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  • 1.
    Adawi, Tom
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Olsson, Dennis
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Mattiasson, Rickard
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Characterizing Software Engineering Students' Discussions during Peer Instruction: Opportunities for Learning and Implications for Teaching2016In: International Journal of Engineering Education, ISSN 0949-149X, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 927-936Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer instruction is a method for activating students during lectures, which has gained a considerable amount of attention in higher education due to claims of dramatic improvement in learning gains. The purpose of this qualitative research study is to investigate what types of discussions engineering students engage in during a peer instruction session and what learning possibilities that are enabled by these different types of discussions. We observed twelve students during six separate and simulated peer instruction sessions and the students were interviewed individually after the sessions.Ananalysis of the data revealed that the students engaged in three qualitatively different types of discussions: affirmative discussions, motivating discussions, and argumentative discussions. We characterize these different types of discussions in terms of the number of alternative answers the students discuss, the extent to which they draw on prior knowledge and experiences, as well as the fundamental difference between an explanation and an argument. A good opportunity for learning is opened up when students are aspiring to find the truth, not simply being satisfied with what they believe to be true. We conclude that students do not always engage in discussions that support their learning in the best way, and we discuss implications for using peer instruction as a teaching method.

  • 2. Alégroth, Emil
    et al.
    Burden, Håkan
    Ericsson, Morgan
    Hammouda, Imed
    Knauss, Eric
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    Teaching Scrum - What We Did, What We Will Do and What Impedes Us2015Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 3.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Fordonsdata till allmänhetens nytta - geofencing och affärsmodeller2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Fordonsdata kan i framtiden vara till stor nytta för myndigheter på olika sätt. Än så länge samlar myndigheter in fordonsdata i begränsad omfattning. Det kan t.ex. handla om att genom offentlig upphandling pröva nya sätt för att kontrollera kvaliteten på utförd snöröjning. Trots att det finns ett intresse från både privata och offentliga aktörer att genomföra affärer kring fordonsdata är det ändå svårt för marknaden att ta fart. 

    Frågan om hur fordonsdata kan kommersialiseras med offentliga aktörer som köpare har därför undersökts inom Drive Sweden Policy Lab i samarbete med CeViss-projektet (Cloud enhanced cooperative traffic safety using vehicle sensor data). CeViss-projektet har undersökt smarta kameror och hur de bl.a. kan användas för att varna andra förare för vilda djur vid vägen eller informera SOS Alarm om hur det ser ut vid en olycksplats. 

    Förutsättningarna för lyckad kommersialisering kan sammanfattas under tre rubriker - affären, tekniken och juridiken. Vi ser att affären ligger i förmåga att erbjuda aggregerade data där olika datamängder korsbefruktas och därmed skapar ett större värde än de ingående datamängderna besitter var för sig. Kommersiella aktörer pekar på att rollen att aggregera data, eller förädla den, är mest intressant, eftersom det innebär en möjlighet att utveckla tjänster. En sådan tjänst förutsätter tillgång till en säker uppkoppling och överföring. Det är också resurskrävande att förädla data och styra rätt överföring, liksom att se över, anpassa och ta fram avtal som gör korsbefruktning av data och överföring av rätt data juridiskt möjlig. Här spelar individens integritet kontra samhällets behov av data en stor roll. Det är inte heller klart vilket behov aktörer inom olika samhällssektorer har av fordonsdata, samt hur dessa kommer att få tag i fordonsdata. 

    Utmaningen för industrin ligger i att våga lita på att det finns en hållbar affär med myndigheten i längden, dvs. att det finns en tillräckligt stor betalningsvilja från samhällets sida även när data anses samhällskritisk viktigt. För att främja kommersialisering är det bra att börja med ett specifikt utvalt område för att utarbeta processer, avtal, tekniklösningar, affärs-modeller och så vidare. 

    Geofencing hade kunnat vara en möjlighet att skapa de avgränsningar som behövs för en första affär, samtidigt som det skulle skapa tydlighet om var och när data samlas in från fordon. En sådan avgränsning hade också kunnat tjäna som en regulatorisk sandlåda för att utvärdera möjligheten till avtal som är hållbara över tid, det vill säga där det är rimligt att inom vissa gränser använda data på nya sätt eller för nya syften. 

    Rapporten avslutas med en sammanställning av geofencing och datadelning ur ett juridiskt perspektiv samt en beskrivning av Drive Sweden Policy Lab. 

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  • 4.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Lundahl, Jenny
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Schnurr, Maria
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Thidevall, Niklas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    RISE Policylabb – de första fem åren2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this report, we have compiled our learnings and experiences of working with Policy Lab. Policy Labs have come about as an answer to the question "Can you work with policy and regulatory development in a better way than today?". Our answer to the question is a yes. Our hope with the report is that others will become interested and start their own Policy Lab. Abroad, there are many Policy Labs, but in Sweden there are only a few, which is why we believe there is room for more. There is not a given way to work with Policy Labs once and for all, but each Policy Lab is unique based on its context. Sweden's innovation agency Vinnova defines Policy Labs as follows: "Policy Labs can be explained as a group of actors with different competencies who want to develop a regulatory framework. In the Policy Lab, they use a set of user-centric methods and competencies to test, experiment, and learn in policy development."1 In our Policy Lab, we have worked in various research projects to: 1. analyse challenges/problems that arise between innovations, technology, market, and regulations, 2. develop one or more workable solutions and 3. interact with relevant actors to determine the next steps. What distinguishes our Policy Lab is that we never “own” the issue or solution. We must therefore always work with other actors who can take the results further. Our goal is to enable and skill people. This means that for us it is important to work concretely with real problems and needs owners and preferably test different solutions. We focus on the here and now perspective and not on what the future will look like in 10 years. It is about taking the next step forward towards the future, not creating the best rule, but instead creating the next rule. We also work consistently agile and use design as a method for problem solving. This means that the way we organize our work in the Policy Lab is circular and not linear. When it comes to using design as a method for problem solving, we use the concepts of "design thinking" and "double diamond". For us, it is also important that the members of the Policy Lab have different backgrounds and skills depending on what is needed in the individual project....

