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  • 1. Alexandrescu, L.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Iotti, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Belosi, F.
    Gatti, A.M.
    Air filtration of nano-particles using cellulose nanofibrils2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2. Alexandrescu, L.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Gatti, A.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cytotoxicity tests of cellulose nanofibril-based structures2013In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Aslan, M.
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Sørensen, B.F.
    Madsen, B.
    Strength Variability of Single Flax Fibres2011In: Journal of Materials Science, ISSN 0022-2461, E-ISSN 1573-4803, Vol. 46Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Brodin, Malin
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Vallejos, Maria
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Opedal, Mihaela Tanase
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Area, Maria C.
    Instituto de Materiales de Misiones (IMAM), Argentina.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Lignocellulosics as sustainable resources for production of bioplastics: a review2017In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 162, p. 646-664Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The bio-based economy requires a sustainable utilization of bioresources for production of a range of products, including pulp, paper, chemicals, biofuel and bioplastics. Currently, various types of bioplastics are produced industrially, competing in performance and price with the conventional fossil-oil based plastics. However, there is also a major interest in utilizing non-food crops, such as lignocellulosics, for production of drop-in polymers or new dedicated bioplastics. Lignocellulosic resources have a potential to replace plastics and materials, which have been traditionally based on fossil resources. This is important, as the development of high performance bio-based and renewable materials is one important factor for sustainable growth of the bio-based industry. However, production of bioplastics from forestry biomass requires a dedicated fractionation into the major components, i.e. cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin, effective purification processes and cost-effective routes for conversion into monomers and platform molecules, utilized as a basis for bioplastics production. These processes are now technologically demanding and not profitable. The intention of this work was thus to review the current advances that have been made during the years within fractionation and purification of lignocelluloses and the processes that may feasible for production of bioplastics, based on wood components.

  • 5.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Advanced biomaterials based on nanofibrillated cellulose: from nanopapers to nanomedicine2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) offers a wide range of interesting opportunities and advantages, being biodegradable, renewable and thus environmentally sound. Extensive research has been performed on the effective production and application of NFC. The proposed applications extend from being a component in paper, coatings and composite materials to being applied in bio-medicine as part of wound dressings or in drug delivery systems. Some of the major advantages of NFC are the dimensions and the structural and chemical composition of nanofibrils, which lead to the formation of dense networks with optimized optical and mechanical properties. In this respect, the concept of nanopaper has been introduced. Nanopapers are strong structures, with high light transmittance and smooth surfaces. These characteristics open for novel applications, including the formation of smooth substrates for printing functionality. A recently explored example is the printing of bioactive biomacromolecules and conductive structures on tailor-made nanopapers, which could form the basis for novel biosensors. Additionally, nanobarriers are most promising in novel packaging applications where the self-assembly properties of the material facilitate the formation of dense structures with high barrier against oxygen. However, NFC alone does not seem to be sufficient for the formation of adequate nanobarriers due to the brittle and hygroscopic characteristics of the material. Novel biocomposite concepts need thus closer attention, where the strong and high barrier properties of NFC could be complemented with adequate bioplastics and additives for the formation of ductile films, suitable for conversion processes. From the biomedical point of view, NFC offers several advantages. Depending on the structural and chemical composition of the material and the cross-linking with adequate polymers and particles, micro-porous and elastic gels can be formed. Such gels can hold a considerable amount of water, thus being an excellent material for keeping a moist environment during wound healing and for facilitating the regeneration process of human tissue. Additionally, NFC gels based on oxidized nanofibrils can have pH-sensitive characteristics, a property with potential in drug delivery. With the intention of giving an extensive description of NFC and its modern applications, this presentation will be divided into three main sections; i) production and definition, ii) characterization including structural, chemical and biological aspects and iii) novel applications of NFC from nanopapers to biomedical devices.

