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  • 1. Andersson, C
    et al.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Järnström, L
    Barrier properties and heat sealability/failure mechanisms of dispersion coated paperboard2002In: Packaging technology & science, ISSN 0894-3214, E-ISSN 1099-1522, Vol. 15, p. 209-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plate-like fillers are often added to improve barrier properties and to prevent blocking of dispersion coatings on paper and board. We have studied the effects of clay addition, neutralizing agent and drying conditions on water vapour permeability, water absorption, oxygen permeability and heat sealability of carboxylated styrene/butyl acrylate dispersion coatings on a pilot scale. The barrier dispersions were applied on a pre-coated side of a three-ply board, using a pre-metering roll coater. Coated strips were sealed under specified conditions of temperature, time and pressure and the sealability was assessed by measuring the peak load necessary to break the joints. The surface composition of the barrier-coated board was analysed and the mode of failure was characterized by ESCA. The occurrence of pinholes in the barrier coatings was assessed by both staining tests and ESEM/EDX analysis of the surface topography. The resulting barrier properties were satisfactory as far as resistance to water transport in both liquid and vapour form is concerned. The oxygen permeability was similar to that of similar amorphous polymers. Heat-sealing tests showed that the mode of failure was mainly cohesive in nature, as fibre tear occurred when sealed strips were separated. Neutralization with sodium hydroxide gave poor adhesion and had a negative effect on the seal strength. Barrier measurements and ESEM/EDX analysis both showed that the pinholes present extended only through the barrier coating

  • 2. Arnold, Celine
    et al.
    Klein, Guillaume
    Maaloum, Mounir
    Ernstsson, Marie
    Larsson, Anders
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Marie, Pascal
    Surfactant distribution in waterborne acrylic films. 2 Surface Investigation2011In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 374, no 1-3, p. 58-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents results on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) enrichment at the surface of pure acrylic or acrylic/laponite composite latex films. Surface concentrations were measured by Confocal Raman Spectroscopy leading to higher values than the nominal concentration of 6 wt%. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analyses showed uppermost surface layers saturated with SDS in most cases. High resolution Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) revealed a variety of morphologies for these surfactant top layers, highlighting the occurrence of SDS bilayers in different configurations. In an attempt to check for a correlation between the surface concentration of the surfactant in dry films and the concentration of free surfactant in water in the initial latex, this latter concentration was determined from the level of the plateau in adsorption isotherms. Adsorption studies by conductimetry showed an unexpected increase of the amount of adsorbed SDS with pH. The proposed interpretation is that, upon acrylic acid neutralization, the chains at the surface become more hydrophilic and spread out in water, revealing more sites for SDS to adsorb on. No correlation between free surfactant and surface enrichment could be established, indicating that the enrichment process is more complex than expected.

  • 3. Bergström, L
    et al.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    The effect of wet and dry milling on the surface properties of silicon nitride powders1991In: Ceramics Today: Tomorrow's Ceramics / [ed] Vincenzini, P., Elsevier, 1991, p. 1005-1014Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of dry milling in air and wet miling in isopropanol, on the surface properties of silicon nitride powders have been investigated. The ground powders have been analyzed with resoect to oxygen and carbon content, electrokinetic behviour, wetting characteristics and adsorption of acidic and basic probe molecules. The results show that dry milling in air leeds to a higher degree of surface oxidation which is correlated to substantially lower isoelectric points for dry milled vs. wet milled powders. The wet milled powders were contaminated by an adsorbed layer of isopropanol which resulted in an initially hydrophobic behaviour and low levels of adsorption of most probe molecules. This coating can be removed by heat treatment at elevated tempratures.

