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  • 1.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 1660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis2020Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 31, nr 7, artikkel-id 075010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards ISO14687 and EN17124 set stringent limits for numerous gaseous impurities and particulates that may damage the fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle, as it is highly sensitive to the presence of even very low levels of impurities. However, performing the whole set of analyses is both technically challenging and time-consuming for any laboratory and will require a combination of several analytical techniques or instruments. In this study, we discussed the selection of analytical techniques for hydrogen purity testing in order to optimize the CAPEX (capital expenditure) and OPEX (operational expenditure), while ensuring the quality of the results and the compliance of the analytical methods with ISO21087. Among the individual impurities to be analysed in ISO14687, spectroscopy techniques are suitable for ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, oxygen and water. Spectroscopy techniques are even suitable for some impurities belonging to the three total species such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride and methane. However, helium and argon, which are monoatomic, do not exhibit response in the infrared region. Therefore, any spectroscopic analysis method must be completed by another method in order to simultaneously analyse all individual gaseous impurities from ISO14687. In this study, we constructed and demonstrated the feasibility of an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph having three columns (two packed columns and a PLOT (Porous Layer Open Tubular) column and two detectors (FID and TCD) coupled in parallel to two OFCEAS instruments using reference gas mixtures. Finally, we also proposed an extended configuration that will allow performing the whole set of analyses for gaseous species from ISO14687

  • 4.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id 1171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 5.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, nr 20, s. 11907-11917Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 6.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations2022Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, s. 6285-6294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 7.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Arques, Laurent
    AP2E, France.
    Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams2023Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, nr 9, artikkel-id 095011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 8.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Karlsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Hakonen, Aron
    Ohlson, Lars
    Fordonsgas Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations2018Inngår i: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 49, s. 317-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Biogas (LBG) utilization within the heavy duty transport sector is today a sustainable alternative to the use of oil. However, in spite of the high degree of insulation in the storage tank walls, it is impossible to fully avoid any net heat input from the surroundings. Due to some degree of vaporization this results in variation in gas composition during storage at refuelling stations, potentially leading to engine failures. Within this study, a vaporizer/sampler has been built and tested at a station delivering liquefied biomethane (LBG) and occasionally; such in this case, LNG to heavy and medium duty trucks. The vaporizer/sampler has then been used to study the variation of the LNG composition in the storage tank during a two weeks period. The results clearly underline a correlation between the gas phase and the liquid phase as the concentration changes follow the same trend in both phases. Two opposite effects are assumed to influence the concentration of methane, ethane and propane in the liquid and in the gas phase. On one hand, because of the probable presence of not fully mixed layers in the storage tank and due to vehicles being refuelled, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in methane at the expense of ethane and propane. On the other hand, due to boil-off effect towards the end of the storage period, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in ethane and propane at the expense of methane.

  • 9.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Culleton, Lucy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brewer, Paul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Krom, Iris
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Lestremau, Francoise
    INERIS Institut national de l'environnement industriel et des risques, France.
    Beranek, Jan
    ČMI Česky metrologicky institut, Czech Republic.
    Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX2017Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, s. 127-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use, for example as vehicle fuel (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical to ensure that the gas can technically and safely be used. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determine the quality is the sampling and the transfer to the laboratory. One of the greatest challenges is then to ensure that the composition of the sample collected does not change between the time of sampling and the analysis. The choice of the sampling vessel to be used must be made only after fully assessing its short-term stability. In this paper, the results from short-term stability studies in different vessels (cylinders, bags and sorbents) are presented for siloxanes, BTEX, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. Storage of dry gas at high pressure (> 6 MPa) appears to be a good alternative however it is currently challenging to find an optimal treatment of the cylinders for all species to be assessed in biogas/biomethane. At lower pressure, adsorption effects on the inner surface of the cylinders have been observed. The use of bags and sorbent tubes also shows limitation. No existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal as to trap all possible impurities and high boiling compounds may adsorbed on the inner surface of the bags walls. Moreover, the presence of water when storing biogas most certainly impacts the storage stability of compounds in most vessels. Using at least two sampling methods for a given compound and comparing results will allow taking into account the eventual effects of water vapour, and adsorption on the inner surface of the vessels.

