 4 warnings on what to avoid.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 38.
    Piechnik, Kira
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Otto von Guericke University, Germany.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fire without flames: 13 amazing facts aboutsmouldering fires2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This FRIC report presents a popular scientific overview of 13 facts about smouldering fires. Theaim is that the reader will get an insight into why these fires fascinate, their challenges andconsequences, and how to extinguish them. The 13 facts are on the following topics:

    1. Fragmented knowledge2. Nicknames3. Peat and coal areas - a worldwide challenge4. Peat fires in Indonesia5. Burning Mountain of Australia6. Wood pellets silo fires7. Fire deaths caused by smouldering fires8. Coal fires in China9. World Trade Center10. Smouldering in space11. Zombie Fires12. Titanic13. Fighting flameless fires

    The report is complemented with an interactive, online presentation which may be found here:https://prezi.com/view/yVFHODruMbxK3e9yMLkF/

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 39.
    Piechnik, Kira
    et al.
    Otto-von-Guericke-UniversityMagdeburg, Germany.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. NTNU Norwegian Universityof Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fires without flames: fundamentals and fire investigation cases2021Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 40.
    Rebaque, Virginia
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norwaay; Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Experimental study of smouldering in wood pellets with and without air draft2020Inngår i: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 264, artikkel-id 116806Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Dry wood pellets (diameter 8 mm) of mixed Norwegian spruce and pine were tested in samples of 1.25 kg (1.7 l) in configurations with and without air draft from below. The pellets were placed in a vertical 15 cm diameter cylinder on top of a hot plate. Air draft inlet, when allowed, came through narrow openings in the cylinder bottom periphery. The bulk void of 36% formed channels for gas flows within the pellets bed. Initially, the samples were heated externally from below for 6 h. Time series of distributed temperatures were recorded, together with values of the mass. Smouldering with air draft was observed with two distinct behaviours: Type 1, where the sample after the period of external heating cooled down for several hours, and then increased in temperature to intense smouldering, and Type 2, where the sample went into intense smouldering before the end of external heating. Without draft airflow from below, the sample cooled down after external heating, before developing into intense smouldering about 20 h later. In all cases, the intense period lasted for 2 h. Typical temperatures were in the range 300–450 °C, while higher temperatures occurred in the intense period. Draft flow caused fast oxidation spreading, while slow without draft. Indications of oxidation spreading as a distriäbuted reaction were seen. Circulating air motions in the irregular void between individual pellets is discussed as an explanation for the behaviour. Uneven access to oxygen, with possibilities of locally excess air, can explain the peak temperatures observed. © 2019 The Author(s)

  • 41.
    Reitan, Nina K.
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Andersson, Eva
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge. SINTEF, Norway.
    Plast i byggevar och brannsikkerhet: Hovedprosjekt2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [no]

