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  • 1.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Bigun, Josef
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Expression Recognition Using the Periocular Region: A Feasibility Study2019In: Proceedings - 14th International Conference on Signal Image Technology and Internet Based Systems, SITIS 2018, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 536-541Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using the periocular region for expression recognition. Most works have tried to solve this by analyzing the whole face. Periocular is the facial region in the immediate vicinity of the eye. It has the advantage of being available over a wide range of distances and under partial face occlusion, thus making it suitable for unconstrained or uncooperative scenarios. We evaluate five different image descriptors on a dataset of 1,574 images from 118 subjects. The experimental results show an average/overall accuracy of 67.0/78.0% by fusion of several descriptors. While this accuracy is still behind that attained with full-face methods, it is noteworthy to mention that our initial approach employs only one frame to predict the expression, in contraposition to state of the art, exploiting several order more data comprising spatial-temporal data which is often not available.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Jonas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten-Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hello Human, can you read my mind?2017In: ERCIM News, ISSN 0926-4981, E-ISSN 1564-0094, no 109, p. 36-37Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    For safety reasons, autonomous vehicles should communicate their intent rather than explicitly invitepeople to act. At RISE Viktoria in Sweden, we believe this simple design principle will impact howautonomous vehicles are experienced in the future

  • 3.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Detournay, Jerome
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Frimodig, Viktor
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Oscar U.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Mostowski, Wojciech
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Diez Rodriguez, Victor
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    Halmstad University, Sweden; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria.
    Shahanoor, Golam
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Team Halmstad Approach to Cooperative Driving in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1248-1261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an experience report of team Halmstad from the participation in a competition organised by the i-GAME project, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge 2016. The competition was held in Helmond, The Netherlands, during the last weekend of May 2016. We give an overview of our car's control and communication system that was developed for the competition following the requirements and specifications of the i-GAME project. In particular, we describe our implementation of cooperative adaptive cruise control, our solution to the communication and logging requirements, as well as the high level decision making support. For the actual competition we did not manage to completely reach all of the goals set out by the organizers as well as ourselves. However, this did not prevent us from outperforming the competition. Moreover, the competition allowed us to collect data for further evaluation of our solutions to cooperative driving. Thus, we discuss what we believe were the strong points of our system, and discuss post-competition evaluation of the developments that were not fully integrated into our system during competition time.

  • 4.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden; VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden .
    Nåbo, Arne
    VTI The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Safety Analysis of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control in Vehicle Cut-inSituations2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC) is a cooperative intelligent transport systems (C-ITS) function,which especially when used in platooning applications, possess many expected benefits including efficient road spaceutilization and reduced fuel consumption. Cut-in manoeuvres in platoons can potentially reduce those benefits, and are notdesired from a safety point of view. Unfortunately, in realistic traffic scenarios, cut-in manoeuvres can be expected, especiallyfrom non-connected vehicles. In this paper two different controllers for platooning are explored, aiming at maintaining thesafety of the platoon while a vehicle is cutting in from the adjacent lane. A realistic scenario, where a human driver performsthe cut-in manoeuvre is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the controllers. Safety analysis of CACC controllers usingtime to collision (TTC) under such situation is presented. The analysis using TTC indicate that, although potential risks arealways high in CACC applications such as platooning due to the small inter-vehicular distances, dangerous TTC (TTC < 6seconds) is not frequent. Future research directions are also discussed along with the results.

  • 5.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Larsson, Tony
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Jonas
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Nabo, Arne
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Simulation of cut-in by manually driven vehicles in platooning scenarios2017In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the near future, Cooperative Intelligent Transport System (C-ITS) applications are expected to be deployed. To support this, simulation is often used to design and evaluate the applications during the early development phases. Simulations of C-ITS scenarios often assume a fleet of homogeneous vehicles within the transportation system. In contrast, once C-ITS is deployed, the traffic scenarios will consist of a mixture of connected and non-connected vehicles, which, in addition, can be driven manually or automatically. Such mixed cases are rarely analysed, especially those where manually driven vehicles are involved. Therefore, this paper presents a C-ITS simulation framework, which incorporates a manually driven car through a driving simulator interacting with a traffic simulator, and a communication simulator, which together enable modelling and analysis of C-ITS applications and scenarios. Furthermore, example usages in the scenarios, where a manually driven vehicle cut-in to a platoon of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) equipped vehicles are presented.