  • 10.
    Bissig, Hugo
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Batista, Elsa
    IPQ Metrology Department, Portugal.
    Afonso, Joana
    NOVA School of Science and Technology, Portugal.
    Zagnoni, Michele
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Vroman, Rozan
    University of Strathclyde, UK.
    Kjeldsen, Henrik
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Niemann, Anders
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Schroeter, Joerk
    Technische Hochschule Lübeck, germany.
    Calibration of insulin pumps based on discrete doses at given cycle times2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 67-77Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One application in the medical treatment at very small flow rates is the usage of an Insulin pump that delivers doses of insulin at constant cycle times for a specific basal rate as quasi-continuous insulin delivery, which is an important cornerstone in diabetes management. The calibration of these basal rates are performed by either gravimetric or optical methods, which have been developed within the European Metrology Program for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Joint Research Project (JRP) 18HLT08 Metrology for drug delivery II (MeDDII). These measurement techniques are described in this paper, and an improved approach of the analytical procedure given in the standard IEC 60601-2-24:2012 for determining the discrete doses and the corresponding basal rates is discussed in detail. These improvements allow detailed follow up of dose cycle time and delivered doses as a function of time to identify some artefacts of the measurement method or malfunctioning of the insulin pump. Moreover, the calibration results of different basal rates and bolus deliveries for the gravimetric and the optical methods are also presented. Some analysis issues that should be addressed to prevent misinterpreting of the calibration results are discussed. One of the main issues is the average over a period of time which is an integer multiple of the cycle time to determine the basal rate with the analytical methods described in this paper. 

  • 11.
    Bissig, Hugo
    et al.
    NQIS/EIM Sindos, Greece.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Graham, Emmelyn
    TUV SUD National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Wales, Leslie
    TUV SUD National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Furtado, Andreia
    IPQ Metrology Department, Portugal.
    Moura, Sara
    IPQ Metrology Department, Portugal.
    Metaxiotou, Zoe
    NQIS/EIM Sindos, Greece.
    Lee, Seok Hwan
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Kartmann, Sabrina
    Hahn-Schickard-Gesellschaft fur Angewandte Forschung EV, Germany.
    Groenesteijn, Jarno
    Bronkhorst High-Tech BV, Netherlands.
    Lotters, Joost C
    Bronkhorst High-Tech BV, Netherlands.
    In-line measurements of the physical and thermodynamic properties of single and multicomponent liquids2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 39-50Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidic devices are becoming increasingly important in various fields of pharmacy, flow chemistry and healthcare. In the embedded microchannel, the flow rates, the dynamic viscosity of the transported liquids and the fluid dynamic properties play an important role. Various functional auxiliary components of microfluidic devices such as flow restrictors, valves and flow meters need to be characterised with liquids used in several microfluidic applications. However, calibration with water does not always reflect the behaviour of the liquids used in the different applications. Therefore, several National Metrology Institutes (NMI) have developed micro-pipe viscometers for traceable inline measurement of the dynamic viscosity of liquids used in flow applications as part of the EMPIR 18HLT08 MeDDII project. These micro-pipe viscometers allow the calibration of any flow device at different flow rates and the calibration of the dynamic viscosity of the liquid or liquid mixture used under actual flow conditions. The validation of the micro-pipe viscometers has been performed either with traceable reference oils or with different liquids typically administered in hospitals, such as saline and/or glucose solutions or even glycerol-water mixtures for higher dynamic viscosities. Furthermore, measurement results of a commercially available device and a technology demonstrator for the inline measurement of dynamic viscosity and density are presented in this paper. © 2022 the author(s)

  • 12.
    Borchling, Alexander
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kroner, Corinna
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Akselli, Basak
    Turkiye Bilimsel ve Teknolojik Arastirma, Turkey.
    Benková, Miroslava
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Christoffersen, Nikki
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Haack, Søren
    Teknologisk Institut Kongsvang, Denmark.
    Seypka, Veit
    DVGW - Technologiezentrum, Germany.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Die Welt der Wasserzähler im Wandel2023Inngår i: GWF, Wasser - Abwasser, ISSN 0016-3651, Vol. 2023, nr 6, s. 89-93Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Like everywhere else, time does not stand still for water meters. The requirements change, whether through technological progress, e.g., through the use of electronic meters, or changes in drinking water consumption. A revision of relevant normative documents is currently taking place at the international level. Against this background, various studies have been carried out in recent years and infrastructure has been built up with which the measurement behaviour of water meters can be examined more closely under real operating conditions, even at the laboratory level. This article presents the infrastructure. Furthermore, two current studies on the measurement behaviour of water meters are presented. In these studies, the effect of water quality and the effect of discrete measurements on the measurement accuracy of electronic water meters were investigated. 