  • 6.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cellulose fibres, nanofibrils and microfibrils: The morphological sequence of MFC components from a plant physiology and fibre technology point of view2011In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Complementary microscopy techniques for surface characterisation of uncoated and mineral pigment coated paper2012In: Current microscopy contributions to advances in science and technology / [ed] Méndez-Vilsa A., Formatex Research Center, 2012, p. 1448-1455Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Complementary Microscopy Techniques for Surface Characterisation of Uncoated and Mineral Pigment Coated Paper2012In: Current Microscopy Contributions to Advances in Science and Technology, Formatex Research Center , 2012, , p. 8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Microscopy and computerized image analysis of wood pulp fibres multiscale structures2010In: Microscopy: Science, technology, applications and education / [ed] Méndez-Vilas A., Formatex Research Center, 2010, p. 2182-2189Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Microscopy and computerized image analysis of wood pulp fibres multiscale structures2010In: Microscopy: Science, technology, application and education, Formatex Research Center , 2010, , p. 8Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Novel biocomposite engineering and bio-applications2018In: Bioengineering, ISSN 2306-5354, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 80-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Optical methods for the quantification of the fibrillation degree of bleached MFC materials2013In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Por una ciencia integrada2018In: Celulosa Y Papel, ISSN 0716-2308, Vol. 34, no 4, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Potential and Limitations of Nanocelluloses as Components in Biocomposite Inks for Three-Dimensional Bioprinting and for Biomedical Devices.2018In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 701-711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing has rapidly emerged as a new technology with a wide range of applications that includes biomedicine. Some common 3D printing methods are based on the suitability of biopolymers to be extruded through a nozzle to construct a 3D structure layer by layer. Nanocelluloses with specific rheological characteristics are suitable components to form inks for 3D printing. This review considers various nanocelluloses that have been proposed for 3D printing with a focus on the potential advantages, limitations, and requirements when used for biomedical devices and when used in contact with the human body.

  • 15.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Aasrød, K.
    Leinsvang, Berit
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Bouveng, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Johansson, Per-Åke
    RISE, Innventia.
    Structural effects on print-through and set-off2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 596-603Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Averianova, N.
    Gibadullin, M.
    Petrov, V.
    Leirset, Ingebjörg
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Micro-structural characterisation of homogeneous and layered MFC nano-composites2013In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 44Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Averianova, N
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Kondalenko, O
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Garaeva, M
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    Petrov, V
    Kazan National Research Technological University, Russia.
    The effect of residual fibres on the micro-topography of cellulose nanopaper2014In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 56, p. 80-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Brodin, Malin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Karlsen, Trond
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Wood pulp fibres and nanocellulose: Characterization and application in biocomposite materials2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A composite can be defined as a material composed of two or more components having distinct morphology and chemistry, and giving synergetic effects. In this paper the term biocomposite is used, referring to i) a material having at least one bio-component (e.g. wood pulp fibres and nanofibrils) or ii) biomaterials intended for biomedical applications. The utilization of wood pulp fibres in composite materials has gained major interest during the last years. There are various wood pulp fibres that can be used as reinforcement in composites, e.g. thermo-mechanical pulp (TMP), chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp (CTMP) and kraft pulp fibres. Depending on the pulping process (TMP, CTMP or kraft pulp), the pulp fibres differ greatly with respect to the fibre morphology and chemistry. Kraft pulp fibres have been one of the most used raw materials for producing nanocellulose. Nanocellulose from wood refers to various cellulose nano-materials such as cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibrillated cellulose. Nanofibrillated cellulose is composed of a major fraction of structurally homogeneous nanofibrils having typical widths in the nanometre scale and lengths in the micrometre scale. Wood pulp fibres and nanofibrils have been proposed as reinforcement in composite materials. Some of the major motivations have been the potential improvements by using fibres and nanofibrillated materials with respect to e.g. strength, biodegradability and functionality. The purpose of the present work is to review some advances in biocomposite research and development, including three focus areas; structured biocomposites, flexible biocomposites and biomaterials.

  • 19.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Ehman, Nanci
    IMAM, Argentina.
    Filgueira, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Johansson, Jenny
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Vallejos, Maria
    IMAM, Argentina.
    Felissia, Fernando
    IMAM, Argentina.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Area, Maria
    IMAM, Argentina.
    Bagasse—A major agro-industrial residue as potential resource for nanocellulose inks for 3D printing of wound dressing devices2019In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, Vol. 28, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane bagasse, an abundant residue, is usually burned as an energy source. However, provided that appropriate and sustainable pulping and fractionation processes are applied, bagasse can be utilized as a main source of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF). We explored in this study the production of CNF inks for 3D printing by direct-ink-writing technology. The CNF were tested against L929 fibroblasts cell line and we confirmed that the CNF from soda bagasse fibers were found not to have a cytotoxic potential. Additionally, we demonstrated that the alginate and Ca 2+ caused significant dimensional changes to the 3D printed constructs. The CNF-alginate grids exhibited a lateral expansion after printing and then shrank due to the cross-linking with the Ca 2+ . The release of Ca 2+ from the CNF and CNF-alginate constructs was quantified thus providing more insight about the CNF as carrier for Ca 2+ . This, combined with 3D printing, offers potential for personalized wound dressing devices, i.e. tailor-made constructs that can be adapted to a specific shape, depending on the characteristics of the wound healing treatment.