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Hoai Hoang
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Interaction Protocol for Highway Platoon Merge2015In: 2015 IEEE 18th International Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2015, p. 1971-1976, article id 7313411Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interaction protocol for cooperative platoon merge on highways is proposed. The interaction protocol facilitates a challenge scenario for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016, where two platoons running on separate lanes merge into one platoon due to a roadwork in one of the lanes. Detailed interaction procedures, described with state machines of each vehicle are presented. A communication message set is designed to support platoon controllers to perform safe and efficient manoeuvres.

  • 7. Bergenhem, Carl
    et al.
    Pettersson, Henrik
    Coelingh, Erik
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Shladover, Steven
    Tsugawa, Sadayuki
    Adolfsson, Magnus
    Overview of platooning systems2012In: Proceedings of the 19th ITS World Congress, 2012, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an overview of current projects that deal with vehicle platooning. The platooning concept can be defined as a collection of vehicles that travel together, actively coordinated in formation. Some expected advantages of platooning include increased fuel and traffic efficiency, safety and driver comfort. There are many variations of the details of the concept such as: the goals of platooning, how it is implemented, mix of vehicles, the requirements on infrastructure, what is automated (longitudinal and lateral control) and to what level. The following projects are presented: SARTRE – a European platooning project; PATH – a California traffic automation program that includes platooning; GCDC – a cooperative driving initiative, SCANIA platooning and; Energy ITS – a Japanese truck platooning project.

  • 8.
    Borg, Markus
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Traceability and Deep Learning: Safety-critical Systems with Traces Ending in Deep Neural Networks2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9. Borg, Markus
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wnuk, Krzysztof
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Levandowski, Christoffer
    QRTECH AB, Sweden.
    Gao, Shenjian
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Tan, Yanwen
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Kaijser, Henrik
    AB Volvo, Sweden.
    Lönn, Henrik
    AB Volvo, Sweden.
    Törnqvist, Jonas
    QRTECH AB, Sweden.
    Safely Entering the Deep: A Review of Verification and Validation for Machine Learning and a Challenge Elicitation in the Automotive Industry2019In: Journal of Automotive Software Engineering, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep neural networks (DNNs) will emerge as a cornerstone in automotive software engineering. However, developing systems with DNNs introduces novel challenges for safety assessments. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in verification and validation of safety-critical systems that rely on machine learning. Furthermore, we report from a workshop series on DNNs for perception with automotive experts in Sweden, confirming that ISO 26262 largely contravenes the nature of DNNs. We recommend aerospace-to-automotive knowledge transfer and systems-based safety approaches, for example, safety cage architectures and simulated system test cases.

  • 10. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    CHOREM: Choreographing services for emergency managemen2016In: ITS World Congress 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Choreographing Services for Smart Cities: Smart Traffic Demonstration2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the fifth generation (5G) communication technologies on the horizon, the society is rapidly transformed into a fully connected world. The Future Internet (FI) is foreseeable to consist of an infinite number of software components and things that coordinate with each other to enable different applications. Transport systems, as one of the most important systems in future smart cities, will embrace the connectivity, together with the fast development of cooperative and automated vehicles to enable smart traffic. To facilitate this transformation, a service choreography composition platform is under development to enable fast innovation and prototyping of choreography-based Internet of Things (IoT) applications by automatically synthesizing choreographies. Based on the method, a smart traffic application is developed and demonstrated.

  • 12. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cooperative Intersection Management: A Survey2016In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 570-586, article id 7244203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intersection management is one of the most challenging problems within the transport system. Traffic light-based methods have been efficient but are not able to deal with the growing mobility and social challenges. On the other hand, the advancements of automation and communications have enabled cooperative intersection management, where road users, infrastructure, and traffic control centers are able to communicate and coordinate the traffic safely and efficiently. Major techniques and solutions for cooperative intersections are surveyed in this paper for both signalized and nonsignalized intersections, whereas focuses are put on the latter. Cooperative methods, including time slots and space reservation, trajectory planning, and virtual traffic lights, are discussed in detail. Vehicle collision warning and avoidance methods are discussed to deal with uncertainties. Concerning vulnerable road users, pedestrian collision avoidance methods are discussed. In addition, an introduction to major projects related to cooperative intersection management is presented. A further discussion of the presented works is given with highlights of future research topics. This paper serves as a comprehensive survey of the field, aiming at stimulating new methods and accelerating the advancement of automated and cooperative intersections.