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  • 5.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Self-certification of Autonomous Buses2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will still be a few years before we will have autonomous buses driving city streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to ensure more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in service, while at the same time learning how to be part of future operations. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5). During the span of a single day, the bus will therefore alternate between the regulations for enclosed (fenced depot) and non-enclosed (road) areas, between being autonomous and not autonomous.

    The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based on two regulations depending on the environment it is in at any given time and level of autonomy. This is a completely new situation: that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which has significance in terms of who shall decide whether the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that, in order to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot, the bus should be self-certified by means of CE marking according to the Machinery Directive1. This is the authors’ conclusion and not necessarily representative of the other parties involved in the project.

    We predict that we will see more self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working in this way, such as in North America, and partly because it enables faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With “dynamic vehicle concept” we mean vehicles that gain new areas of application by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and are thus converted from a bus to a truck or from a car to quadricycle. Maybe even several times a day.

    Self-certification, however, will also increase the need for standardisation, both for processes and products. Processes may involve how a vehicle can be certified, particularly how the risk analysis should be carried out. In terms of products, standardised descriptions of the technology’s function will facilitate proprietary self-certification since operators know how to describe their own products, including how their certification should be structured based on the constituent certified components. Current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machinery Directive.

    Lastly, we would like to communicate the method used to reach our conclusions. The project has been carried out as a Policy Lab where we have brought together various stakeholders around a common challenge. This has enabled us to concretise both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the enclosed area and our conclusions. The  method selected has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarise themselves with how they should relate to tomorrow’s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle. In this way, Swedish authorities will be ready to adopt technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

    This report is structured so that Section 2 describes the current regulatory framework, particularly in terms of the distinction between the Machinery Directive and vehicle type-approval. Section 3 uses specific examples to describe business operations pertaining to autonomous buses in a depot. Section 4 presents the authors’ conclusions based on how the regulations relate to the specific details obtained from the depot pilot. Section 5 presents the full picture by relating our conclusions to what is happening internationally and how the national ordinance on autonomous vehicle trials on roads corresponds to international trends. Lastly, in Section 6, we provide a summary of what we consider to be the most important issues for which further work should be carried out.

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  • 6.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Självcertifiering av autonoma bussar2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It will be a few years before we have autonomous buses that drive around the city´s streets and squares without drivers. On the other hand, it should be possible to have autonomous buses in a depot at an early stage in order to have more efficient maintenance of the vehicles when they are not in services, while at the same time learning how to be part of the future operation. Such buses would be type-approved for manual traffic (SAE level 0-2), but not approved for autonomous road operation (SAE level 4-5).During one and the same day, the bus will therefore transfer between the regulations forfenced (depot) and non-fenced (road) areas, between being autonomous and notautonomous.The bus, which was previously a legal “static whole”, will now instead be tested based ontwo regulations depending on its current environment and level of autonomy. This is acompletely new situation, that a bus is “dynamically divisible” from a regulatory perspective, which in turn has consequences for who is to decide that the vehicle is safe to use in a certain environment.

    After analysing the challenges based on existing regulations, interviewing relevant authorities, arranging workshops with various stakeholders and meetings with experts in certification, our conclusion is that the bus should be self-certified through CE marking according to the Machine Directive to be considered safe in autonomous mode within the depot. This is the authors´ conclusion and not necessarily representative for the other parties involved in the project.

    Our prediction is also that we will see more of self-certification of autonomous vehicles in the future. Partly because there are such large international markets working that  way, such as the North America one, and partly because it enables a faster market introduction of dynamic vehicle concepts. With dynamic vehicle concept, we mean vehicles that gain new capacity by replacing the chassis or changing software settings and thus go from being a bus to a truck or from a car to a moped car. Maybe even several times a day.

    But with self-certification, the need for standardization will also increase, both forprocesses and products. When it comes to processes, it can be about how to certify a vehicle, especially how to do the risk analysis. For products, standardized descriptions of the technology´s function will facilitate your own self-certification as you know how to describe your product, but also how to build your certification based on the included certified components. The current regulations will also need to be updated if more vehicles are to be self-certified, such as the Machine Directive.

    Finally, we want to highlight the method used behind the conclusions. The project has been carried out as a policy lab where we have gathered different actors around a common challenge. In this way, we have anchored both the challenge of autonomous vehicles within the fenced area and on our conclusions in concrete details. The choice of method has also given relevant authorities the opportunity to familiarize themselves withhow they should relate to tomorrow´s technology without having to present a view on how they will relate to a specific test or vehicle going forward. In this way, Swedish authorities are ready to take on technical innovations once they are introduced to the market.

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    AutonomBussCE
  • 7.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI, Sweden; Halmstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders
    VTI, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Testing Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems in Driving Simulators2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative IntelligentTransport Systems include many actors in the transport system that are con-nected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact andcooperate. Majority of the actors in thesystems are vehicles, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles tomanually driven vehicles, equipped withwireless communication modules. Creating realistic scenarios for testing suchcomplex systems often need a com-bination of simulators. This paper presents a distributed simulation frameworkthat consists of a) a moving basedriving simulator; b) a real-time hardware-in-the-loop simulator; and c) anetwork simulator and traffic simulator. Wepresent our approach for connecting and co-simulating the mentioned simulators.As a first test of our simulationframework, a crossing scenario is simulated. Lastly, we discuss potentialbenefits and future work.