  • 20.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Ehman, Nanci V.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Pettersson, Jennifer
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Vallejos, Maria E.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Brodin, Malin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Felissia, Fernando E.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Håkansson, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Chemistry and Materials.
    Area, Maria C.
    IMAM Instituto de Materiales de Misiones, Argentina.
    Pulping and Pretreatment Affect the Characteristics of Bagasse Inks for Three-dimensional Printing2018In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 4068-4075Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bagasse is an underutilized agro-industrial residue with great potential as raw material for the production of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) for a range of applications. In this study, we have assessed the suitability of bagasse for production of CNF for three-dimensional (3D) printing. First, pulp fibers were obtained from the bagasse raw material using two fractionation methods, i.e. soda and hydrothermal treatment combined with soda. Second, the pulp fibers were pretreated by TEMPO-mediated oxidation using two levels of oxidation for comparison purposes. Finally, the CNF were characterized in detail and assessed as inks for 3D printing. The results show that CNF produced from fibers obtained by hydrothermal and soda pulping were less nanofibrillated than the corresponding material produced by soda pulping. However, the CNF sample obtained from soda pulp was cytotoxic, apparently due to a larger content of silica particles. All the CNF materials were 3D printable. We conclude that the noncytotoxic CNF produced from hydrothermally and soda treated pulp can potentially be used as inks for 3D printing of biomedical devices. 

  • 21.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kirsebom, H.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Designing nanocellulose qualities for wound dressings2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Kuznetsova, N.
    Garaeva, M.
    Leirset, Ingebjörg
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Galiullina, G.
    Bleached and unbleached MFC nanobarriers:: Properties and hydrophobisation with hexamethyldisilazane2012In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Miettinen, A
    Hendriks, C.L.L
    Gamstedt, K
    Kataka, M
    Structural characterisation of kraft pulp fibres and their nanofibrillated materials for biodegradable composite applications2011In: Nanocomposites and Polymers with Analytical Methods, InTech , 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Powell, L.C
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK; Swansea University, UK.
    Khan, S
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Hill, K.E
    Cardiff University UK.
    Thomas, D.W
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Wood nanocellulose: Characterization and potential application as barrier against wound bacteria2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wood nanocellulose is a novel biomaterial for wound dressing applications. Wood nanocellulose was produced from never-dried P. radiata pulp fibres. The applied pre-treatment was 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl  (TEMPO) mediated oxidation. To characterise bacterial growth, P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms were grown in Mueller Hinton broth on air-dried films. Various microscopy techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), were applied to characterise the nanocellulose material and the bacterial-nanocellulose interactions.   Multiscale assessments, including FESEM and AFM, revealed the effective fibrillation of the fibre wall structure, yielding nanofibrils with diameters less than 20 nm and lengths in the micrometre-scale. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the growth of PAO1 was inhibited in the presence of the nanocellulose suspensions when compared to the control. Additionally, SEM imaging revealed distinct clusters of PAO1 cells growing on the surfaces of nanocellulose films. This work highlights the potential usefulness of novel nanocellulose materials in wound dressings with optimized characteristics.

  • 25.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Powell, L.C
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK; Swansea University, UK.
    Nordli, H.R
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Khan, S
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Hill, K.E
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Thomas, D.W
    Cardiff University, UK.
    Nanocellulose from wood as a biomaterial for biomedical applications2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades major efforts have been made to produce nanocellulose from wood, where the cellulose fibres are disintegrated into individualized nanofibrils with diameters < 20 nm and lengths in the micrometre scale. Production procedures include various pre-treatments, which yield nanocelluloses with varying chemical and structural properties. One important area of research is nanocellulose as a biomaterial with potential applications within the health sector. As an example, the superior mechanical properties, good moisture retention capability and the ability to form elastic macro-porous structures are advantageous properties for utilizing nanocellulose substrates for wound dressings. However, the utilization of nanocellulose as a substrate for wound dressings requires a thorough assessment of the biocompatibility of the material.  In this respect, it has been demonstrated in-vitro that nanocellulose does not exert acute toxic phenomena on fibroblast cells. However, in addition to in-vitro cytotoxicity testing, in-vivo testing of nanocellulose and the ability of nanocellulose to resist bacterial colonization need a closer attention. This presentation will give an overview of the current research on nanocellulose as a biomaterial for wound dressing applications, considering the morphology of nanocellulose structures, mechanical properties, moisture absorption, cytotoxicity tests and nanocellulose-bacteria interactions.