  • 13. Chen, Lei
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Cooperative ITS - EU standards to accelerate cooperative mobility2014In: 2014 International Conference on Connected Vehicles and Expo, ICCVE 2014, 2014, p. 681-686Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With intensive research and field operational tests over the intelligent transportation area and the advancements of information and communication technologies, intelligent transportation systems reach the stage of deployment. EU focuses on cooperative intelligent transportation systems and confirms the finalization of the first release of the standards, paving the way for deployment in the coming years. This paper presents the concept of EU's cooperative intelligent transportation systems and describes in detail the functional architecture, together with highlights of related standardsthat have been finalized in Release 1. Latest updates of the cooperative intelligent transportation systems are provided for both industry and academia, aiming at helping to accelerate cooperative mobility.

  • 14.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Every Second Counts: Integrating Edge Computing and Service Oriented Architecture for Automatic Emergency Management2018In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, Vol. 2018, article id 7592926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emergency management has long been recognized as a social challenge due to the criticality of the response time. In emergency situations such as severe traffic accidents, minimizing the response time, which requires close collaborations between all stakeholders involved and distributed intelligence support, leads to greater survival chance of the injured. However, the current response system is far from efficient, despite the rapid development of information and communication technologies. This paper presents an automated collaboration framework for emergency management that coordinates all stakeholders within the emergency response system and fully automates the rescue process. Applying the concept of multiaccess edge computing architecture, as well as choreography of the service oriented architecture, the system allows seamless coordination between multiple organizations in a distributed way through standard web services. A service choreography is designed to globally model the emergency management process from the time an accident occurs until the rescue is finished. The choreography can be synthesized to generate detailed specification on peer-to-peer interaction logic, and then the specification can be enacted and deployed on cloud infrastructures.

  • 15.
    Chen, Lei
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Walter, Anders
    Swedish Road Administration, Sweden.
    Coordinating Dangerous Goods Vehicles: C-ITS Applications for Safe Road Tunnels2015In: 2015 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2015, p. 156-161, article id 7225679Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existing regulation efforts and measures, vehicles with dangerous goods still pose significant risks on public safety, especially in road tunnels. Solutions based on cooperative intelligent transportation system (C-ITS) are promising measures, however, they have received limited attention. We propose C-ITS applications that coordinate dangerous goods vehicles to minimize the risk by maintaining safe distances between them in road tunnels. Different mechanisms, including global centralized coordination, global distributed coordination, and local coordination, are proposed and investigated. A preliminary simulation is performed and demonstrates their effectiveness.

  • 16.
    Duran, Boris
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Habobovic, Azra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Modeling vehicle behavior with neural dynamics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling the interaction of vehicles during certain traffic situations is the starting point for creating autonomous driving. Data collected from field trials where test subjects drive through a single-vehicle intersection was used to create behavioral models. The present work describes two implementations of models based on the dynamical systems approach and compares similarities and differences between them. The proposed models are designed to closely replicate the behavior selection in the intersection crossing experiment.

  • 17.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    TNO Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research, Netherlands.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hoang Bengtsson, Hoai
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Didoff, Jonas
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016: boosting the introduction of Cooperative Automated Vehicles2016In: IEEE wireless communications, ISSN 1536-1284, E-ISSN 1558-0687, Vol. 23, no 4, p. 146-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), with the aim to boost the introduction of cooperative automated vehicles by means of wireless communication, is presented. Experiences from the previous edition of GCDC, which was held in Helmond in the Netherlands in 2011, are summarized, and an overview and expectations of the challenges in the 2016 edition are discussed. Two challenge scenarios, cooperative platoon merge and cooperative intersection passing, are specified and presented. One demonstration scenario for emergency vehicles is designed to showcase the benefits of cooperative driving. Communications closely follow the newly published cooperative intelligent transport system standards, while interaction protocols are designed for each of the scenarios. For the purpose of interoperability testing, an interactive testing tool is designed and presented. A general summary of the requirements on teams for participating in the challenge is also presented.