  • 13.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Abhängigkeit von der Positionierung: Zur Problematik der Strömungsabhängigkeit von Durchflussensoren (Dependence on the positioning2012Inngår i: Euroheat and Power/Fernwärme International, Vol. 41, nr 4, s. 60-67Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Calibration of an ultrasonic flow meter for hot water2013Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 30, s. 166-173Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Vergleichsmessungen zwischen Durchfluss-Normalmessanlagen (Comparison Measurements of Flow Standard Test Facilities)2012Inngår i:  Technisches Messen, Vol. 79, nr 5, s. 282-289Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    An ultra high-pressure test rig for measurements of small flow rates with different viscosities2014Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, Vol. 40, s. 82-90Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the framework of a research project regarding investigations on a high-pressure Coriolis mass flow meter (CMF) a portable flow test rig for traceable calibration measurements of the flow rate (mass - and volume flow) in a range of 5gmin-1 to 500gmin-1 and in a pressure range of 0.1MPa to 85MPa was developed. The measurement principle of the flow test rig is based on the gravimetrical measuring procedure with flying-start-and-stop operating mode. Particular attention has been paid to the challenges of temperature stability during the measurements since the temperature has a direct influence on the viscosity and flow rate of the test medium. For that reason the pipes on the high-pressure side are double-walled and insulated and the device under test (DUT) has an enclosure with a separate temperature control. From the analysis of the first measurement with tap water at a temperature of 20°C and a pressure of 82.7MPa an extensive uncertainty analysis has been carried out. It was found that the diverter (mainly due to its asymmetric behaviour) is the largest influence factor on the total uncertainty budget. After a number of improvements, especially concerning the diverter, the flow test rig has currently an expanded measurement uncertainty of around 1.0% in the lower flow rate range (25gmin-1) and 0.25% in the higher flow rate range (400gmin-1) for the measurement of mass flow. Additional calibration measurements with the new, redesigned flow test rig and highly viscous base oils also indicated a good agreement with the theoretical behaviour of the flow meter according to the manufacturers' specifications with water as test medium. Further improvements are envisaged in the future in order to focus also on other areas of interest.

  • 17.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Reynolds number dependence of an orifice plate2013Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 30, s. 123-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the most important process parameters in power plants is the flow rate that is measured in the secondary or feedwater circuit. To improve our understanding of the behaviour of flow instruments for this use, a work package within the European research project JRP "Metrology for improved power plant efficiency" concerning "Flow" was initiated. It comes under the direction of SP, Technical Research Institute of Sweden. Many power plants have to operate below their licensed rating because of the measurement uncertainty of the flow in the feedwater circuit. For that reason - in the field of traceable flow measurement - four European NMIs (PTB, SP, DTI, BEV) investigated four flow sensors based on different measuring principles. The aim is to find a method to extrapolate low temperature calibrations to high temperatures in order to measure feedwater flow with an uncertainty in the range of 0.3%-0.5%. This paper describes the work undertaken at SP on investigations of an orifice plate.

  • 18.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Lederer, Thomas
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    Hogendoorn, J
    Investigation of a 10-path Ultrasonic Flow Meter for Accurate Feedwater Measurement.2014Inngår i: Measurement Science and Technology, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 75304-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 19.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    RISE Test Facilities for the Measurement of Ultra-Low Flow Rates and Volumes with a Focus on Medical Applications2022Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 12, nr 16, artikkel-id 8332Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMPIR JRP 18HLT08 Metrology for Drug Delivery (MeDDII), a main task is to improve dosing accuracy and enable traceable measurements of volume, flow and pressure of existing drug delivery devices and in-line sensors operating, in some cases, at ultra-low flow rates. This can be achieved by developing new calibration methods and by expanding existing metrological infrastructure. The MeDDII project includes, among other issues, investigations on fast changing flow rates, physical properties of liquid mixtures and occlusion phenomena to avoid inaccurate measurement results and thus improve patient safety. This paper describes the extension of an existing measurement facility at RISE and the design and construction of a new measurement facility to be able to carry out such investigations. The new measurement facility, which is based on the dynamic gravimetric method, is unique worldwide in respect of the lowest measurable flow rate. The gravimetric measuring principle is pushed to the limits of what is feasible. Here, the smallest changes in the ambient conditions have a large influence on the measurement accuracy. The new infrastructure can be used to develop and validate novel calibration procedures for existing drug delivery devices over a wide flow rate range. The extension of the measurement facilities also enables inline measurement of the pressure and the dynamic viscosity of Newtonian liquids. For this purpose, it is ensured that all measurements are traceable to primary standards. © 2022 by the authors.