  • 26.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Solheim, O.
    Lenes, M.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Larsen, Å.
    A method for estimating the fibre length in fibre-PLA composites2013In: Journal of Microscopy, ISSN 0022-2720, E-ISSN 1365-2818, Vol. 250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Cellulose nanofibrils: production, characterization and applications2011In: Fine Structure of Papermaking Fibres, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , 2011, , p. 13Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    On the porosity and oxygen barrier properties of cellulose nanofibril-based films2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    On the structure and oxygen transmission rate of biodegradable cellulose nanobarriers2012In: Nanoscale Research Letters, ISSN 1931-7573, E-ISSN 1556-276X, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Pretreatment-dependent surface chemistry of wood nanocellulose for pH-sensitive hydrogels2014In: Journal of biomaterials applications, ISSN 0885-3282, E-ISSN 1530-8022, Vol. 3, no 29, p. 423-432Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Tobjörk, D.
    Österbacka, R.
    Inkjet-printed silver nanoparticles on nano-engineered cellulose films for electrically conducting structures and organic transistors:: concept and challenges2012In: Journal of nanoparticle research, ISSN 1388-0764, E-ISSN 1572-896X, Vol. 14Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Yu, Y.
    Diserud, O.
    Quantitative Electron Microscopy of Cellulose Nanofibril Structures from Eucalyptus and Pinus Radiata Kraft Pulp Fibres2011In: Microscopy and Microanalysis, ISSN 1431-9276, E-ISSN 1435-8115, Vol. 17Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Djafari Petroudy, Seyed Rahman
    et al.
    Shahid Beheshti University, Iran.
    Ghasemian, Ali
    Gorgan University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Resalati, Hossein
    Sari University of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources, Iran.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of xylan on the fibrillation efficiency of DED bleached soda bagasse pulp and on nanopaper characteristics2015In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 385-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Xylan is the second most abundant polysaccharide and the most abundant hemicellulose component of soda bagasse pulp. In this study, bleached soda bagasse pulp (SB) and bleached bagasse dissolving pulp (DB) with varying amounts of xylan were fibrillated with a homogenization process. The produced fibrillated materials were used for making nanopaper structures. The surface, physical, mechanical and optical properties of the nanopaper were measured, and the effect of xylan was assessed. Laser profilometry (LP) and field emission scanning electron microscopy were applied to study the degree of the fibrillation. The pulp having the highest xylan content, SB, showed the highest yield of cellulose nanofibrils. Nanopaper produced from SB had a more consolidated structure than that produced from DB. Additionally, SB nanopaper yielded higher tensile strength, lower LP roughness, a higher barrier against oxygen and lower opacity. These results indicate a higher degree of fibrillation of the SB pulp compared to the DB pulp. Hence, the positive effect of xylan for facilitating the fibrillation of the starting pulp fibers was demonstrated.

  • 34. Djafari Petroudy, S.R.
    et al.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Ghasemain, A.
    Resalati, H.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Oriented nanopaper (ONP) made of bagasse nanofibrils2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Espinosa, Eduardo
    et al.
    Universidad de Cordoba, Spain.
    Filgueira, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Rodríguez, Alejandro
    Universidad de Cordoba, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Nanocellulose-Based Inks-Effect of Alginate Content on the Water Absorption of 3D Printed Constructs.2019In: Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), ISSN 2306-5354, Vol. 6, no 3, article id E65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    2,2,6,6-tetramethylpyperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) were used as ink for three-dimensional (3D) printing of porous structures with potential as wound dressings. Alginate (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt%) was incorporated into the formulation to facilitate the ionic cross-linking with calcium chloride (CaCl2). The effect of two different concentrations of CaCl2 (50 and 100 mM) was studied. The 3D printed hydrogels were freeze-dried to produce aerogels which were tested for water absorption. Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) pictures demonstrated that the higher the concentration of the cross-linker the higher the definition of the printed tracks. CNF-based aerogels showed a remarkable water absorption capability. Although the incorporation of alginate and the cross-linking with CaCl2 led to shrinkage of the 3D printed constructs, the approach yielded suitable porous structures for water and moisture absorption. It is concluded that the 3D printed biocomposite structures developed in this study have characteristics that are promising for wound dressings devices.