    Målet med prosjektet var å skape et grunnlag for at utvalgte byggvaerer i plast skal kunne brukes på en brannsikker måte. For å oppnå dette vurderer vi det som hensiktsmessigt å øke kunnskapsnivået om brannsikker håndtering av byggevarer i plast blant ulike aktører (brannvesen, prosjeterende, arkiteter og utførende). For å innhente ny kunnskap om riktig håndtering av byggevarer i plast, ble det gjort tester i fullskala og mindre skala av sandwichpaneler og plastplater. Dette er produkttyper som påstås utgjøre en brannrisiko, og som er utbredt i industri, nærings- og lagerbygg.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Sikker brensellagring i Norge2015Inngår i: Brandposten, nr 52, s. 24-25Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjærestad, Janne Siren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Meraner, Christoph
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    RISE Fire Research sitt høst-webinar [RISE Fire Research’s autumn webinar]: 17 november 20232023Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Download (mp4)
    film
  • 44.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Friquin, Kathinka
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Brannsikkerhet ved bruk av krysslaminert massivtre i bygninger – en litteraturstudie2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature study presents recent research on fire safety in cross laminated timber (CLT) buildings. Results from large fire experiments and other studies in the period 2010 - 2018 are summarized, with focus on the following research questions:• How do constructions consisting of protected or exposed CLT contribute to the fire development in a room?• How can contribution to the fire development from detailing of CLT be avoided?There is an increasing desire to use wooden structures in tall buildings, as a substitute for more traditional construction materials. However, the use of combustible construc-tions in buildings in Norwegian Fire Class 3 (usually five floors or more) is not pre-accepted in the guideline to Regulations on technical requirements for construction works (TEK17), and fire safety must therefore be documented by analysis in such structures. When designing tall and complex timber buildings, it must be taken into account that a fire involving a timber construction may have more severe consequences than in buildings with constructions of steel or concrete, if the fire design of the construction and detail solutions is insufficient. Several studies show that fire exposed CLT, or CLT with insufficient protection, can cause a fire to develop faster, be more intense and last longer than a fire where the only fuel is the furniture and fixtures in the fire room. It is shown that the amount of fire exposed timber in a room may have impact on the extent and duration of a fire, but the knowledge has not yet been sufficient enough to be used in fire modeling, design and analysis.Research on charring rates, delamination and auto-extinction, all of which are factors that can have major impact on fire development and the fire resistance of the construction, takes place in Europe, Australia and North America. Although extensive research has been carried out, it is based on few large fire experiments, and the literature is still pointing to several knowledge gaps. However, the research projects have increased the knowledge of fire in timber buildings, and have contributed to the design of detail solutions, guidelines and development of models for function-based design. Revision of EN 1995-1-2 is under preparation and expected to apply from 2022. A knowledge base for the audit can be found in the network COST Action FP1404 Fire Safety Use of Bio-Based Building Products (COST FP1404) Working Group 2 (WG2). They have published several guidelines relevant for the fire design of CLT, including e.g. calculation methods for the prediction of charring rates and depths, determination of reduced CLT cross-section, design of CLT detailing and a suggested test method for evaluating adhesive performance.Based on the literature review, the following conclusions and recommendations are given for CLT constructions:• The design phase must sufficiently consider protection of the construction and con-tribution of the construction to the fire energy, and to a greater extent include the assessment of detailing and ventilation conditions. It should be considered whether analytic fire engineering design also should be required for buildings in the Norwegian Fire Classes 1 and 2 where more than one CLT wall is exposed.• By protecting all CLT surfaces of the structure with cladding, the construction may retain the stability and the load bearing capacity during the required time of fire resistance.• In buildings with only one exposed CLT wall in each fire cell, it may also be appropriate to use solutions that satisfy the pre-accepted performances, but one must consider whether a somewhat longer and more intense heat radiation and flame exposure on the facade outside window openings will require measures beyond the pre-accepted performances given in the guideline to TEK17.• Rooms where two or more CLT walls in addition to the ceiling are exposed, are configurations that should be avoided.• The risk of delamination can be reduced by using heat-resistant glue.• There is generally a need for relevant documentation for fire-resistant solutions for joints between CLT walls and floors and service penetrations in CLT constructions.• Test methods for testing of joints and penetrations in CLT constructions should be standardized. For example, there exists no standardized test for corner joints. Tests of penetration seals for CLT constructions are scarce, although they can be tested according to EN 1366-3. However, CLT is not a standard supporting construction according to EN 1366-3, and this must be taken into consideration when the test results are evaluated. Joints in glulam constructions should also be tested because they are often used in conjunction with CLT elements.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 45.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Snersrud, Dag Olav
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Ståle Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sarp Arsava, Kemal
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    FRIC webinar: Smoldering2022Annet (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Presentation
    Download (mp4)
    Video
  • 46.
    Sanfeliu Meliá, Cristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Stölen, Reidar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Aamodt, Edvard
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Energy storage, energy production and SMART technology in buildings2021Inngår i: Proc of Nordic Fire and Safety Days 2021, 2021, s. 63-Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern buildings are being built with increasingly complex technical installations and energy systems. The introduction of renewable energy production, like photovoltaic (PV) panels on building roofs and facades and an increasing number of connected electric appliances, changes the way the electric power is distributed from production to end-user. The difference in production and demand for energy over time also gives incentives for installing energy storage systems. Electric energy can be stored in batteries, transferred into hydrogen gas via electrolysis or stored as thermal energy for use later. The current work presents an overview of an ongoing study in the Fire Research and Innovation Centre (FRIC), on fire safety implications related to implementing new technology for energy storage and production. The focus is on the built environment such as dwellings and office buildings situated in the Nordic countries. This study builds on previous studies of related topics