  • 8.
    Aramrattana, Maytheewat
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute,Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute,Sweden.
    Reichenberg, Frida
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Testing cooperative intelligent transport systems in distributed simulators2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 65, p. 206-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation is often used as a technique to test and evaluate systems, as it provides a cost-efficient and safe alternative for testing and evaluation. A combination of simulators can be used to create high-fidelity and realistic test scenarios, especially when the systems-under-test are complex. An example of such complex systems is Cooperative Intelligent Transport Systems (C-ITS), which include many actors that are connected to each other via wireless communication in order to interact and cooperate. The majority of the actors in the systems are vehicles equipped with wireless communication modules, which can range from fully autonomous vehicles to manually driven vehicles. In order to test and evaluate C-ITS, this paper presents a distributed simulation framework that consists of (a) a moving base driving simulator; (b) a real-time vehicle simulator; and (c) network and traffic simulators. We present our approach for connecting and co-simulating the simulators. We report on limitation and performance that this simulation framework can achieve. Lastly, we discuss potential benefits and feasibility of using the simulation framework for testing of C-ITS. 

  • 9.
    Bram, Staffan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burgén, Julia
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire and Safety.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Evakuering av kustnära fartyg i en automatiserad framtid2023Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Den kustnära färjetrafiken är en tacksam miljö för att testa nya automationslösningar. Här finns många fartyg som trafikerar relativt lugna vatten och där bemanningen redan idag är begränsad till en eller två personer. Men förändringar i teknik och bemanning kommer också kräva nya perspektiv i säkerhetsarbetet. I projektet SPECTRUM har besättningens roll vid en nödevakuering undersökts och jämförts med olika automationsscenarier för kustnära färjetrafik. Resultatet pekar ut områden där fortsatt forskning och utveckling är nödvändig för att säkerställa att en evakuering av ett fartyg kan genomföras med så goda förutsättningar som möjligt - om bemanningen reduceras, yrkesroller förändras eller om besättningen ersätts med automationslösningar.

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  • 10. Burden, Håkan
    Hållbar Utveckling som Projekt i Mjukvaruutveckling2016Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 11.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Transitioning from Teaching Canonical Engineering to Sustainable Development2019Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 12.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Förarlösa tjänster i Västra Skaraborg - En förstudie inom SMaRT-projektet2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom projektet SMaRT har RISE utfört en förstudie för att analysera möjligheterna till förarlösa tjänster inom Västra Skaraborg. Målet för de svenska deltagarna i SMaRTprojektet var att undersöka hur besökare kan ta sig till attraktiva besöksplatser utan egen bil. I den här förstudien har vi undersökt när en möjlig lösning skulle kunna vara förarlösa tjänster. Arbetet utfördes i nära samarbete med representanter från de berörda kommunerna. Vi har identifierat en potentiell rutt i Vara tätort där man förutom själva tjänsten även skulle kunna få synergieffekter mellan tjänsten och kommunala mål för trafiken i tätorten. En mer generell slutsats är att förarlösa tjänster i sig inte nödvändigtvis är värt investeringen, utan man bör se hur tjänsten passar in i ett större systemperspektiv för att bedöma dess lämplighet. Vi har också inom arbetet identifierat en rad platser där det finns enklare och mer omedelbara insatser om man vill nå allmänna mål kring smart besöksnäring och konkretare mål för den unika platsen. I många fall pågår redan ett sådant arbete och vi rekommenderar att fortsätta på det spåret hellre än att klämma in en förarlös tjänst. Ett exempel är hur många av de platser vi besökt är omtalade för naturupplevelsen samtidigt som det finns ett ökande behov av parkeringsplatser för att tillgodose alla besökare. Här kan man planera annorlunda för framtiden så att första parkett inte ges till de som fikar i den egna bilen utan till de som cyklat, tågluffat eller åkt tillsammans med andra. Och då också tillhandahålla de mobilitetsalternativen.

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  • 13.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Amanuel, Mahdere DW
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Ahlberg, Joakim
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Olsson, Ola
    Ramboll, Sweden.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Lunds kommun, Sweden.
    Ulander, Gustaf
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Bassioukas Hanseklint, Petra
    Skellefteå kommun, Sweden.
    Vainio, Jyrki
    Region Gotland, Sweden.
    Lindberg Helander, Gustav
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Körkkö, Jani
    Eskilstuna kommun, Sweden.
    Zarghampour, Hamid
    Trafikverket, Sweden.
    Självkörande landsbygd2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur skulle autonoma fordon kunna användas inom kollektivtrafiken på landsbygden? Genom intervjuer, workshops och en RFI (request for information, ett första steg mot upphandling) har vi undersökt frågan utifrån fyra konkreta områden i Sverige – Lund, Gotland, Eskilstuna och Skellefteå. 

    Med en definition av landsbygd baserad på individens mobilitet har vi sett att Sveriges landsbygd rymmer mindre orter på väg att avfolkas där äldre, barn och de utan körkort hade kunnat få bättre tillgång till samhällelig service med autonoma fordon. Vi har också sett att flera av landets nya arbetsplatser kommer befinna sig på landsbygden och därmed skapa ett mobilitetsbehov från staden till landet. 

    För att kunna realisera de identifierade möjligheterna finns ett behov av att framföra fordonen i högre hastigheter samt att de ska kunna hantera mer komplexa trafiksituationer än vad dagens piloter i städerna visat. På landsbygden finns alltså ett utrymme för nya fordon att visa upp sig. Samtidigt ser vi hur man inte ska förvänta sig att investeringarna i autonoma fordon kommer betala sig på en linje, snarare behöver man lyfta blicken och se systemeffekten när stomlinjetrafiken blir mer attraktiv då bussarna går raka vägen istället för via mindre samhällen. 

    Vi har inte sett några belägg på att den digitala infrastrukturen behöver utvecklas för att möjliggöra försök med autonoma fordon på någon av de undersökta rutterna. Dagens 4G-täckning är fullgod och fordonen borde ha tillgång till tillräckligt bra positioneringsdata för att bedriva verksamheten. Däremot ställs flera frågor om hur ersättningstrafiken organiseras när fordonen inte klarar av vädret, vem som står för säkrare hållplatser och hur chaufförens övriga ansvar realiseras när fordonet är förarlöst. 