  • 20.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Huu, Marc
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    MacDonald, Marc
    NEL, UK.
    Maury, Remy
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Investigations on pressure dependence of Coriolis Mass Flow Meters used at Hydrogen Refueling Stations2020Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 76, artikkel-id 101815Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMPIR JRP 16ENG01 “Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles” a main task is to investigate the influence of pressure on the measurement accuracy of Coriolis Mass Flow Meters (CFM) used at Hydrogen Refueling Stations (HRS). At a HRS hydrogen is transferred at very high and changing pressures with simultaneously varying flow rates and temperatures. It is clearly very difficult for CFMs to achieve the current legal requirements with respect to mass flow measurement accuracy at these measurement conditions. As a result of the very dynamic filling process it was observed that the accuracy of mass flow measurement at different pressure ranges is not sufficient. At higher pressures it was found that particularly short refueling times cause significant measurement deviations. On this background it may be concluded that pressure has a great impact on the accuracy of mass flow measurement. To gain a deeper understanding of this matter RISE has built a unique high-pressure test facility. With the aid of this newly developed test rig it is possible to calibrate CFMs over a wide pressure and flow range with water or base oils as test medium. The test rig allows calibration measurements under the conditions prevailing at a 70MPa HRS regarding mass flows (up to 3.6kgmin−1) and pressures (up to 87.5MPa). © 2020 The Authors

  • 21.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Kroner, Corinna
    PTB, Germany.
    Benkova, Miroslava
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Pavlas, Jan
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Seypka, Veit
    TZW DVGW Technologiezentrum Wasser, Germany.
    Investigations on the influence of total water hardness and ph value on the measurement accuracy of domestic cold water meters2021Inngår i: Water, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 13, nr 19, artikkel-id 2701Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the framework of the ongoing EMPIR Joint Research Project (JRP) 17IND13 Metrology for real-world domestic water metering (Metrowamet), a main task is to investigate the influence of realistic operation conditions, that is, typical water qualities (suspended particles, degree of hardness, and pH value), on the measurement accuracy. For this purpose, two representative types of cold water meters were investigated in more detail. Initially, the cold water meters were calibrated and then subjected to an accelerated wear test with water of different pH values and degrees of hardness. The accelerated wear tests were designed to reproduce the realistic use and service life of a cold water meter. Subsequently, the cold water meters were re-calibrated to assess the influence of the different water qualities on the measurement accuracy. One of the results was that the measurement accuracy of the water meters investigated was not strongly affected by the water quality. The practical realisation and the measurement results are reported in this paper. © 2021 by the authors.

  • 22.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Kroner, Corinna
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Postrioti, Lucio
    University of Perugia, Italy.
    Piano, Andrea
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Hagemann, Günter
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Werner, Manfred
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Characterisation of a Coriolis flow meter for fuel consumption measurements in realistic drive cycle tests2023Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 93, artikkel-id 102424Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    When testing light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles on chassis dynamometers, as in the WLTP, or engines on engine test benches, as in the WHDC, it is required to measure the fuel consumption. In the preferable case, the measurement of the fuel consumption is carried out with suitable flow meters. These require high measurement accuracy in a wide flow range, independent of the fuel type, as the flow rate range is often very large and depends on the power range of the vehicle engines. Moreover, the fuel flow rate in the test cycles is very dynamically related to the loads. In the scope of the ongoing EMPIR Joint Research Project 20IND13 SAFEST the dynamic flow behaviour as well as the measurement accuracy of flow meters for different types of fuels are investigated. This paper presents first results from the realisation of dynamic flow profiles, and flow measurements with a Coriolis Flow Meter with different representative fuels in a wide density and viscosity range and a wide flow rate range at different fuel temperatures. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 23.
    Büker, Oliver
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lindström, Kent
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Wennergren, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    A unique test facility for calibration of domestic flow meters under dynamic flow conditions2021Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, artikkel-id 101934Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In the early nineties a hot water test facility was planned and constructed for calibration and testing of volume and flow meters at the National Volume Measurement Laboratory at RISE (formerly SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden). The main feature of the test facility is the capability to measure flow in a wide temperature and flow range with very high accuracy. The objective of the project, which was initiated in 1989, was to design equipment for calibration of flow meters with stable flow and temperature conditions. After many years of international debate whether static testing is adequate to represent the later more dynamic application of domestic water meters, the EMPIR project 17IND13 Metrology for real-world domestic water metering (“Metrowamet”) was launched in 2018. The project investigates the influence of dynamic flow testing on the measurement accuracy of different types of domestic flow meters. One of the main objectives of the project is the development of infrastructure to carry out dynamic flow measurements. The existing test facility at RISE was at the time of construction one of the best hot and cold-water test facilities in the world. Due to the Metrowamet project the test facility has been upgraded to meet the needs of an infrastructure for dynamic flow investigations. The first findings from dynamic consumption profile measurements are reported in this paper. © 2021 The Authors