  • 4.
    Brodin, Ida
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Gellerstedt, Göran
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sjöholm, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Oxidative stabilisation of kraft lignin for carbon fibre production2012In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, no 2, p. 141-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of investigating kraft lignin as a raw material for carbon fibre production, different lignins have been stabilised in air at conditions varied according to a full factorial experimental design. The lignins under examination were purified kraft lignin powders originating from birch, spruce/pine and Eucalyptus globules, as well as lignin fibres originating from birch with 5 poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) added as a plasticiser. The influence of temperature, time and heating rate on yield and glass-transition temperature (Tg) was investigated. The highest yield was achieved after stabilisation at 280°C during 2h with a heating rate of 0.2°C min -1. The Tg of all lignin powders was increased when stabilisation occurred under harsher conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis (XPS) of both the outer surface and the cleaved cross-section of individual lignin/PEO fibres showed a clear gradient in the degree of chemical modification, with the major change occurring on the surface resulting in the appearance of a skin-core structure after stabilisation. The behaviour of the lignin fibres during stabilisation is similar to that of pitch-based fibres, indicating good possibilities for lignin as raw material for carbon fibre production.

  • 5. Bryne, Lars Elof
    et al.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Ernstsson, Marie
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Ageing of modified wood. Part 2: Determination of surface composition of acetylated, furfurylated, and thermally modified wood by XPS and ToF-SIMS2010In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 64, no 3, p. 305–313-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this work was to study the chemical composition of surfaces and ageing effects on acetylated pine (Pinus sylvestris), heat treated spruce (Picea abies), and furfurylated radiata pine (Pinus radiata) in comparison to unmodified wood. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were the instruments of choice. Observation with a low-vacuum scanning electron microscope (LV-SEM) complemented the study. The spectroscopic information was also linked to a parallel wettability study on matched wood samples by the Wilhelmy method. The results show that XPS and ToF-SIMS are two powerful tools that in combination give complementary information, both quantitative and qualitative, and are well suited for observation of the ageing process of different wood surfaces. The hydrophobization process as a result of migration of extractives during ageing was well quantified by the XPS measurements and the results correlated well with wetting results. Several specific hydrophobic substances could be identified by ToF-SIMS measurements.

  • 6. Bryne, Lars Elof
    et al.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Englund, Finn
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Söderström, Ove
    UV-laser irradiated wood - Some aspects on micromorphology, wettability, surface composition and liquid permeability2008In: 4th meeting of the Nordic Baltic Network in Wood Material Science and Engineering (WSE), Latvian State Instiute of Wood Chemistry , 2008, , p. 75-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dédinaité, A
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Chitosan-SDS interactions at a solid-liquid interface: Effects of surfactant concentration and ionic strength2003In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 107, p. 8181-8188Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of ionic strength on adsorption of chitosan on mica as well as the impact of addition of an anionic surfactant, SDS, on the adsorbed chitosan layers is explored. It is demonstrated by chemical surface analysis (ESCA) and surface force measurements (SFA) that an elevated salt concentration leads to larger adsorbed amounts and thicker adsorption layers of this cationic polyelectrolyte. It is also shown that in contrast to the bulk, the binding of oppositely charged surfactant to the polyelectrolyte adsorbed on a negatively charged surface is facilitated by elevated ionic strength. Thus, the association process in bulk and at solid-liquid interfaces is rather different. The main point of difference is that at the solid-liquid interface one also has to consider interactions between the polyelectrolyte and the surface as well as between the surfactant and the surface.