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  • 14.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Haraldson, Sandra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Karlsson, Mathias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Olsson, Eddie
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Accelerating Acquisition in an Open Innovation Ecosystem2019In: Proc of Twenty-fifth Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Maritime transports are to be regarded as a self-organized ecosystem (Kay et al., 1999) characterized by sub-optimization where historically each actor to has optimized its own operations, often giving rise to inefficiencies as a whole. In recent years however, digital transformation has challenged this by providing means for enhanced transparency in data sharing and situational awareness, enabling better coordination and improved efficiency on the whole (Lind et al. 2018a). Digital transformation drives the possibilities of creating new value by enabling higher degrees of connectivity between actors, digitally twin physical objects, drawing patterns of behaviour based on extensive sets of historical data, as well as harmonizing data sharing through standardized interfaces and communication protocols (e.g. Almirall and Casadesus-Masanell 2010; Gassman et al. 2010; Lakhani et al. 2006). To break existing patterns of behaviour and to avoid the creation of proprietary solutions that feed sub-optimization, there is a need for new inspiration and perspectives that capitalize on the opportunities that digital transformation provides. From an open innovation point of view, this means that innovators both having experience from the sector as well as from other sectors would come together, come up with, and provide new applications not previously possible or never thought about before. A core capability that the ecosystem needs to develop and ensure is data streams made accessible for those that can provide new applications aimed for the single actor and/or clusters of actors, within or outside the maritime sector (Lind et al. 2018).This has also been one of the objectives for Port Collaborative Decision Making (PortCDM), which is a concept that provides guidelines and standards for the data exchange within and between ports, between ships and ports, and between ports and hinterland operators (Lind et al 2018). Such data exchange is necessary if enhanced efficiency during port call operations is to be achieved but also facilitates open 

    innovation within the maritime sector. In order to realise that potential, a purposive transfer of knowledge between the established actors and potential new service providers has to be established (Chesbrough 2006). We therefore set out to explore How can open innovation intermediaries accelerate acquisition in an ecosystem through the management and throughput of knowledge transfer?We address the question through a longitudinal study by applying an action research approach involving actors from the local port and students from three bachelor programs. Before we describe the specifics of the research methodology, we outline our theoretical framework in terms of how knowledge transfer can be framed within an open innovation ecosystem. After the research methodology we detail the five iterations and then discuss the effect on knowledge transfer within the ecosystem. Finally, we conclude and give directions on future research.

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  • 15.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Ohlin, Gunnar
    Lindholmen Science park, Sweden.
    Real-life Observations from Full Electric City Buses Utilising the Information Technology for Public Transport Specification2019Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
  • 16.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ornäs, Victor Hiort af
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A Little Goes a Long Way - Opportunities for Multidisciplinary Education2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambitions about deep interdisciplinary education may face barriers. However, interaction between student groups does not have to be difficult. We report on a collaboration including more than 200 students from different subject areas, at different curricular stages in a multidisciplinary concept workshop. By engaging with an external event we avoided some of the challenges involved in aligning agendas, while remaining true to the ambitions of giving students Concrete Experience and opportunity to Reflect in and on actions, balancing the ambitions of raising awareness of the relation between subjects and engaging students in collaborating in problem solving based on skills and knowledge from their respective discipline. Our results show how collaborating with industry can help bridge some of the challenges with internal collaboration between students from different disciplines.

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  • 17.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sobiech, Cilli
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Andersson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Skoglund, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Electrification and Reliability.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    The role of policy labs for introducing autonomous vehicles2021Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explains the methodological approach of policy labs as used in applied research projects on autonomous vehicles in Sweden. While introducing new technologies we need to ensure that regulations and policies keep up with the fast-paced technological development.  Policy labs is one way of managing the perceived conflict between technological innovation and existing regulations. Within a policy lab, a wide range of stakeholders gather to solve the bottlenecks for innovations together. We show through three different R&D projects how the policy lab approach can be applied and which results, improvements and challenges it revealed for introducing autonomous vehicles.  

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    fulltext
  • 18.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems. University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sprei, F.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Teaching sustainable development through entrepreneurial experiences2020In: International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, ISSN 1467-6370, E-ISSN 1758-6739, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 142-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to address the challenges of teaching sustainable development to computer engineering students. Part of the problem is that they perceive the topic as irrelevant for their future profession. Design/methodology/approach: To address this challenge, we introduced a project element into a course on sustainable development where the students developed applications for sustainable mobility together with the local public transport authority, an academic institution and a multinational telecom company. Findings: The findings conclude that the course changes improved the overall student satisfaction while succeeding in anchoring sustainable development in a context which the students can relate to. The collaboration was also perceived as fruitful by the external stakeholders who encouraged the students to stay in touch for their bachelor theses and internships. Research limitations/implications: The theoretical implication is a first attempt in integrating sustainable development education with entrepreneurial experiences, whereas the practical implication is a description of how the integration can be realized. Practical implications: The contribution is therefore of value for both educational researchers to open novel research opportunities and for teachers to describe new possibilities for sustainable development education. Originality/value: The contribution describes how entrepreneurial experiences can be used to motivate engineering students in mandatory courses on sustainable development and ethics. The approach is novel in that the approach has not been described earlier in this context. 

  • 19.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Sprei, Frances
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Integrating Entrepreneurial Experiences with Sustainable Development Education2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to address the challenge of teaching sustainable development to computer engineering students. Part of the problem is that they perceive the topic as irrelevant for their future profession. The chosen approach was to introduce a project element into a course on sustainable development where the students developed applications for sustainable mobility together with the local public transport authority, an academic institution and a multinational telecom company. Thus the course project was organized to facilitate entrepreneurial experiences, as defined in the EU's EntreComp model, as well as relating theoretical concepts to experiences in a concrete context. The students were then asked to analyze and reflect upon their design choices and approaches in relation to sustainable development and ethical considerations. The findings conclude that the course changes improved the overall student satisfaction while succeeding in anchoring sustainable development in a context the students could relate to. The collaboration was also perceived as fruitful by the external stakeholders who encouraged the students to stay in touch for their bachelor theses and internships. The theoretical implication is a first attempt in integrating sustainable development education with entrepreneurial experiences while the practical implication is a description of how the integration can be realized. The contribution is therefor of value for both educational researchers by opening novel research opportunities and teachers by describing new possibilities for sustainable development education.