  • 36.
    Filgueira, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Vigo, Spain.
    Holmen, Solveig
    NTNU, Norway.
    Melbø, Johnny K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Moldes, Diego
    University of Vigo, Spain.
    Echtermeyer, Andreas T.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    3D printable filaments made of biobased polyethylene biocomposites2018In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 314Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different series of biobased polyethylene (BioPE) were used for the manufacturing of biocomposites, complemented with thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers. The intrinsic hydrophilic character of the TMP fibers was previously modified by grafting hydrophobic compounds (octyl gallate and lauryl gallate) by means of an enzymatic-assisted treatment. BioPE with low melt flow index (MFI) yielded filaments with low void fraction and relatively low thickness variation. The water absorption of the biocomposites was remarkably improved when the enzymatically-hydrophobized TMP fibers were used. Importantly, the 3D printing of BioPE was improved by adding 10% and 20% TMP fibers to the composition. Thus, 3D printable biocomposites with low water uptake can be manufactured by using fully biobased materials and environmentally-friendly processes.

  • 37.
    Filgueira, Daniel
    et al.
    University of Vigo, Spain.
    Holmen, Solveig
    NTNU, Norway.
    Melbø, Johnny K.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Moldes, Diego
    University of Vigo, Spain.
    Echtermeyer, Andreas T.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Enzymatic-Assisted Modification of Thermomechanical Pulp Fibers to Improve the Interfacial Adhesion with Poly(lactic acid) for 3D Printing2017In: ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering, ISSN 2168-0485, Vol. 5, no 10, p. 9338-9346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study is about the enzymatic modification of thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fibers for reduction of water uptake and their use in bio-based filaments for 3D printing. Additionally, TMP was used as a fiber reinforcing material and poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as the polymer matrix. The hydrophilic TMP fibers were treated via laccase-assisted grafting of octyl gallate (OG) or lauryl gallate (LG) onto the fiber surface. The modified TMP fibers showed remarkable hydrophobic properties, as demonstrated by water contact angle measurements. Filaments reinforced with OG-treated fibers exhibited the lowest water absorption and the best interfacial adhesion with the PLA matrix. Such higher chemical compatibility between the OG-treated fibers and the PLA enabled better stress transfer from the matrix to the fibers during mechanical testing, which led to the manufacture of strong filaments for 3D printing. All of the manufactured filaments were 3D-printable, although the filaments containing OG-treated fibers yielded the best results. Hence, laccase-mediated grafting of OG onto TMP fibers is a sustainable and environmentally friendly pathway for the manufacture of fully bio-based filaments for 3D printing.

  • 38.
    Gamelas, José A. F.
    et al.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Pedrosa, Jorge
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Lourenco, Ana F.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Mutjo, Peré
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Gonzalez, Israel
    University of Girona, Spain.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Singh, Gurvinder
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ferreira, Paulo J. T.
    University of Coimbra, Portugal.
    On the morphology of cellulose nanofibrils obtained by TEMPO-mediated oxidation and mechanical treatment2015In: Micron, ISSN 0968-4328, E-ISSN 1878-4291, Vol. 72, p. 28-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The morphological properties of cellulose nanofibrils obtained from eucalyptus pulp fibres were assessed. Two samples were produced with the same chemical treatment (NaClO/NaBr/TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical) oxidation), but distinct mechanical treatment intensities during homogenization. It was shown that the nanofibrils production yield increases with the mechanical energy. The effect of mechanical treatment on the yield was confirmed by laser profilometry of air-dried nanocellulose films. However, no significant differences were detected regarding the nanofibrils width as measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-dried films. On the other hand, differences in size were found either by laser diffraction spectroscopy or by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the cellulose nanofibrils suspensions as a consequence of the differences in the length distribution of both samples. The nanofibrils length of the more nanofibrillated sample was calculated based on the width measured by AFM and the hydrodynamic diameter obtained by DLS. A length value of ca. 600. nm was estimated. The DLS hydrodynamic diameter, as an equivalent spherical diameter, was used to estimate the nanofibrils length assuming a cylinder with the same volume and with the diameter (width) assessed by AFM. A simple method is thus proposed to evaluate the cellulose nanofibrils length combining microscopy and light scattering methods.