  • 8.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Some aspects on the determination of surface chemical composition and wettability of modified wood2009In: Proceedings of The Fourth European Conference on Wood Modification., SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden , 2009, , p. 553-560Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Some aspects on the determination of surface chemical composition and wettability of modified wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 80-85Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Englund, Finn
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, Trätek.
    Bryne, Lars Elof
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Lausmaa, Jukka
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Funktionella material (KMf).
    Wålinder, Magnus
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP - Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Spectroscopic studies of surface chemical composition and wettability of modified wood2009In: Wood Material Science & Engineering, ISSN 1748-0272, E-ISSN 1748-0280, Vol. 4, no 1-2, p. 80–85-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Surface characterization of minerals used in asphalt systems and filled plastics: a multianalytical approach1999Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Shao, SY
    Characterization of adsorption sites on a quartz powder from ESCA analysis of an adsorbed fatty diamine1999In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 27, p. 915-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report we describe a method to estimate the amount of adsorption sites on mineral surfaces by means of ESCA analysis. This is obtained from quantification of the adsorbed amount of a test molecule on a mineral surface. The approach is based on chemical derivatization of mineral powders followed by extraction in solvents of different polarities. This procedure also provides information on whether the adsorption sites on the mineral surfaces are of different or similar nature. The system studied was a fatty diamine adsorbed on quartz powder from a nonpolar medium, n-octane, with the subsequent desorption by extraction in pure n-octane and in ethanol. This model system has application in asphalt systems where fatty amines often are added to strengthen adhesion between bitumen and stone aggregates. Desorption was followed by surface analysis (ESCA) of the quartz powder to detect the fatty diamine remaining on the surface. Further analysis, using equations based on a substrate / overlayer model for flat and spherical particles, provided information on the adsorbed layer thickness and the adsorbed amount. After extraction with n-octane, a monolayer of the fatty diamine remains on the quartz surface. More fatty diamine can be removed by changing the extraction medium to a more polar solvent, such as ethanol. This result demonstrates that this particular quartz powder has adsorption sites of differing nature on the surface.

  • 13.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Dedinaite, Andra
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Chemical Process and Pharmaceutical Development. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Rojas, Orlando J
    University of British Columbia, Canada.
    Claesson, Per M
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Two different approaches to XPS quantitative analysis of polyelectrolyte adsorption layers2023In: Surface and Interface Analysis, ISSN 0142-2421, E-ISSN 1096-9918, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 26-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was employed to quantify adsorption of polyelectrolytes from aqueous solutions of low ionic strength onto mica, glass, and silica. Silica surfaces were conditioned in base or in acid media as last pre-treatment step (silica-base last or silica-acid last, respectively). Consistency in the determined adsorbed amount, Γ, was obtained independent of the choice of XPS mode and with the two quantification approaches used in the data evaluation. Under the same adsorption conditions, the adsorbed amount, Γ, varied as Γmica > Γsilica-base last ≈ Γglass > Γsilica-acid last. In addition, the adsorbed amount increased with decreasing polyelectrolyte charge density (100% to 1% of segments being charged) for all substrates. Large adsorbed amount was measured for low-charge density polyelectrolytes, but the number of charged segments per square nanometer was low due to steric repulsion between polyelectrolyte chains that limited the adsorption. The adsorbed amount of highly charged polyelectrolytes was controlled by electrostatic interactions and thus limited to that needed to neutralize the substrate surface charge density. For silica, the adsorbed amount depended on the cleaning method, suggesting that this process influenced surface concentration and fraction of different silanol groups. Our results demonstrate that for silica, a higher density and/or more acidic silanol groups are formed using base, rather than acid, treatment in the last step. © 2022 The Authors.