  • 18.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Vinel, A
    Shih Yang, L
    Future Applications of VANETs2015In: Vehicular ad hoc Networks: Standards, Solutions, and Research, Part V / [ed] Claudia Campolo, Antonella Molinaro, Riccardo Scopigno, Springer Publishing Company, 2015, p. 525-544Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Current transportation systems face great challenges due to the increasing mobility. Traffic accidents, congestion, air pollution, etc., are all calling for new methods to improve the transportation system. With the US legislation in progress over vehicle communications and EU’s finalization of the basic set of standards over cooperative intelligent transportation systems (C-ITS), vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) based applications are expected to address those challenges and provide solutions for a safer, more efficient and sustainable future intelligent transportation systems (ITS). In this chapter, transportation challenges are firstly summarized in respect of safety, efficiency, environmental threat, etc. A brief introduction of the VANET is discussed along with state of the art of VANET-based applications. Based on the current progress and the development trend of VANET, a number of new features of future VANET are identified, together with a set of potential future ITS applications. The on-going research and field operational test projects, which are the major enabling efforts for the future VANET-based C-ITS, are presented. The chapter is of great interest to readers working within ITS for current development status and future trend within the C-ITS area. It is also of interest to general public for an overview of the VANET enabled future transportation system.

  • 19.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    Voronov, Alexey
    Cooperative speed harmonization for efficient road utilization2014In: Nets4Cars, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technolgoy, Sweden.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Method for prediction of Utilization Rate of Electric Vehicle Free-Floating Car Sharing Services using Data Mining2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing is a form of car rental used by people for short periods of time where the cars can be picked up and returned anywhere within a given area. In this paper, we have collected free-floating car sharing data, for electric as well as fossil fueled cars, and data regarding e.g. size of the city, number of cars in the service, etc. The utilization rates of the free-floating car sharing services vary much between the cities, greatly influencing the success of the services. This paper presents the most important factors influencing the utilization rate, and also a methodology to predict the utilization rate for new cities, using data mining based on Random Forests.

  • 21.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Estrada, John
    eTrans Systems, USA.
    Jaaskelainen, Juhani
    MH Roine Consulting, Finland.
    Misener, John
    Qualcomm Technologies Inc, USA.
    Satyavolu, Surya
    Serna, Frank
    Draper Laboratory, USA.
    Sundararajan, Sudharson
    Booz Allen Hamilton Inc, USA.
    Enabling Technologies for Road Vehicle Automation2017In: Road Vehicle Automation 4: (Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)) / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, Springer, 2017, p. 177-185Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology is to a large extent driving the development of road vehicle automation. This Chapter summarizes the general overall trends in the enabling technologies within this field that were discussed during the Enabling technologies for road vehicle automation breakout session at the Automated Vehicle Symposium 2016. With a starting point in six scenarios that have the potential to be deployed at an early stage, five different categories of emerging technologies are described: (a) positioning, localization and mapping (b) algorithms, deep learning techniques, sensor fusion guidance and control (c) hybrid communication (d) sensing and perception and (e) technologies for data ownership and privacy. It is found that reliability and extensive computational power are the two most common challenges within the emerging technologies. Furthermore, cybersecurity binds all technologies together as vehicles will be constantly connected. Connectivity allows both improved local awareness through vehicle-to-vehicle communication and it allows continuous deployment of new software and algorithms that constantly learns new unforeseen objects or scenarios. Finally, while five categories were individually considered, further holistic work to combine them in a systems concept would be the important next step toward implementation.

  • 22.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Kovaceva, Jordanka
    Lindman, Magdalena
    Grönvall, John-Fredrik
    Using random forests for data mining data and drowsy driver classification using FOT data2012In: Proceedings of On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems: OTM 2012, 2012, Vol. 5766, p. 748-758Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Nilsson, Josef
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    On the need for standardized representations of cooperative vehicle behavior2013In: Proceedings of the Second International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology toward zero-traffic-accident,, JSAE, Society of Automotive engineers of Japan , 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Josef
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Cooperative ITS application development through semantic standardization2013In: FASTZero 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Nilsson, Maria
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    The application of data mining techniques to model visual distraction of bicyclists2016In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 52, p. 99-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel approach to modelling visual distraction of bicyclists. A unique bicycle simulator equipped with sensors capable of capturing the behaviour of the bicyclist is presented. While cycling two similar scenario routes, once while simultaneously interacting with an electronic device and once without any electronic device, statistics of the measured speed, head movements, steering angle and bicycle road position along with questionnaire data are captured. These variables are used to model the self-assessed distraction level of the bicyclist. Data mining techniques based on random forests, support vector machines and neural networks are evaluated for the modelling task. Out of the total 71 measured variables a variable selection procedure based on random forests is able to select a fraction of those and consequently improving the modelling performance. By combining the random forest-based variable selection and support vector machine-based modelling technique the best overall performance is achieved. The method shows that with a few observable variables it is possible to use machine learning to model, and thus predict, the distraction level of a bicyclist.