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  • 20.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Teaching and Fostering Reflection in Software Engineering Project Courses2019In: Agile and Lean Concepts for Teaching and Learning: Bringing Methodologies from Industry to the Classroom / [ed] Parsons, David; MacCallum, Kathryn, Springer Singapore , 2019, p. 231-262Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Re ection is an important part of agile software processes as witnessed, e.g., by the Sprint Retrospectives in Scrum or by the various learning feedback loops in XP. Engineering education also emphasises the importance of re ective practice, e.g., in Kolb's learning cycle and Schon's re ection-in/on-action. Our contribution in this chapter is a toolkit for re ective practice that shows how re ection can be used by software engineering students for two purposes: to re ect on the application of a software process and to re ect on their learning process. In order to help students understand the purpose of re ection and how to approach re ection, we follow a cognitive apprenticeship approach in which the teachers re ect about the events in the course, their own goals, and how they are aligned with the teaching. Students are asked to re-

    ect during supervisions and as part of their written assignments from the very beginning of the course. We thus combine a meta-cognitive approach where re ection is taught as a learning strategy with a common software engineering practice of continuous improvement through re ection. We evaluate the re ective model and a course design based on it through the student, teacher, and theoretical lenses based on empirical data.

  • 21.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hagvall Svensson, Oskar
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Facilitating Entrepreneurial Experiences through a Software Engineering Project Course2019In: 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering Education andTraining (ICSE-SEET), IEEE , 2019, p. 28-37Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skills and competencies in entrepreneurship, suchas the ability to generate innovative ideas and the courage toengage with stakeholders and society, have gained importance inengineering curricula. In this case study paper, we report on howwe have integrated entrepreneurial experiences into a softwareengineering project course and made the creation of value andreflection on the application of a structured process the heart andsoul of the course. Based on current research on entrepreneurshipeducation as well as the definition of entrepreneurial competenciesused by the European Union, we show how the learningobjectives, the teaching moments, the integration of externalstakeholders, and the assessment work together to create anentrepreneurial environment in which students are encouragedand rewarded to work in an entrepreneurial way. Based on datafrom reflection reports, course evaluations, and interviews wediscuss the pros and cons of our approach and how the studentperception and expectations often run counter to the motivationsof the course design. We thus contribute guidance for otherteachers based on our own experiences in relation to the findingsof our peers.

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  • 22.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Implications of the AI Act in relation to mobility2023In: Transportation Research Procedia, Vol. 72, p. 1832-1839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ambition of the European Union is to lead the way in digitalization. A cornerstone in fulfilling the ambition is the proposed AI Act. Our ambition with this contribution is to create awareness of how regulating Artificial Intelligence (AI) will affect mobility within the EU. The chosen definition of AI is broad enough to cover most software and the regulated topics will affect areas such as road traffic and public transport, safety components in machines but not vehicles. Such systems deemed to pose a high risk will need to be certified and CE-marked. It will also have an impact on the relationship between provider and user of AI systems, with a clear ambition to open the black box of business to enable compliancy with GDPR and handling of anomalies. At the same time, the AI Act opens up for using personal data for other purposes than originally stated during collection.

  • 23.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Smart Hardware.
    Regulating Trust – An Ongoing Analysis of the AI Act2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The initial proposal for an EU act regulating Artificial Intelligence, commonly referred to as the AI Act, has undergone substantial modifications under the Slovenian, French and Czech presidencies since it’s proposal by the Commission in spring 2021. As the content and details change over time it has become necessary to analyse to what extent the act will build trust towards AI as technology. In this position paper the ambition is to highlight one aspect of the act – the relation to trust – based on the version drafted for the general approach by the Council. Now, even reducing the analysis to one aspect is a complex task and the chosen points are the ones we have seen gaining most interest with the stakeholders we have interacted with. There are other points that could have been included but we have chosen to leave them out so as to not obscure the overall picture by all the details. The text does not follow a traditional structure of Introduction – Method – Results. Rather it represents nuggets we have dug out while exploring the proposed regulation, here analysed in relation to the notion of trust. We also assume that the reader has a basic understanding of the initial proposal. For those interested in a more detailed account of our method we recommend our contribution on agile principles for analysing upcoming regulations. Before we get going, we want to make it clear that while we are indebted to numerous representatives from commercial enterprises, public administrators spanning across EU departments to Swedish municipalities as well as researchers from different institutions, we are solely responsible for the claims and the analysis presented in this contribution.

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  • 24.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Sustainable AI and Disruptive Policy – AI Regulatory Sandboxes2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid pace of digitalization and the new opportunities for value creation has raised a concern that regulation is lagging behind and becoming an obstacle. A number of tools have been proposed in order to facilitate innovation that is aligned with existing or upcoming policies.

    A specific case of both facilitating and regulating innovation is the EU’s proposed regulation of AI systems. The act not only poses legal requirements on providers and users of AI systems but also includes measures for facilitating innovation – the concept of regulatory sandboxes is defined with specific purposes together with legal exempts.

    At the time of releasing our paper, the trilogue has reached a political agreement. This means the proposed AI Act will be, even though we do not yet have the final wording. By mapping the negotiation mandates of the European Commission, the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union against Swedish experiences of facilitating innovation and regulatory compliance in relation to AI, we still suggest launching pilots for regulatory sandboxes without delay.

    Based on our own experiences from conducting policy labs and those reported on by others from their regulatory trials, we conclude that it takes time to grow confidence in defining a research agenda with other stakeholders and then strike the balance between facilitation and surveillance of innovation. Something that will require institutional learning and capacity building.

    The mandate to foster and facilitate regulatory compliance as well as innovation, given to the public sector through the AI Act’s regulatory sandboxes, is disruptive. It changes the role and responsibilities for some national authorities, requiring the acquisition of new competences and resources, as well as for the private sector. When they team up with a competent authority the mandate to act becomes larger, as does the responsibility with regards to which kinds of innovation to drive.