  • 39. Ghose, A.
    et al.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Environmental Aspects of Norwegian production of pulp fibres and printing paper2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Gonzalez, I
    et al.
    Alcalá, M
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Vilaseca, F
    Boufi, S
    From paper to nanopaper: evolution of mechanical and physical properties2014In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882XArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Temperature stability of nanocellulose dispersions2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 157, p. 114-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) have potential as rheology modifiers of water based fluids, e.g. drilling fluids for use in oil wells or as additives in injection water for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The temperature in oil wells can be high (>100 °C), and the retention time long; days for drilling fluids and months for EOR fluids. Hence, it is important to assess the temperature stability over time of nanocellulose dispersions to clarify their suitability as rheology modifiers of water based fluids at such harsh conditions. Dispersions of CNF produced mechanically, by using TEMPO mediated oxidation and by using carboxymethylation as pretreatment, in addition to cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), have been subjected to heat aging. Temperature stability was best for CNC and for mechanically produced CNF that were stable after heating to 140 °C for three days. The effect of additives was evaluated; cesium formate and sodium formate increased the temperature stability of the dispersions, while there was no effect of using phosphate buffer.

  • 42.
    Heggset, Ellinor B
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Strand, Berit L.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Sundby, Kristin W.
    Borregaard, Norway.
    Simon, Sebastien
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Syverud, Kristin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Viscoelastic properties of nanocellulose based inks for 3D printing and mechanical properties of CNF/alginate biocomposite gels2019In: Cellulose (London), ISSN 0969-0239, E-ISSN 1572-882X, no 1, p. 581-595Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inks for 3D printing based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) or mixtures of CNFs and either cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or alginate were assessed by determining their viscoelastic properties i.e. complex viscosity and storage and loss moduli (G′ and G″). Two types of alginates were used, i.e. from Laminaria hyperborea stipe and Macrocystis pyrifera. Shape fidelity of 3D printed grids were qualitatively evaluated and compared to the viscoelastic properties of the inks. The biocomposite gels containing alginate were post stabilized by crosslinking with Ca2+. Mechanical properties of the crosslinked biocomposite gels were assessed. The complex viscosity, G′ and G″ of CNF suspensions increased when the solid content was increased from 3.5 to 4.0 wt%, but levelled off by further increase in CNF solid content. The complex viscosity at low angular frequency at 4 wt% was as high as 104 Pa·s. This seemed to be the necessary viscosity level for obtaining good shape fidelity of the printed structures for the studied systems. By replacing part of the CNFs with CNCs, the complex viscosity, G′ and G″ were reduced and so was also the shape fidelity of the printed grids. The changes in complex viscosity and moduli when CNFs was replaced with alginate depended on the relative amounts of CNFs/alginate. The type of alginate (from either L. hyp. stipe or M. pyr.) did not play a role for the viscoelastic properties of the inks, nor for the printed grids before post stabilization. Replacing CNFs with up to 1.5 wt% alginate gave satisfactory shape fidelity. The effect of adding alginate and subsequent crosslinking with Ca2+, strongly affected the strength properties of the gels. By appropriate choice of relative amounts of CNFs and alginate and type of alginate, the Young’s modulus and rupture strength could be controlled within the range of 30–150 kPa and 1.5–6 kg, respectively. The deformation at rupture was around 55%. The alginate from L. hyp. stipe yields higher Young’s modulus and lower syneresis compared to M. pyr. This shows that the choice of alginate plays a significant role for the mechanical properties of the final product, although it does not influence on the viscoelastic properties of the ink. The choice of alginate should be L. hyp. stipe if high strength is desired.