  • 26.
    Englund, Cristofer
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Verikas, Antanas
    A novel approach to estimate proximity in a random forest: An exploratory study2012In: Expert systems with applications, ISSN 0957-4174, E-ISSN 1873-6793, Vol. 39, no 17, p. 13046-13050Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden.
    Comparison of free-floating car sharing services incities2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered by many organizations as a moreflexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywherewithin a specified area of a city. FFCS can provide a high degree of utilization of vehicles and less usage ofinfrastructure in the form of parking lots and roads and thus has the potential to increase the efficiency of thetransport sector. However, there is also a concern that these compete with other efficient modes of transport suchas biking and public transport. The aim of this paper is to better understand how, when and where the vehiclesare utilized through logged data of the vehicles movements. We have access to data collected on FFCS servicesin 22 cities in Europe and North America which allows us to compare the usage pattern in different cities andexamine whether or not there are similar trends. In this paper, we use the collected data to compare the differentcities based on utilization rate, length of trip and time of day that the trip is made. We find that the vehicleutilization rates differ between cities with Madrid and Hamburg having some of the highest utilization levels forthe FFCS vehicles. The result form a first step of a better understanding on how these services are being usedand can provide valuable input to local policy makers as well as future studies such as simulation models.

  • 28.
    Habibi, Shiva
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling, Sweden.
    Success and Usage Pattern of Free-Floating Carsharing Services in Cities2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car sharing services (FFCS) have been offered as a more flexible mobility solution than other car sharing services. FFCS users can pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area in a city.The objective of this paper is to identify similar usage patterns of FFCS in different cities as well as city characteristics that make these services a viable option. The authors have access to real booking data for 32 cities in Europe and North America. Their study shows the share of daily car trips is negatively correlated to the utilization rate of these services. Also, the higher the congestion and the harder finding a parking lot, the lower the utilization rate of these services is in the cities. Moreover, our results suggest that FFCS services do not compete with public transport but are rather used in combination to it. These services are mainly used during midday and evening peak and the trips taken by these services are mainly chained trips.The clustering analysis shows that the trips are grouped into two or three clusters in different cities. The majority of clusters are the inner city clusters which contain a significantly higher number of trips than the clusters around other points of interest such as airports.

  • 29.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    External vehicle interfaces for communication with other road users2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Andersson, Jonas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Malmsten Lundgren, Victor
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Larsson, Sofia
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Interactive.
    External Vehicle Interfaces for Communication with Other Road Users?2019In: Road Vehicle Automation 5 / [ed] Gereon Meyer, Sven Beiker, 2019, p. 91-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How to ensure trust and societal acceptance of automated vehicles (AVs) is a widely-discussed topic today. While trust and acceptance could be influenced by a range of factors, one thing is sure: the ability of AVs to safely and smoothly interact with other road users will play a key role. Based on our experiences from a series of studies, this paper elaborates on issues that AVs may face in interactions with other road users and whether external vehicle interfaces could support these interactions. Our overall conclusion is that such interfaces may be beneficial in situations where negotiation is needed. However, these benefits, and potential drawbacks, need to be further explored to create a common language, or standard, for how AVs should communicate with other road users.

  • 31. Habibovic, Azra
    et al.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    Challenges and Opportunities in the Field of Road Vehicle Automation2014In: Proceedings of FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon AB, Sweden.
    Berger, Christian
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Chalmers Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Tornberg, Lars
    Volvo Cars, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sathyamoorthy, Sankar
    QRTech AB, Sweden.
    Ursing, Stig
    Semcon AB, Sweden.
    Towards Structured Evaluation of Deep Neural Network Supervisors2019In: Proceedings - 2019 IEEE International Conference on Artificial Intelligence Testing, AITest 2019, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2019, p. 27-34Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have improved the quality of several non-safety related products in the past years. However, before DNNs should be deployed to safety-critical applications, their robustness needs to be systematically analyzed. A common challenge for DNNs occurs when input is dissimilar to the training set, which might lead to high confidence predictions despite proper knowledge of the input. Several previous studies have proposed to complement DNNs with a supervisor that detects when inputs are outside the scope of the network. Most of these supervisors, however, are developed and tested for a selected scenario using a specific performance metric. In this work, we emphasize the need to assess and compare the performance of supervisors in a structured way. We present a framework constituted by four datasets organized in six test cases combined with seven evaluation metrics. The test cases provide varying complexity and include data from publicly available sources as well as a novel dataset consisting of images from simulated driving scenarios. The latter we plan to make publicly available. Our framework can be used to support DNN supervisor evaluation, which in turn could be used to motive development, validation, and deployment of DNNs in safety-critical applications.