  • 24.
    de Huu, M.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Tschannen, M.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Bissig, H.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Stadelmann, P.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    MacDonald, M.
    NEL, UK.
    Maury, R.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Neuvonen, P. T.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Petter, H. T.
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rasmussen, K.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Design of gravimetric primary standards for field-testing of hydrogen refuelling stations2020Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 73, artikkel-id 101747Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Federal Institute of Metrology METAS developed a Hydrogen Field Test Standard (HFTS) that can be used for field verification and calibration of hydrogen refuelling stations. The testing method is based on the gravimetric principle. The experimental design of the HFTS as well as the description of the method are presented here. The HFTS has been tested at METAS with nitrogen gas at −40 °C to mimic a refuelling process in the field. Laboratory tests have shown that icing on the pipes of the HFTS have a non-negligible impact on the results. Field-testing with the HFTS has also been performed at the Empa hydrogen refuelling station with hydrogen at up to 70 MPa. The major uncertainty components have been identified and assigned values. The required expanded uncertainty of 0.3% could be achieved. A detailed uncertainty budget has been presented and shows that the scale is the largest contributor; buoyancy corrections only play a minor role. For the lowest uncertainty measurements, appropriate waiting times or cleaning methods to get rid of icing are required. © 2020 The Authors

  • 25.
    De Huu, Marc A.
    et al.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Christensen, R.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Macdonald, Marc
    NEL, UK.
    Maury, René C.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Schrade, M.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Petter, Harm Tido
    VSL, The Netherlands.
    Stadelmann, P.
    Empa, Switzerland.
    The European Research Project on Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles - MetroHyVe2018Inngår i: Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Institute of Physics Publishing , 2018, Vol. 1065, nr 9, artikkel-id 092017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A large hydrogen infrastructure is currently in development across Europe. However, the industry faces the dilemma that they are required to meet certain measurement requirements set by European legislation that cannot currently be followed due to the lack of available methods and standards. The EMPIR Metrology for Hydrogen Vehicles project will be the first large scale project of its kind that will tackle the four measurement challenges that currently prevent the industry from meeting requirements set by International Standards such as flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling. This paper presents a brief overview of the specific objectives of the project and focuses on the flow metering work package and the presentation of its planned tasks, which comprise laboratory and measurements in the field. Laboratory work will assess the use of substitute fluids to hydrogen to provide a safer and more cost effective method for the type approval of Hydrogen Refuelling Stations (HRS). To be able to link laboratory work to field testing, mobile primary standards will be developed and the design of a field testing primary standard will be addressed. The aim is to inform what the European national metrology institutes are currently developing in the field of hydrogen flow metering and quality control of HRS.

  • 26.
    Furuichi, N.
    et al.
    NMIJ/AIST National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology / National Metrology Institute of Japan, Japan.
    Arias, R.
    Cenam Centro Nacional de Metrología, Mexico.
    Yang, C. -T
    Itri Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan.
    Chun, S.
    Kriss Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Meng, T.
    Nim National Institute of Metrology, China.
    Shinder, I.
    Nist National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA.
    Frahm, E.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Mills, C.
    Tüv Süd National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Akselli, B.
    Tubitak Ume National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Smits, F. M.
    VSL National Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Final report "Key comparison CCM.FF-K1.2015 - water flow: 30 m3/h ... 200 m3/h"2022Inngår i: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, nr 1 A, artikkel-id 07013Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Main text The objective of the Key Comparison CCM.FF-K1.2015 for water flow measurement was to support and prove the Calibration and Measurement Capabilities (CMC) of the participating NMIs of Japan (AIST), Mexico (CENAM), Chinese Taipei (ITRI), Korea (KRISS), P.R. China (NIM), Germany (PTB), USA (NIST), Sweden (RISE), UK (NEL), Turkey (TUBITAK UME) and Netherlands (VSL). The comparison was organized as a round robin, started in December 2015 at PTB and finished in April 2018, also at PTB. As pilot laboratory, the national metrology institute of Germany (PTB) organised the comparison. A combined setup of a turbine meter and Coriolis meter was used as a transfer standard (TS), which was provided by the pilot laboratory. The nominal calibration conditions of the KC were defined within the flow range between 30 m3/h and 200 m3/h, 20 °C fluid temperature and 3 bar line pressure. A special focus of the comparison was to estimate the uncertainties of the transfer standard (u TS). Both transfer meters were subjected to extensive characterization measurements at pilot laboratory, with the following investigated parameters: fluid temperature, line pressure, repeatability, flow stability, meter sensitivity to varying inflow conditions and hysteresis effects. For turbine meter, all labs passed the E N criteria of ≤ 1.20. The calibrations of the turbine meter were strongly affected by the presence of the large values for u TS with > 0.12 % k =1) which were mainly caused by the meter sensitivity to disturbed inflow conditions. This effect led to inconclusive calibration results for all laboratories. The evaluation criteria u comp/u base exceeded the critical value of 2.00. Finally, the turbine meter was not suitable for a confirmation of all submitted CMC values. For Coriolis meter, all labs passed the E N criteria of ≤ 1.20. In contrast to turbine meter, the evaluation criteria u comp/u base exceeded the critical value of 2.00 for one laboratory, only. The maximum uncertainty u TS of Coriolis meter was estimated with 0.022 % (k =1). In summary, the comparison was successfully finished for a confirmation of the submitted CMC values, related to mass calibrations. For volume related CMCs this comparison was not suitable. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 27.
    Hakonen, Aron
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Sensor Visions AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lindman, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas2018Inngår i: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 55, s. 350-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the heavy-duty transport sector is a convenient and cost-effective step towards a sustainable future. However, there are questions regarding LNG fuel quality and destructive particles for engines. Basically nothing is known about particles in the commercial LNG being fueled today. The gravimetric and SEM-EDX results here demonstrates that there are precarious metal and silicon dioxide particles in fuel-grade LNG that can clog and erode engine parts. Considering these results further research in the direction of this study, including standardized method development, is highly motivated.