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Sesseng, Christian
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Reitan, Nina Kristine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik. Otto von Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Hagen, Bjarne
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway.
    Effect of particle granularity on smoldering fire in wood chips made from wood waste: An experimental study2020Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 44, nr 4, s. 540-556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fires in wood waste storages cause financial losses, are difficult to extinguish, and emit large amounts of fire effluents. The mechanisms related to fires in wood chip piles are not well elucidated. To find suitable preventive measures for handling such fires in wood waste, a better understanding of the physical properties of wood waste is needed. The present study investigates how granularity affects mechanisms of smoldering fire and transition to flaming in wood chip piles. Eighteen experiments with samples inside a top-ventilated, vertical cylinder were conducted. Heating from underneath the cylinder induced auto-ignition and smoldering fire, and temperatures and mass loss of the sample were measured. The results showed that granularity significantly affects the smoldering fire dynamics. Material containing larger wood chips (length 4-100 mm) demonstrated more irregular temperature development, higher temperatures, faster combustion, and higher mass losses than material of smaller wood chips (length <4 mm). The larger wood chips also underwent transition to flaming fires. Flaming fires were not observed for small wood chips, which instead demonstrated prolonged and steady smoldering propagation. The differences are assumed to be partly due to the different bulk densities of the samples of large and small wood chips affecting the ventilation conditions. Increased knowledge about these combustion processes and transition to flaming is vital to develop risk-reducing measures when storing wood chips made from wood waste in piles.

  • 48.
    Skilbred, Ellen Synnøve
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brann til jul2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire for Christmas The topic of this study is the fire safety related to use of candles in Christmas decorations and is funded by the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) and the Norwegian Building Authority (DiBK).

    Photos of decorations with candles placed near combustible materials are flourishing in social media, especially around Christmas time. This project studies the fire hazards related to such decorations and groups of tealights. Experiments were conducted to demonstrate the fire hazard of different types of Christmas decorations, as well as small-scale experiments with measurement of temperature development in groups of tealights. The experiments were documented with images and video, infrared (IR) camera, and temperature measurements. Some photos are shown in this report, while other image and video material are presented in social media. By showing examples of what can go wrong, and showing simple measures people can take, we hope to increase the awareness of how to avoid fire for Christmas.

    The results from the study are summarized in the following four points to remember, and eight measures people can do at home.

    Remember this to avoid fire for Christmas: • Not everything you see in commercials and social media is safe. • Many candles placed close together can be a fire hazard. • Unforeseen things can happen, a cat can walk by and make the candle tip over, a child can pull the tablecloth, or there can be a draft from a window. • Not all candle holders are stable.

    What can you do to avoid fire for Christmas: • Think about fire safety when decorating for Christmas, do not copy uncritically from others. • Avoid lighting candles near combustible materials. This includes advent decorations and Christmas trees. • Replace candles with LEDs. • Replace combustible decorations with for example stone, glass, or ceramics. • Do not leave burning candles unattended. • Remember to test and change batteries in smoke detectors. • Follow the safety instructions written on the candle packaging. • Keep minimum 10 cm (or the producers recommended distance) between tealights. • Choose stable candle holders.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
    Download (mp4)
    film CaseETelysgruppe Stearin Plastkopp PlastSmeltet SrearinRenner 45 sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case15 Plastdekorasjon DukBrenner Slow
    Download (mp4)
    film Case9 Planter PanoreringNedbrente Lys 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case9 Planter Mose Brenner1 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case9 Planter Mose Brenner2 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case7 Pyntering Gardin Tar Fyr 20sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case3 Adventsstake TenneLys 15sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case3 Adventsstake Antennelse 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Advetsstake Fra Antennelse Til Full Brann 2min
    Download (mp4)
    film Case3 Adventsstake Hele 8min
    Download (mp4)
    film Case3 Adventsstake Panorering 15sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case15 Plastdekorasjon Antennelse 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case15Plastdekorasjon Brennende Draaper 10sek
    Download (mp4)
    film Case15 Plastdekorasjon Fra Brannstart til Full Brann 2min
    Download (mp4)
    filmCase15 Plastdekorasjon Hele 7min
    Download (mp4)
    Brann_Til_Jul_CaseF_Telysgruppe_ParafinMetallkopp
  • 49.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas G.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Fire Research Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    Hva kan vi lære av brannen i Lærdal i januar 2014?: Vurdering av brannspredningen2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Bøe, Andreas Gagnat
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Hox, Kristian
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Fjellgaard Mikalsen, Ragni
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Stensaas, Jan P.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Storesund, Karolina
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Evaluation of Fire Spread in the large Lærdal Fire, January 20142015Inngår i: Conference proceedings from Fire and Materials 2015, 2015Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
12 1 - 50 of 65
RefereraExporteraLink til resultatlisten
Permanent link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
v. 2.43.0