  • 33.
    Henriksson, Jens
    et al.
    Semcon, Sweden.
    Borg, Markus
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, SICS.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Automotive Safety and Machine Learning: Initial Results from a Study on How to Adapt the ISO 26262 Safety Standard2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine learning (ML) applications generate a continuous stream of success stories from various domains. ML enables many novel applications, also in safety-critical contexts. However, the functional safety standards such as ISO 26262 did not evolve to cover ML. We conduct an exploratory study on which parts of ISO 26262 represent the most critical gaps between safety engineering and ML development. While this paper only reports the first steps toward a larger research endeavor, we report three adaptations that are critically needed to allow ISO 26262 compliant engineering, and related suggestions on how to evolve the standard.

  • 34.
    Holmberg, P
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    Englund, Cristofer
    Påverkan av broöppningar på kollektivtrafik över Götaälvbron2014Report (Other academic)
  • 35. Kianfar, Roozbeh
    et al.
    Augusto, Bruno
    Ebadighajari, Alireza
    Hakeem, Usman
    Nilsson, Josef
    Raza, Ali
    Tabar, Reza S.
    Irukulapati, Naga VishnuKanth
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Falcone, Paolo
    Papanastasiou, Stylianos
    Svensson, Lennart
    Wymeersch, Henk
    Design and Experimental Validation of a Cooperative Driving System in the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2012In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 994-1007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present the Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control (CACC) architecture, which was proposed and im- plemented by the team from Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden, that joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) in 2011. The proposedCACCarchitecture con- sists of the following three main components, which are described in detail: 1) communication; 2) sensor fusion; and 3) control. Both simulation and experimental results are provided, demonstrating that the proposed CACC system can drive within a vehicle platoon while minimizing the inter-vehicle spacing within the allowed range of safety distances, tracking a desired speed profile, and attenuating acceleration shockwaves.

  • 36. Larsson, Tony
    et al.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Grante, Christian
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Cooperative Partly Automated and Coordinated Vehicles and Transports2014In: 2014 National Workshop on Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Lindgren, Anders
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, SICS, Decisions, Networks and Analytics lab.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Amanuel, Mahdere
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    ITS-solutions for the identification of dangerous goods and non-moving vehicles research within the Stockholm Bypass project2014In: The 6th International symposium on Tunnel Safety and Security (ISTSS), 2014, p. 613-620Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38. Nilsson, Josef
    et al.
    Strandén, Lars
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Fault model for cooperative semi-automated vehicles2013In: 20th ITS World Congress, Tokyo 2013. Proceedings, 2013, p. 1-10, article id 2058.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault model for vehicle functions that includes communication devices for inter-vehicle cooperation. In particular, the fault model addresses vehicles where automation has partially replaced the driver, i.e., semi-automated cooperative vehicles. Components considered in the fault model include human drivers, communication systems, sensors, actuators, and control units. A description of faults in cooperative systems in general is complemented with an identification of errors in a platooning system. The identification has revealed systematic faults in software and human errors in the interaction between the system and the driver.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    Amanuel, Mahdere
    On the usage of portable electronic devices: a qualiative study of cyclist behaviour2014In: International Cycling Safety, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40. Nilsson, Maria
    et al.
    Williander, Mats
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Commercialisation of Intelligent Transportation Systems: The Case of Cooperative Systems2012In: Proceedings of Transport Research Arena (TRA 2012), 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Bjärsvik, Susanne
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Eriksson, Robert
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Koponen, Veikko
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Urban
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Mildning, Hans Göran
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Sundström, Christofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Driving style comparison of plug-in hybrids and fossil fueled vehicles based on data collection of fast sampled signals2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Nijmeijer, Henk
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Shladover, Steven E
    University of California at Berkeley, USA.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Guest Editorial Introduction to the Special Issue on the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1208-1212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative driving is based on wireless communications between vehicles and between vehicles and roadside infrastructure, aiming for increased traffic flow and traffic safety, while decreasing fuel consumption and emissions. To support and accelerate the introduction of cooperative vehicles in everyday traffic, in 2011, nine international teams joined the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC). The challenge was to perform platooning, in which vehicles drive in road trains with short intervehicle distances. The results were reported in a Special Issue of IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, published in September 2012 [item 1 in the Appendix].