  • 28.
    Jönsson, Gustav
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Gas flow measurement of evaporated liquid nanoflows2023Inngår i: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Following the miniaturisation of fluidic components, the demand for traceable measurements of micro and nanoflows is increasing in various technological fields such as pharmaceuticals, biotechnology and automotive industry. Gravimetric flow measurement methods are accurate at microflows and above, but have a lower limit of about 5nLmin−1. Several alternative approaches have been developed to circumvent this limit. Here a measurement setup and proof of principle is presented for a method measuring the gas flows generated by complete evaporation of liquid ethanol nanoflows. The gas flow measurement is based on the well-established method of determining the pressure drop across a geometrically precisely defined circular opening in the molecular flow regime. Liquid flow rates from a syringe pump in the range of 5nLmin−1 to 200nLmin−1 are measured with an expanded uncertainty as low as 340pLmin−1 at instantaneous flow rates. Strategies to further improve accuracy are discussed.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 29.
    Klason, Peter
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lau, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Penttinen, Olle
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Mattiasson, Kerstin
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Reynolds dependence of four different flow meters used for feed water flow measurements2013Inngår i: 16th International Flow Measurement Conference 2013, FLOMEKO 2013, 2013, , s. 610-613Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Kroner, Corinna
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Akselli, Basak
    Tubitak Ume, Turkey.
    Benková, Miroslava
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Borchling, Alexander
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Christoffersen, Nikki
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Pavlas, Jan
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Schumann, Daniel
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Seypka, Veit
    DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser, Germany.
    Ünsal, Bulent
    Tubitak Ume, Turkey.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Evaluation of the measurement performance of water meters depending on water quality2022Inngår i: Water Science and Technology: Water Supply, ISSN 1606-9749, E-ISSN 1607-0798, Vol. 22, nr 4, s. 4700-4715Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Water meters of different types and sizes are used to monitor and bill the water supply. Although the water is of drinking water quality, its chemo-physical properties often adversely affect the measuring behaviour of a meter after a while. There is thus the risk that they no longer meet legal requirements and may no longer be used. In this paper a test regime with a focus on pH, total hardness and particle load is presented which allows water meters to be tested closer to their operating conditions prior to placing them on the market. The regime goes beyond the conventional continuous durability test as described in OIML R49:2013(E) and ISO 4064:2014. The feasibility and reliability of the test regime has been demonstrated through implementation at different facilities. In the study, the measurement performance of water meters of various types and from different manufacturers was also investigated. A heterogeneous spread of measurement errors was found for both, water meters in mint conditions and those which were exposed to a defined water quality. Furthermore, compared to the conventional continuous durability test, the test regime developed in the study generally leads to stronger changes in the measurement error of the water meters. © 2022 The Authors