    Conducting trials in the current window of opportunity, between now and when the AI Act is in force, will create experiences that policy makers and stakeholders can draw on when creating the detailed guidelines for organising regulatory sandboxes. Adopting an incremental and iterative process enables a transition from learning the basics of selecting a case and finding relevant partners to detailing how to process data and sharing responsibilities and rewards.

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    RegulatorySandboxes-RISE
  • 25.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Bodea, Gabriela
    TNO, Netherlands.
    van Ette, Frans
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Lazo, Claudio
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Ailisto, Heikki
    VTT, Finland.
    A Comparison of AI Policies and Programmes in Finland, the Netherlands and Sweden – Case Sweden2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018 the Swedish Government released its strategy on AI, the national approach for artificial intelligence. The strategy focuses on three main areas – education, research and innovation – with the ambition that Sweden would be the best country in the world regarding applying AI. Two key areas were mentioned – the competitiveness of Swedish enterprises on a global market and the strengthening of the public sector.

    Since then, the domestic discourse has changed, as Social-democratic lead governments have been replaced by a Conservative-Liberal government, the launch of ChatGPT, as well as the introduction of EUs Digital Decade with new targets for digitalisation and a proposed regulation of AI. We have therefore conducted a first evaluation of the strategy and the state of AI in Sweden. Based on official reports and interviews we recommend that the Swedish strategy on AI should …

    … acknowledge the EU and accommodate for the upcoming regulations and resources within the Digital Decade,

    … embrace the pluralism of Swedish governance and facilitate collaboration among authorities and different levels of administration,

    ... ensure the competence and the mandate of the public sector accordingly,

    ... be adaptable to changes in both the domestic and international discourse,

    … investigate long-term funding solutions of strategic AI initiatives, and finally,

    … define sustainable and ethical AI in order to facilitate responsible usage and development of AI as well as facilitate procurement.

    This will require prioritisation of targets and initiatives as well as a way of assessing progress which is suitable for the Swedish context.

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  • 26.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Policylabb Smarta Fartyg2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Shipping Policy Lab

    Smart ships, or Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships as they are also known, have a great potential to advance shipping and sustainable development through optimisation of operations and maintenance. In situations that pose a risk to humans or where humans tend to lose their concentration, smart ships can also contribute to increased safety onboard and for the environment. In short, smart ships are suitable for operations that are dirty, dull and dangerous. The Swedish Shipping Policy Lab was an initiative to support on-going projects within smart shipping with policy-developing activities with the ambition to strengthen Swedish competitiveness. The project has actively strived for a systematic approach to how shipowners, technology developers and authorities among others can foster policy development and innovation in relation to smart ships. As an outcome the project has identified three policies related to the investigated cases (see Appendix G for more details): 1. Navigational assistance from land – A shared statement by the Swedish Maritime Administration and the Swedish Transport Agency on the role of navigational assistance from land and the need to further investigate the service before it can be regulated in more detail. 2. The Ljusterö Ferry – Certification of ferries is commonly done in relation to an established and consistent set of technical requirements. For smart ships such as the new road ferries procured for the Ljusterö-connection it is reasonable to complement traditional certification with a safety case to ensure that the ship is seaworthy. 3. Smart maritime drones – Ships less than five meters long that do not carry passengers are excluded from national rules regulating the supervision performed by the Swedish Transport Agency. As long as there is no explicit need to inspect a specific ship, the probability of a supervision is low. If an inspection were to incur, it is necessary to show how the smart ship and its operation complies to applicable regulation in terms of laws and collision avoidance. Despite the maritime sector having a long tradition of international governance there are still no international instruments explicitly for smart ships. A conclusion from the policy lab is that while such work is ongoing, there is room for the flag states and their authorities to develop and operate smart ships in accordance with national policies. Or, to paraphrase, smart ships seem suitable for operations that are dirty, dull, dangerous and domestic.

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  • 27.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships, or smart ships, explored three use cases for developing policy in practice. The policies regard smart ships on national waters: one short-term written policy identifying the next shared step for two authorities to position remote navigational assistance as a new service, giving the maritime ecosystem one official position to relate to; one informal policy relying on a mutual trust, where information sharing between an operator of small, unmanned ships and the supervisory authority enables critical competence building; and one evolving policy on the process of certifying autonomous or remote operated functions using non-standardized technology. In conclusion, despite shipping being explicitly regulated internationally we found that there is substantial leeway for national policies regarding smart ships on national waters.

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    fulltext
  • 28.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Carlgren, Lisa
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Prototyping Society.
    Sjöblom, Ted
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships2023In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2352-1457, Vol. 72, p. 1840-1847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish policy lab for maritime autonomous surface ships, or smart ships, explored three use cases for developing policy in practice. The policies regard smart ships on national waters: one short-term written policy identifying the next shared step for two authorities to position remote navigational assistance as a new service, giving the maritime ecosystem one official position to relate to; one informal policy relying on a mutual trust, where information sharing between an operator of small, unmanned ships and the supervisory authority enables critical competence building; and one evolving policy on the process of certifying autonomous or remote operated functions using non-standardized technology. In conclusion, despite shipping being explicitly regulated internationally we found that there is substantial leeway for national policies regarding smart ships on national waters.

  • 29.
    Burden, Håkan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Stenberg, Susanne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Olsson, Måns
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Proposed EU Regulations’ Impact on Data Utilisation– A Multi-Case Study within Public Transport2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation: In a broad sense data sharing onboard public transport vehicles is governed by two different business models – interoperable and free of charge access for some data versus data that is restricted to specific uses by commercial contracts and existing legislation. Under the Digital Decade the EU has proposed new legislation with the ambition to promote a single digital market. The question then arises – how will the upcoming regulations affect existing business models for data utilisation?