  • 14.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Larsson, A
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    A multianalytical approach to characterize acidic adsorption sites on a quartz powder2000In: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, ISSN 0927-7757, E-ISSN 1873-4359, Vol. 168, p. 215-230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper three methods are described to estimate the number of adsorption sites and detect adsorption sites of differing nature on mineral surfaces. The methods are solution depletion adsorption isotherms, adsorption microcalorimetry, and desorption by solvent extraction followed by surface analysis using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). The number of adsorption sites is obtained from the adsorbed amount of a test molecule on a mineral surface from the ESCA data using equations based on a substrate/overlayer model, and from the adsorption isotherms the number of sites available to accommodate a monolayer of test molecules is used. Information about whether the adsorption sites are of different or similar nature is provided by the desorption method using extraction in solvents of different polarities. More quantitative information concerning interactions between test molecules and adsorption sites, and possible interaction strength distribution due to sites of differing nature, is obtained from the adsorption enthalpies measured by microcalorimetry. The systems studied included strong basic test molecules (either a fatty diamine, octadecyl amine or pyridine) adsorbed on quartz powder from a nonpolar medium, n-octane. For the desorption study, subsequent extraction was carried out in pure n-octane, followed by ethanol. Adsorption/desorption of basic test molecules on quartz is important in applications of asphalt systems where fatty amines are often added to strengthen adhesion between bitumen and stone aggregates. The quartz powder studied here has acidic adsorption sites of differing nature on the surface. The strong interaction sites are consistent with iron oxide and/or oxohydroxide (strongest interactions with the fatty diamine where both nitrogen atoms can interact) and geminal hydroxyl groups. The weaker interaction sites are consistent with hydroxyl (silanol) groups forming hydrogen bonds with the basic test molecules.

  • 15.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Wärnheim, T
    Surface analytical techniques applied to cleaning processes2007In: Handbook for Cleaning/Decontamination of Surfaces, Elsevier, 2007, p. 747-790Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16. Fardim, P
    et al.
    Heijnesson Hultén, A
    Boisvert, J-P
    Johansson, L-S
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Campbell, JM
    Critical comparison of methods for surface coverage by extractives and lignin in pulps by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)2006In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 60, p. 149-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Different methods for estimation of the surface coverage by extractives and lignin were critically compared. For data collection, four state-of-the-art X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) instruments located in four different laboratories were used. Hand sheets of one mechanical and two chemical pulp samples were prepared in one laboratory and distributed among the other participants. The XPS results based on O/C ratios and curve fitting of the C 1s peak had very good intra- and interlaboratory variation for extracted and non-extracted pulp samples. The estimations of surface coverage by extractives and lignin also had acceptable intra- and interlaboratory variation. However, significant differences were observed between the results for the various methods. Estimation of surface coverage by extractives based on O/C ratios was much higher than that based on the C1 component analysis in the case of mechanical and unbleached chemical pulp. The surface coverage by lignin of mechanical pulp was reproducibly detected based on O/C ratios, C1 component analysis and by labelling with mercury acetate. The same data were, however, rather scattered if they were collected with these three methods for bleached and unbleached chemical pulp. In spite of the differences, similar trends regarding the pulp type could be observed. We interpret the results as indicating that the surface coverage for both extractives and lignin should not be considered as absolute “true” values, but rather as relative values, which are reliable only for comparison of samples for the same instrument. Even for relative comparisons, we recommend the selection of a strict experimental set-up for spectral acquisition and data treatment when applying any of the instruments and calculation models currently available.

  • 17. Heijnesson Hultén, A
    et al.
    Basta, J
    Larsson, P
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Comparison of different XPS methods for fiber surface analysis2006In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different XPS methods based on the O/C atomic ratio, C1 carbon content, and Hg amount are compared in this study to quantify the surface coverage of various pulp fiber surfaces by lignin and extractives. The sensitivity of the methods to drying technique and the stability of organically bound mercury when subjected to X-ray irradiation were also investigated. Results reveal that the surfaces of all pulp fibers have a higher content of lignin and extractives than the bulk of the fibers. Similar lignin surface coverage was obtained for thermomechanical pulp fibers using the Hg, O/C, and C1 carbon methods, while the Hg method gave lower values for kraft pulp fibers than the O/C and C1 carbon methods. The O/C and C1 carbon methods are sensitive to the drying technique, i.e., air-dried samples showed a higher amount of lignin on the fiber surface than freeze-dried samples, while no or only minor differences in results were obtained using the Hg method. The Hg method was more reproducible than the other methods. Special care must be exercised during XPS analysis to minimize mercury degradation.