  • 31.
    Kroner, Corinna
    et al.
    PTB, Germany.
    Warnecke, Heiko
    PTB, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Wennergren, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Hagemann, Gunter
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Werner, Manfred
    IB-HAWE Ing-Büro Hagemann, Germany.
    Metrology for reliable fuel consumption measurements in the maritime sector2024Inngår i: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 226, artikkel-id 114161Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Reliable fuel consumption measurements play an essential role in the maritime sector whether for emission determinations or the use of novel fuels. A verification of the performance of flow meters used for fuel consumption determination under realistic conditions is thus of interest. Apart from the influence of the pressure- and temperature-dependent transport properties of the fuels, a characterization of the measurement performance under dynamic fuel consumption is of relevance. Traceable metrological infrastructure and procedures, which will enable an evaluation of the measurement performance of flow meters in this regard, are being developed in the scope of the EMPIR project “Safest” (20IND13). A consumption profile of a ferry navigating in a harbour serves as basis. In addition to the measurement accuracy under dynamic conditions, first investigations of the performance of flow meters are carried out in terms of fluid temperature and fuel transport properties for the example of spindle screw meters.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Lucas, P.
    et al.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Kenbar, A.
    NEL, UK.
    Kolbjornsen, H.
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Rathwell, G.
    OGM, UK.
    Safonova, M.
    IMS, Russia.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    van der Beek, M. P.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    World’s first LNG research and calibration facility2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 17th International Flow Measurement Conference (FLOMEKO 2016), 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) flowmeter research and calibration facility is being built in Rotterdam by the Dutch metrology institute VSL. This cryogenic test loop will also be used to test and develop LNG analysers, new technologies and devices for measurement of LNG physical properties. The facility will consist of a Primary Standard Loop (PSL) that can measure the mass of LNG flows traceable to the International Kilogram standard in Paris. The primary standard is capable of flow measurements up to 25 m3/hr. A second Midscale Standard Loop (MSL) will measure volumetric flow rate of up to 200 m3/h, expandable to at least 400 m3/h in the future. The Midscale standard is traceable to the PSL and scales the flowrate up using bootstrapping techniques. This paper describes the combined PSL and MSL facility, its objectives, and accomplishments to date.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 33.
    MacDonald, M.
    et al.
    NEL, UK.
    de Huu, M.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Maury, R.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Calibration of hydrogen Coriolis flow meters using nitrogen and air and investigation of the influence of temperature on measurement accuracy2021Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 79, artikkel-id 101915Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of four Coriolis flow meters designed for use in hydrogen refuelling stations was evaluated with air and nitrogen by three members of the MetroHyVe JRP consortium; NEL, METAS and CESAME EXADEBIT. A wide range of conditions were tested overall, with gas flow rates ranging from (0.05–2) kg/min and pressures ranging from (20–86) bar. The majority of tests were conducted at nominal pressures of either 20 bar or 40 bar, in order to match the density of hydrogen at 350 bar and 20 °C or 700 bar and −40 °C. For the conditions tested, pressure did not have a noticeable influence on meter performance. When the flow meters were operated at ambient temperatures and within the manufacturer's recommended flow rate ranges, errors were generally within ±1%. Errors within ±0.5% were achievable for the medium to high flow rates. The influence of temperature on meter performance was also studied, with testing under both stable and transient conditions and temperatures as low as −40 °C. When the tested flow meters were allowed sufficient time to reach thermal equilibrium with the incoming gas, temperature effects were limited. The magnitude and spread of errors increased, but errors within ±2% were achievable at moderate to high flow rates. Conversely, errors as high as 15% were observed in tests where logging began before temperatures stabilised and there was a large difference in temperature between the flow meter and the incoming gas. One of the flow meters tested with nitrogen was later installed in a hydrogen refuelling station and tested against the METAS Hydrogen Field Test Standard (HFTS). Under these conditions, errors ranged from 0.47% to 0.91%. Testing with nitrogen at the same flow rates yielded errors of −0.61% to −0.82%. © 2021 The Authors