    Method: We have investigated two different cases where existing technology meets upcoming EU legislation. The questions have been framed through dialogue with actors in the industry, to cover topics and questions that are both concrete and current. Using the policy lab methodology, we have investigated the possibility to re-use surveillance film from public transport vehicles for passenger counting. The analysis compares GDPR and the Swedish camera surveillance act with the proposed AI Act, to see what new possibilities or obstacles arise. We have also explored the changes that the Data Act may impose on different actors’ access to data derived from the batteries installed in an electric bus.

    Results: The AI Act will not change the business models within the eco-system but facilitate access to more personal data (including personal data where GDPR otherwise would be a barrier), useful for training automated passenger counting. Those responsible for placing the system on the market will still need to ensure that they are compliant with GDPR in terms of processing personal data. In terms of the Data Act the outcome is more disruptive as the owner and user of a vehicle is entitled to all data representing their usage, free of charge, and this will impair existing business models for data access. It is also possible for multiple actors to be users, for instance if the vehicle is owned by a public transport authority and leased by an operator.

    Discussion: Our analysis shows that while the impact of the Data Act can resonate with the ambitions behind the regulation in terms of making more data interoperable and available free of charge, it can also have the opposite effect. The latter is specifically the case where altruistic data sharing already is in place and the Data Act imposes standard contracts for and role-based restrictions towards utilisation. Both the AI Act and the Data Act are complex and often difficult to assess. In relation to the Data Act, the recitals were helpful for interpreting the application of articles and definitions. For understanding the relationship between the AI Act and GDPR we combined the legal analysis with prototyping the impacts and relied on sharing insights with other actors. This highlights the need for multiple ways of performing the data collection and analysis as well as the suitability of policy labs as a research method

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  • 30.
    Edholm, Henrik
    et al.
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lidstrom, Michela
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Steghofer, Jan-Philipp
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Crunch time: The reasons and effects of unpaid overtime in the games industry2017In: Proceedings - 2017 IEEE/ACM 39th International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Practice Track, ICSE-SEIP 2017, 2017, p. 43-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The games industry is notorious for its intense work ethics with uncompensated overtime and weekends at the office, also known as crunch or crunch time. Since crunch time is so common within the industry, is it possible that the benefits of crunch time outweigh the disadvantages? By studying postmortems and conducting interviews with employees in the industry, we aim to characterise crunch time and discover its effects on the industry. We provide a classification of crunch, i.e., four types of crunch which all have distinct characteristics and affect the product, employees and schedule in various ways. One of the crunch types stands out from the others by only having positive effects on product and schedule. A characteristic that all of the types have in common is an increase in stress levels amongst the employees. We identify a set of reasons for crunch and show that crunch is less pronounced in game studios where prioritisation of features is a regular practice.

  • 31.
    Liebel, Grischa
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Heldal, Robgardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    For free: continuity and change by team teaching2017In: Teaching in Higher Education, ISSN 1356-2517, E-ISSN 1470-1294, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 62-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Team teaching is advocated in education to offer students multiple explanations to complex concepts and to improve teacher development. However, team teaching is typically associated with high staff cost due to the increased amount of teachers involved. The authors argue that team teaching can be conducted in a cheap way by including novice teaching assistants in the lectures and train them ‘on the job’. Additionally, novice assistants cause reflection on action and prevent a mechanization of the course. The authors use Brookfield’s four lenses to reflect on the application of team teaching in a Swedish undergraduate course on software modeling over three years, involving 3 teachers and collecting evaluation data from close to 400 students. The reflection shows that team teaching can be used as a cost-effective way to introduce novice teachers to a course, while at the same time receiving benefits from their participation in lectures and course development.

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  • 32.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo Car Corporation, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    HiMinds Göteborg AB, Sweden.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Contrasting Big Bang with Continuous Integration Through Defect Reports2020In: IEEE Software, ISSN 0740-7459, E-ISSN 1937-4194, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 14-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration promises earlier defect detection, quality improvements and more customer value delivered faster. But what evidence is there? In this longitudinal case study we examined the development of software for the advanced safety and driver support component of a Swedish vehicle manufacturer in two consecutive projects, where the first was developed in a big bang fashion, typical to a traditional waterfall process, while the second project utilized continuous integration. By contrasting the two projects, we evaluated the introduction of continuous integration and supplement earlier claims based on interview studies with a quantitative analysis of defect reports.

  • 33.
    Mellegård, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Levin, Daniel
    Volvo, Sweden.
    Lind, Kenneth
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Magazinius, Ana
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Contrasting Big Bang with Continuous Integration through Defect Reports2021In: 2021 IEEE 18th International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), 2021, p. 29-29Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Continuous integration promises earlier defect detection, quality improvements, and more customer value delivered faster. In this case study, we examined development of software for the advanced safety and driver support component of a Swedish vehicle manufacturer in two consecutive projects.

  • 34.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. University of Borås, Sweden.
    ElectriCity innovation challenge 2015: Experiences2016In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 690-698Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ElectriCity Innovation Challenge 2015 was an open innovation contest in Gothenburg, Sweden. The main purpose was to surge public interest and involvement in ElectriCity, a demonstration arena for next-generation's electrified bus systems. The contest furthermore aimed to catalyse innovation that can contribute to making public transport more attractive, and to test a novel innovation platform that assembles data from buses and bus stops. The outcome was six events with a total of more than 800 attendants, 48 viable prototypes with potential to increase the modal share of electrified public transport and feedback on the innovation platform's potential for development.

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    fulltext
  • 35.
    Smith, Göran
    et al.
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    Hjalmarsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria.
    Catalyzing knowledge transfer in innovation ecosystems through contests2016In: AMCIS 2016: Surfing the IT Innovation Wave - 22nd Americas Conference on Information Systems, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Open innovation practices are gaining traction. Hence, the relevance of measures for engaging and managing heterogeneous groups of distributed complementors is rising. This mixed-method case study defines a pilot demonstration of emergent technology as an innovation ecosystem and utilizes a knowledge transfer lens to explore the impact of an open innovation contest. The contribution to the IS research stream is threefold. Firstly, the paper portrays that open innovation contests can spark coupled open innovation and facilitate innovation management, without lowering the generative capability. Secondly, it explains these gains by concluding that contests can catalyze cross-border knowledge transfer within innovation ecosystems. Thirdly, the paper moreover proposes that additional innovation deployment measures are needed in order for sustaining established relations and for aiding the implementation of innovation ideas beyond the contests.