  • 18.
    Javed, Asif
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ullsten, Henrik
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Järnström, Lars
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Study of starch and starch-PVOH blends and effects of plasticizers on mechanical and barrier properties of coated paperboard2016In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 31, no 3, p. 499-510Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanical properties of self-supporting films based on starch-plasticizer and starch-PVOH-plasticizer and the barrier properties of paperboard coated with solutions of these polymers have been studied. The plasticizers used were glycerol, polyethylene glycol and citric acid. It was shown that the addition of a plasticizer and PVOH to starch substantially increases the flexibility of starch films. It was seen that curing the self-supporting films led to a decrease in flexibility. After heat-treatment, a substantial increase in storage modulus was observed only in the starch-PVOH-citric-acid blend films. Tensile tests on the films indicate that citric acid did not cause any noticeable phase separation. Citric acid acted as a compatibilizer for starch-PVOH blends even though a similar enrichment of PVOH at the air-solid interface was observed with both citric acid and polyethylene glycol as plasticizer. The properties of barrier coatings greatly reflected the compatibility of starch-PVOH blends containing citric acid. The only plasticizer that resulted in a lower water vapour transmission rate through the starch and starch-PVOH coatings was citric acid, which suggests that cross-linking took place. With four layers, coatings based of starch-PVOH possessed the same oxygen- transmission rate with citric acid as without citric acid.

  • 19. Johansson, L-S
    et al.
    Campbell, JM
    Fardim, P
    Heijnesson Hultén, A
    Boisvert, J-P
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    An XPS round robin investigation on analysis of wood pulp fibres and filter paper2005In: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 584, no 1, p. 126-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been applied to pulp and paper research for decades. However, there has been no attempt to standardise or even systematically compare experimental and analysis procedures, even though it is known that fibrous, nature-derived and insulating fibre materials pose remarkable challenges to reliable surface analysis. The experimental problems are mainly linked with neutralisation, energy resolution, contamination and X-ray induced degradation. We have tested applicability, reliability and reproducibility of XPS analysis on real pulp samples with varying lignin and extractives contents in a small round robin investigation. We also tested the instrumental set-ups with an acetone-extracted filter paper, used as a reference sample. The data, collected at four different laboratories with state-of-the-art instruments indicate that reproducible results can be obtained, despite minor differences in experimental and analysis procedures. However, we found that a specified sample handling procedure and limited X-ray exposure are crucial for reproducible, reliable data. Based on the round robin data we recommend dose restricted monochromatic measurements, a cellulosic in situ reference and a consistent sample handling procedure. The data confirms that a paper-based reference material and the correlation of high-resolution C 1s data with O/C atomic ratios can be used in testing instruments and experimental set-ups for pulp and paper materials.

  • 20.
    Ovaska, Sami-Seppo
    et al.
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Hiltunen, Salla
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Material och ytteknik.
    Schuster, Erich
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Altskär, Annika
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Backfolk, Kaj
    Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of rapeseed oil/coconut oil mixtures and their penetration into hydroxypropylated-starch-based barrier coatings containing an oleophilic mineral2016In: Progress in organic coatings, ISSN 0300-9440, E-ISSN 1873-331X, Vol. 101, p. 569-576Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was conducted that demonstrated that the blending of edible oils leads to changes in surface tension, thermal properties, viscosity, and oil penetration times through a barrier-coated paperboard. The results emphasize the significance of testing the oil and grease resistance (OGR) oil blends in order-to verify the suitability of the packaging material for real-life end-use applications. The results of the OGR determinations suggest that hydroxypropylated-starch-based composite coatings containing an oleophilic high aspect ratio mineral can be tailored for food shaving different fatty acid compositions by varying the pigmentation level. Compared to standard OGR tests, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM)-based techniques make it possible to evaluate the oil penetration time and its diffusion behavior very accurately, both inside the coating layer and in the bulk matrix. It was found that, at room temperature, coconut oil tends to crystallize inside the substrate, inducing swelling of the coating layer, which probably has an influence on the physicomechanical properties of the packaging material.