  • 43.
    Ploeg, Jeroen
    et al.
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Morales Medina, Alejandro
    Eindhoven University of Technology,The Netherlands.
    de Jongh, Jan F C M
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Sluis, Jacco
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Acreo.
    Bril, Reindner
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Salunkhe, Hrishikesh
    Thermo Fisher Scientific, The Netherlands.
    Arrue, Alvaro
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Ruano, Aitor
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    Garcia-Sol, Lorena
    Applus+ IDIADA, Spain.
    van Nunen, Ellen
    TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, The Netherlands.
    van de Wouw, Nathan
    Eindhoven University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Cooperative Automated Maneuvering at the 2016 Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1213-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative adaptive cruise control and platooning are well- known applications in the field of cooperative automated driving. However, extension toward maneuvering is desired to accommodate common highway maneuvers, such as merging, and to enable urban applications. To this end, a layered control architecture is adopted. In this architecture, the tactical layer hosts the interaction protocols, describing the wireless information exchange to initiate the vehicle maneuvers, supported by a novel wireless message set, whereas the operational layer involves the vehicle controllers to realize the desired maneuvers. This hierarchical approach was the basis for the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC), which was held in May 2016 in The Netherlands. The GCDC provided the opportunity for participating teams to cooperatively execute a highway lane-reduction scenario and an urban intersection-crossing scenario. The GCDC was set up as a competition and, hence, also involving assessment of the teams' individual performance in a cooperative setting. As a result, the hierarchical architecture proved to be a viable approach, whereas the GCDC appeared to be an effective instrument to advance the field of cooperative automated driving.

  • 44.
    Rosenstatter, Thomas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden ; Salzburg University of Applied Sciences, Austria ; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Modelling the Level of Trust in a Cooperative Automated Vehicle Control System2018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1267-1247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle-to-vehicle communication is a key technology for achieving increased perception for automated vehicles, where the communication enables virtual sensing by means of sensors in other vehicles. In addition, this technology also allows detection and recognition of objects that are out-of-sight. This paper presents a trust system that allows a cooperative and automated vehicle to make more reliable and safe decisions. The system evaluates the current situation and generates a trust index indicating the level of trust in the environment, the ego vehicle, and the surrounding vehicles. This research goes beyond secure communication and concerns the verification of the received data on a system level. The results show that the proposed method is capable of correctly identifying various traffic situations and how the trust index is used while manoeuvring in a platoon merge scenario.

  • 45.
    Shih Yang, Lin
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Vinel, Alexey
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Chen, Lei
    Adaptive Wavelength Adjustment (AWLA) for Cooperative Speed Harmonization2014In: VNC, 2014, p. 113-114Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic merge on express-ways creates bottlenecks for traffic flow that potentially lead to traffic jams, especially in dense traffic. Cooperative speed harmonization (CSH), where vehicles are grouped and associated to virtual speed waves for group-wise joining at intersections, is proven to be efficient for on-ramp traffic merge. Based on CSH and considering variations of traffic density from joining roads, an adaptive wavelength adjustment (AWLA) mechanism is proposed in this paper. AWLA extends CSH by dynamically adjusting the length of segments in virtual waves according to the traffic densities of the joining roads. Therefore, roads with denser traffic may have larger segments to carry more vehicles through the intersection, which may improve the overall performance. Simulation results have shown that AWLA can achieve lower CO2 emissions and shorter travel time compared to CSH with static segment settings.

  • 46.
    Sprei, Frances
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Engdahl, Henrik
    Nimling AB, Sweden..
    Comparing electric vehicles and fossil driven vehicles in free-floating car sharing services2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, free-floating car sharing (FFCS) services have been offered as a more flexible option compared to traditional car sharing. FFCS allows users to pick up and return cars anywhere within a specified area of a city. These can be either electric or fossil driven vehicles. We analyze the difference in usage of these two types of vehicles. The analysis is based on a dataset consisting of vehicle availability data sampled between 2014 and 2016 for 9 cities with EVs in the FFCS fleet. We find that there is no statistical difference in how EVs and fossil driven FFCS vehicles are used. When it comes to charging of EVs two main strategies are identified: widespread “slow charging” versus tailored fast-charging.