  • 36.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Alahyari, Hiva
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Haneberg, Dominik
    University of Augsburg, Germany.
    No silver brick: Opportunities and limitations of teaching Scrum with Lego workshops2017In: Journal of Systems and Software, ISSN 0164-1212, E-ISSN 1873-1228, Vol. 131, p. 230-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Education in Software Engineering has to both teach technical content such as databases and programming but also organisational skills such as team work and project management. While the former can be evaluated from a product perspective, the latter are usually embedded in a Software Engineering process and need to be assessed and adapted throughout their implementation. The in-action property of processes puts a strain on teachers since we cannot be present throughout the students’ work. To address this challenge we have adopted workshops to teach Scrum by building a Lego city in short sprints to focus on the methodological content. In this way we can be present throughout the process and coach the students. We have applied the exercise in six different courses, across five different educational programmes and observed more than 450 participating students. In this paper, we report on our experiences with this approach, based on quantitative data from the students and qualitative data from both students and teachers. We give recommendations for learning opportunities and best practices and discuss the limitations of these workshops in a classroom setting. We also report on how the students transferred their methodological knowledge to software development projects in an academic setting.

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  • 37.
    Steghöfer, Jan-Philipp
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, ICT, Viktoria.
    Hebig, Regina
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Calikli, Gul
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Feldt, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Hammouda, Imed
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; South Mediterranean University, Tunisia.
    Horkoff, Jennifer
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Knauss, Eric
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Liebel, Grischa
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Involving External Stakeholders in Project Courses2018In: ACM Transactions on Computing Education, ISSN 1946-6226, E-ISSN 1946-6226, Vol. 18, no 2, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: The involvement of external stakeholders in capstone projects and project courses is desirable dueto its potential positive effects on the students. Capstone projects particularly profit from the inclusion ofan industrial partner to make the project relevant and help students acquire professional skills. In addition,an increasing push towards education that is aligned with industry and incorporates industrial partners canbe observed. However, the involvement of external stakeholders in teaching moments can create friction andcould, in the worst case, lead to frustration of all involved parties.Contribution: We developed a model that allows analysing the involvement of external stakeholders inuniversity courses both in a retrospective fashion, to gain insights from past course instances, and in aconstructive fashion, to plan the involvement of external stakeholders.Key Concepts: The conceptual model and the accompanying guideline guide the teachers in their analysisof stakeholder involvement. The model is comprised of several activities (define, execute, and evaluate thecollaboration). The guideline provides questions that the teachers should answer for each of these activities.In the constructive use, the model allows teachers to define an action plan based on an analysis of potentialstakeholders and the pedagogical objectives. In the retrospective use, the model allows teachers to identifyissues that appeared during the project and their underlying causes. Drawing from ideas of the reflectivepractitioner, the model contains an emphasis on reflection and interpretation of the observations made bythe teacher and other groups involved in the courses.Key Lessons: Applying the model retrospectively to a total of eight courses shows that it is possible toreveal hitherto implicit risks and assumptions and to gain a better insight into the interaction betweenexternal stakeholders and students. Our empirical data reveals seven recurring risk themes that categorisethe different risks appearing in the analysed courses. These themes can also be used to categorise mitigationstrategies to address these risks pro-actively. Additionally, aspects not related to external stakeholders, e.g.,about the interaction of the project with other courses in the study program, have been revealed. Theconstructive use of the model for one course has proved helpful in identifying action alternatives and finallydeciding to not include external stakeholders in the project due to the perceived cost-benefit-ratio.Implications to practice: Our evaluation shows that the model is viable and a useful tool that allowsteachers to reason about and plan the involvement of external stakeholders in a variety of course settings,and in particular in capstone projects.

  • 38.
    Södling, Josefine
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Ekbom, Rikard
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Thorngren, Peter
    Volvo Group Trucks Technology, Sweden.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria.
    From Model to Rig - An Automotive Case Study2016In: Proccedings of International Conference on Model-Driven Engineering and Software Development (MODELSWARD 2016), INSTICC Publications , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 615-622Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the size and complexity of the software in a truck grows, new ways of managing the development are needed. Numerous reports show how MDE can be successfully applied for automotive software development. We complement previous research by conducting a case study on the impact of model-based testing for verifying and validating the behaviour of a truck’s headlights. Our results are three-fold. First, we show how a model can be transferred from a model-in-the-loop setting to a hardware-in-the-loop via system simulation. Second, we supply an analysis of the shortcomings of the model that were found as the model was tested in more and more platform-specific settings. Third, our results show that the introduction of model-based testing practices will require organisational changes even if the used tools are familiar to the company.

  • 39.
    Whittle, Jon
    et al.
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Hutchinson, John
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Rouncefield, Mark
    Lancaster University, UK.
    Burden, Håkan
    RISE, Swedish ICT, Viktoria. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Heldal, Rogardt
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    A taxonomy of tool-related issues affecting the adoption of model-driven engineering2017In: Software and Systems Modeling, ISSN 1619-1366, E-ISSN 1619-1374, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 313-331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although poor tool support is often blamed for the low uptake of model-driven engineering (MDE), recent studies have shown that adoption problems are as likely to be down to social and organizational factors as with tooling issues. This article discusses the impact of tools on MDE adoption and practice and does so while placing tooling within a broader organizational context. The article revisits previous data on MDE use in industry (19 in-depth interviews with MDE practitioners) and reanalyzes that data through the specific lens of MDE tools in an attempt to identify and categorize the issues that users had with the tools they adopted. In addition, the article presents new data: 20 new interviews in two specific companies—and analyzes it through the same lens. A key contribution of the paper is a loose taxonomy of tool-related considerations, based on empirical industry data, which can be used to reflect on the tooling landscape as well as inform future research on MDE tools.

1 - 39 of 39
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