  • 21.
    Plunkett, MA
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Claesson, PM
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Rutland, MW
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Comparison of the adsorption of different charge density polyelectrolytes: A quartz crystal microbalance and XPS study2003In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 19, p. 4673-4681Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adsorption of a series of six cationic polyelectrolytes onto a gold surface was monitored via a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The series of polyelectrolytes were chemically similar but differing in the ratio of two randomly ordered constituent monomers, one of which was charged, the other neutral. Thus the series of polyelectrolytes differed systematically in their charge densities, ranging from a high charge density (100% of monomers charged) to a low charge density (1% charged). It was determined that high charge density polyelectrolytes adsorbed in a relatively flat and rigid layer, while the low charge density polyelectrolyte, as expected, adsorbed in a much more extended structure that coupled strongly to the bulk solvent. By comparison to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results, we have also calculated the relative solvent mass hydrodynamically coupled to the adsorbed polymer, which ranges from almost 80% solvent for the 1% charged case down to close to zero for the 100% charged case. Since the QCM-D results are measured relative to uncoated gold in aqueous solution, the latter results should be interpreted as showing that the amount of water hydrodynamically coupled to gold and that coupled to gold coated with the 100% charged polyelectrolyte is very similar. It is believed that this systematic study on the effect of polyelectrolyte structure on the measured dissipation change in the QCM-D may serve as a first guide when inferring structural and viscoelastic information based solely on the QCM-D technique for other similar systems. In addition, a preliminary study on the ability of one polymer to replace another preadsorbed polymer layer was conducted that showed that a steric layer was able to prevent the adsorption of a thermodynamically more favorable polymer. In the reverse case, greater exchange was possible

  • 22. Rojas, OJ
    et al.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Neuman, RD
    Claesson, P
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in the study of polyelectrolyte adsorption2000In: Journal of Physical Chemistry B, ISSN 1520-6106, E-ISSN 1520-5207, Vol. 104, p. 10032-10042Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to estimate the absolute amount of cationic polyelectrolytes that adsorbs on mica and cellulose surfaces in aqueous media. The calculation takes advantage of the knowledge of the mica crystal composition at the basal plane and its ion-exchange properties in aqueous solution. The XPS was operated under monochromatic and unmonochromatic mode and good agreement was observed in the resulting adsorbed amount. The evaluation of the amount of cationic polyelectrolyte adsorbed on cellulose was achieved using calibration curves obtained from adsorption data for the same polyelectrolytes on bare mica surfaces. The adsorption isotherm for polyelectrolytes of low charge density adsorbed on cellulose reveals that their affinity toward cellulose is weaker compared to that observed for highly charged surfaces such as mica. The effect of the polyelectrolyte charge density on the adsorbed amount and the number density of charged segments adsorbed on cellulose were also investigated. From these results it can be concluded that nonelectrostatic interactions are the main contributors to the adsorption of polyelectrolytes on cellulose, but it cannot be ruled out that electrostatic effects also take part in the adsorption mechanism. Finally, it is demonstrated that it is not correct to use the adsorbed amount of polyelectrolytes to determine the surface charge on cellulose surfaces.