  • 47.
    Sprei, Frances
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Habibi, Shiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Voronov, Alexey
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Wedlin, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Free-floating car-sharing electrification and mode displacement: Travel time and usage patterns from 12 cities in Europe and the United States2019In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 71, p. 127-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Free-floating car-sharing (FFCS) allows users to book a vehicle through their phone, use it and return it anywhere within a designated area in the city. FFCS has the potential to contribute to a transition to low-carbon mobility if the vehicles are electric, and if the usage does not displace active travel or public transport use. The aim of this paper is to study what travel time and usage patterns of the vehicles among the early adopters of the service reveal about these two issues. We base our analysis on a dataset containing rentals from 2014 to 2017, for 12 cities in Europe and the United States. For seven of these cities, we have collected travel times for equivalent trips with walking, biking, public transport and private car. FFCS services are mainly used for shorter trips with a median rental time of 27 min and actual driving time closer to 15 min. When comparing FFCS with other transport modes, we find that rental times are generally shorter than the equivalent walking time but longer than cycling. For public transport, the picture is mixed: for some trips there is no major time gain from taking FFCS, for others it could be up to 30 min. For electric FFCS vehicles rental time is shorter and the number of rentals per car and day are slightly fewer compared to conventional vehicles. Still, evidence from cities with an only electric fleet show that these services can be electrified and reach high levels of utilization.

  • 48.
    Strandén, Lars
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Karlsson, Christer
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, EMC.
    Nilsson, Josef
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Jacobson, Jan
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Pålitliga system.
    Lidström, Kristoffer
    Habibovic, Azra
    Englund, Cristofer
    AstaZero - kommunikationsbehov V2X2013Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This report shows the current need for wireless V2X communication equipment (vehicle to vehicle and vehicle to infrastructure) for the evaluation of cooperative systems at the AstaZero proving ground. The work has been conducted within the project EQUIPP which is a collaboration between SP Technical Research institute of Sweden and Viktoria Swedish ICT and funded by RISE (Research institutes of Sweden).

  • 49.
    Torstensson, Martin
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Using Recurrent Neural Networks for Action and Intention Recognition of Car Drivers2019In: Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Pattern Recognition Applications and Methods, 2019, p. 232-242Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traffic situations leading up to accidents have been shown to be greatly affected by human errors. To reduce

    these errors, warning systems such as Driver Alert Control, Collision Warning and Lane Departure Warning

    have been introduced. However, there is still room for improvement, both regarding the timing of when a

    warning should be given as well as the time needed to detect a hazardous situation in advance. Two factors that

    affect when a warning should be given are the environment and the actions of the driver. This study proposes

    an artificial neural network-based approach consisting of a convolutional neural network and a recurrent neural

    network with long short-term memory to detect and predict different actions of a driver inside a vehicle. The

    network achieved an accuracy of 84% while predicting the actions of the driver in the next frame, and an

    accuracy of 58% 20 frames ahead with a sampling rate of approximately 30 frames per second.

  • 50.
    Varytimidis, Dimitrios
    et al.
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Alonso-Fernandez, Fernando
    Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Duran, Boris
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Englund, Cristofer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Action  and  intention  recognition  of  pedestrians  in  urban  traffic2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Action and intention recognition of pedestrians inurban  settings  are  challenging  problems  for  Advanced  DriverAssistance Systems as well as future autonomous vehicles tomaintain  smooth  and  safe  traffic.  This  work  investigates  anumber  of  feature  extraction  methods  in  combination  withseveral machine learning algorithms to build knowledge on howto automatically detect the action and intention of pedestriansin urban traffic. We focus on the motion and head orientationto predict whether the pedestrian is about to cross the street ornot. The work is based on the Joint Attention for AutonomousDriving   (JAAD)   dataset,   which   contains   346   videoclips   ofvarious traffic scenarios captured with cameras mounted in thewindshield  of  a  car.  An  accuracy  of  72%  for  head  orientationestimation  and  85%  for  motion  detection  is  obtained  in  our experiments.

12 1 - 50 of 54
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