  • 43. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öjvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quantification of the web structure in relation to process conditions during wet pressing and furnish composition2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of MFC on the pressability and paper properties of TMP and GCC based sheets2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 388-396Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of Newsprint furnish composition and sheet structure on wet pressing efficiency2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 790-797Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The web structure in relation to the furnish composition and shoe press pulse profiles during wet pressing2012In: Nordic Pulp & Paper Research Journal, ISSN 0283-2631, E-ISSN 2000-0669, Vol. 27, p. 798-805Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Hii, C
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Toven, Kai
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Rosén, Fredrik
    RISE, Innventia.
    Vomhoff, Hannes
    RISE, Innventia.
    Quantification of the web structure in relation to process conditions during wet pressing and furnish composition2011In: / [ed] Hirn, U., 2011, , p. 2Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48. Hii, C.
    et al.
    Gregersen, Ø.W.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Eriksen, Öyvind
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    The effect of microfibrillated cellulose on the pressability of TMP and filler mixtures and on paper properties2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Jack, Alison A
    et al.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Nordli, Henriette R
    NTNU, Norway.
    Powell, Lydia C
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Farnell, Damian J J
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Pukstad, Brita
    NTNU, Norway; Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Rye, Philip D
    AlgiPharma AS, Norway.
    Thomas, David W
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Hill, Katja E
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Cellulose Nanofibril Formulations Incorporating a Low-Molecular-Weight Alginate Oligosaccharide Modify Bacterial Biofilm Development.2019In: Biomacromolecules, ISSN 1525-7797, E-ISSN 1526-4602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from wood pulp are a renewable material possessing advantages for biomedical applications because of their customizable porosity, mechanical strength, translucency, and environmental biodegradability. Here, we investigated the growth of multispecies wound biofilms on CNF formulated as aerogels and films incorporating the low-molecular-weight alginate oligosaccharide OligoG CF-5/20 to evaluate their structural and antimicrobial properties. Overnight microbial cultures were adjusted to 2.8 × 109 colony-forming units (cfu) mL-1 in Mueller Hinton broth and growth rates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Staphylococcus aureus 1061A monitored for 24 h in CNF dispersions sterilized by γ-irradiation. Two CNF formulations were prepared (20 g m-2) with CNF as air-dried films or freeze-dried aerogels, with or without incorporation of an antimicrobial alginate oligosaccharide (OligoG CF-5/20) as a surface coating or bionanocomposite, respectively. The materials were structurally characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and laser profilometry (LP). The antimicrobial properties of the formulations were assessed using single- and mixed-species biofilms grown on the materials and analyzed using LIVE/DEAD staining with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and COMSTAT software. OligoG-CNF suspensions significantly decreased the growth of both bacterial strains at OligoG concentrations >2.58% (P < 0.05). SEM showed that aerogel-OligoG bionanocomposite formulations had a more open three-dimensional structure, whereas LP showed that film formulations coated with OligoG were significantly smoother than untreated films or films incorporating PEG400 as a plasticizer (P < 0.05). CLSM of biofilms grown on films incorporating OligoG demonstrated altered biofilm architecture, with reduced biomass and decreased cell viability. The OligoG-CNF formulations as aerogels or films both inhibited pyocyanin production (P < 0.05). These novel CNF formulations or bionanocomposites were able to modify bacterial growth, biofilm development, and virulence factor production in vitro. These data support the potential of OligoG and CNF bionanocomposites for use in biomedical applications where prevention of infection or biofilm growth is required.

  • 50.
    Jack, Alison A.
    et al.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Nordli, Henriette R.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Powell, Lydia C.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Powell, Kate A.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Kishnani, Himanshu
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Johnsen, Per Olav
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Pukstad, Brita
    Trondheim University Hospital, Norway.
    Thomas, David W.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    Chinga-Carrasco, Gary
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, PFI.
    Hill, Katja E.
    Cardiff University School of Dentistry, UK.
    The interaction of wood nanocellulose dressings and the wound pathogen P. aeruginosa2017In: Carbohydrate Polymers, ISSN 0144-8617, E-ISSN 1879-1344, Vol. 157, p. 1955-1962Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic wounds pose an increasingly significant worldwide economic burden (over £1 billion per annum in the UK alone). With the escalation in global obesity and diabetes, chronic wounds will increasingly be a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. Cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) are highly versatile and can be tailored with specific physical properties to produce an assortment of three-dimensional structures (hydrogels, aerogels or films), for subsequent utilization as wound dressing materials. Growth curves using CNF (diameter &lt;20 nm) in suspension demonstrated an interesting dose-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth. In addition, analysis of biofilm formation (Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1) on nanocellulose aerogels (20 g/m2) revealed significantly less biofilm biomass with decreasing aerogel porosity and surface roughness. Importantly, virulence factor production by P. aeruginosa in the presence of nanocellulose materials, quantified for the first time, was unaffected (p &gt; 0.05) over 24 h. These data demonstrate the potential of nanocellulose materials in the development of novel dressings that may afford significant clinical potential.

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