  • 23. Rojas, OJ
    et al.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    Neuman, RD
    Claesson, PM
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Effect of polyelectrolyte charge density on the adsorption and desorption behavior on mica2002In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 18, p. 1604-1612Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The XPS (ESCA) method was employed to quantitatively determine polyelectrolyte adsorption on the mica basal plane from low ionic strength solutions. Particular emphasis was given to the effect of the polyelectrolyte charge density. By combining the results obtained from XPS and surface force measurements it was possible to analyze the cation exchange at the surface that occurs as a result of polyelectrolyte adsorption. AFM-imaging was used to obtain information on the structure of the adsorbed layer when the polyelectrolyte coverage was low. Further, the desorption of preadsorbed polyelectrolyte layers by addition of inorganic salt and by addition of an anionic surfactant was investigated by XPS and some complementary surface force measurements. The results demonstrate that the lower the polyelectrolyte charge density is, the easier it is to remove the polyelectrolyte from the surface. The surfactant, which by itself does not adsorb to the mica surface, is more efficient in this respect than the inorganic salt. This observation can be rationalized by considering that the surfactant and polyelectrolyte form complexes with each other. Thus, the surfactant brings negative charges into the adsorbed layer that reduces the affinity to the surface. However, high-charge-density polyelectrolytes are removed to a very limited degree even when the surfactant concentration is above the critical micellar concentration, which is explainable by the poor solubility of the polyelectrolyte-surfactant complexes formed.

  • 24.
    Vyörykkä, J.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Fogden, A.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Daicic, J.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, YKI – Ytkemiska institutet.
    Jääskeläinen, A. -S
    Helsinki University of Technology, Finland.
    Characterization of paper coatings - Review and future possibilities2006In: 2006 TAPPI Advanced Coating Fundamentals Symposium, 2006, p. 32-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paper coating obviously plays an important role in printing and converting performance and thus a thorough knowledge of coating structure and chemistry, its generation from the wet state of the colour layer and its reaction to downstream processing, end-use and recycling, is needed to understand current products as well as to develop new products. Coating characterization methods may be divided into two subcategories; research methods and quality control methods. The latter category typically contains methods based on standards and are fast tools to evaluate the quality of the coatings, on-line, at-line or off-line. The instruments used in paper coating research aim to provide absolute rather than relative information, with the goal of offering greater insight into mechanisms underlying paper performance. These methods are accordingly often more demanding in terms of sample preparation and analysis time, and in some cases are still under development. This paper summarizes the achievements, limitations and future challenges faced by established analysis methods as well as emerging methods which could be used in paper coating characterization.

  • 25.
    Wojas, Natalia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tyrode, Eric
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Corkery, Robert
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Australian National University Department of Applied Mathematics, Australia.
    Ernstsson, Marie
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Wallqvist, Viveca
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Järn, Mikael
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Swerin, Agne
    Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Schoelkopf, Joachim
    Omya International AG, Switzerland.
    Gane, Patrick A C
    Aalto University, Finland; University of Belgrade, Serbia.
    Claesson, Per M.
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Calcite Surfaces Modified with Carboxylic Acids (C2 to C18): Layer Organization, Wettability, Stability, and Molecular Structural Properties2023In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 39, no 42, p. 14840-14852Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental understanding of the interactions between mineral surfaces and amphiphilic surface modification agents is needed for better control over the production and uses of mineral fillers. Here, we controlled the carboxylic acid layer formation conditions on calcite surfaces with high precision via vapor deposition. The properties of the resulting carboxylic acid layers were analyzed using surface-sensitive techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), contact angle measurements, angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and vibrational sum-frequency spectroscopy. A low wettability was achieved with long hydrocarbon chain carboxylic acids such as stearic acid. The stearic acid layer formed by vapor deposition is initially patchy, but with increasing vapor exposure time, the patches grow and condense into a homogeneous layer with a thickness close to that expected for a monolayer as evaluated by AFM and XPS. The build-up process of the layer occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures due to the higher vapor pressure. The stability of the deposited fatty acid layer in the presence of a water droplet increases with the chain length and packing density in the adsorbed layer. Vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy data demonstrate that the stearic acid monolayers on calcite have their alkyl chains in an all-trans conformation and are anisotropically distributed on the plane of the surface, forming epitaxial monolayers. Vibrational spectra also show that the stearic acid molecules interact with the calcite surface through the carboxylic acid headgroup in both its protonated and deprotonated forms. The results presented provide new molecular insights into the properties of adsorbed carboxylic acid layers on calcite.

1 - 25 of 25
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