  • 34.
    Maury, R.
    et al.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Auclercq, C.
    CESAME-EXADEBIT SA, France.
    Devilliers, Clemence
    Air Liquide, France.
    de Huu, Marc A.
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    MacDonald, Marc
    National Engineering Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Hydrogen refuelling station calibration with a traceable gravimetric standard2020Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 74, artikkel-id 101743Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Of all the alternatives to hydrocarbon fuels, hydrogen offers the greatest long-term potential to radically reduce the many problems inherent in fuel used for transportation. Hydrogen vehicles have zero tailpipe emissions and are very efficient. If the hydrogen is made from renewable sources, such as nuclear power or fossil sources with carbon emissions captured and sequestered, hydrogen use on a global scale would produce almost zero greenhouse gas emissions and greatly reduce air pollutant emissions.The aim of this work is to realise a traceability chain for hydrogen flow metering in the range typical for fuelling applications in a wide pressure range, with pressures up to 875 bar (for Hydrogen Refuelling Station - HRS with Nominal Working Pressure of 700 bar) and temperature changes from −40 °C (pre-cooling) to 85 °C (maximum allowed vehicle tank temperature) in accordance with the worldwide accepted standard SAE J2601. Several HRS have been tested in Europe (France, Netherlands and Germany) and the results show a good repeatability for all tests. This demonstrates that the testing equipment works well in real conditions. Depending on the installation configuration, some systematic errors have been detected and explained. Errors observed for Configuration 1 stations can be explained by pressure differences at the beginning and end of fueling, in the piping between the Coriolis Flow Meter (CFM) and the dispenser: the longer the distance, the bigger the errors. For Configuration 2, where this distance is very short, the error is negligible. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 35.
    Mills, Chris
    et al.
    TUV SUD National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Batista, Elsa
    Instituto Portugues da Qualidade, Portugal.
    Bissig, Hugo
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Ogheard, Florestan
    Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques, France.
    Boudaoud, Abir
    Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques, France.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Morgan, John
    TUV SUD National Engineering Laboratory, UK.
    Kartmann, Sabrina
    Hahn-Schickard, Germany.
    Thiemann, Kerstin
    Hahn-Schickard, Germany.
    Miotto, G.
    Hahn-Schickard, Germany.
    Niemann, Anders
    DTI, Denmark.
    Klein, Stephan
    Technische Hochschule Luebeck, Germany.
    Ratering, Geist
    Bronkhorst High-Tech BV, Netherlands.
    Lötters, Joost
    Bronkhorst High-Tech BV, Netherlands.
    Calibration methods for flow rates down to 5 nL/min and validation methodology2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 13-27Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving the accuracy and enabling traceable measurements of volume, flow, and pressure in existing drug delivery devices and in-line sensors operating at very low flow rates is essential in several fields of activities and specially in medical applications. This can only be achieved through the development of new calibration methods and by expanding the existing metrological infrastructure to perform micro-flow and nano-flow measurements. In this paper, we will investigate new traceable techniques for measuring flow rate, from 5 nL/min to 1,500 nL/min and present the results of an inter-comparison between nine laboratories for the calibration of two different flow meters and a syringe pump. 

  • 36.
    Niemann, Anders
    et al.
    DTI Danish Technological Institute, Denmark.
    Batista, Elsa
    Portuguese Institute for Quality, Portugal.
    Geršl, Jan
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Bissig, Hugo
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Lee, Seok
    KRISS, South Korea.
    Graham, Emmelyn
    TUV SUD NEL, UK.
    Stolt, Krister
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Afonso, Joana
    NOVA School of Science and Technology, Portugal.
    Benková, Miroslava
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Knotek, Stanislav
    CMI, Czech Republic.
    Assessment of drug delivery devices working at microflow rates2023Inngår i: Biomedizinische Technik (Berlin. Zeitschrift), ISSN 1862-278X, E-ISSN 0013-5585, Vol. 68, nr 1, s. 51-65Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Almost every medical department in hospitals around the world uses infusion devices to administer fluids, nutrition, and medications to patients to treat many different diseases and ailments. There have been several reports on adverse incidents caused by medication errors associated with infusion equipment. Such errors can result from malfunction or improper use, or even inaccuracy of the equipment, and can cause harm to patients' health. Depending on the intended use of the equipment, e.g. if it is used for anaesthesia of adults or for medical treatment of premature infants, the accuracy of the equipment may be more or less important. A well-defined metrological infrastructure can help to ensure that infusion devices function properly and are as accurate as needed for their use. However, establishing a metrological infrastructure requires adequate knowledge of the performance of infusion devices in use. This paper presents the results of various tests conducted with two types of devices. © 2022 the author(s)

  • 37.
    Penttinen, Olle
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Ulveström, Marcus
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Karlsson, Kristina
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Andersson, Veronika
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Andersson, Håkan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Pettersson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Infrastruktur och betongbyggande.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Towards flow measurement with passive accelerometers2021Inngår i: Flow Measurement and Instrumentation, ISSN 0955-5986, E-ISSN 1873-6998, Vol. 80, artikkel-id 101992Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this project has been to find suitable methods for flow measurement and characterization with passive accelerometers. The objectives were twofold. Firstly, the process industry could make use of such a sensor for process surveillance. Secondly, the water utilities of today lack simple and cost-efficient alternatives to equip their ageing infrastructures with online flow meters. These kinds of efforts are necessary for the realization of smart maintenance and for the decrease of the currently increasing amount of maintenance needs water utilities of today are experiencing. Liquid flowing in a pipe generates vibrations, detectable with accelerometers fitted along the pipe exterior. The correlated sound from synchronized accelerometers experience a lag which is dependent on the flow rate. Also, if the acquired sound is further processed, there exist a possibility to extract enough features to estimate some additional characteristics, in this case temperature. Experiments were performed at two nominal temperatures, 20 °C and 40 °C. A deep neural network was constructed for non-linear regression purposes to predict flow velocities based on lag and mean frequencies of the vibrations. Further, a proof of concept for this methodology was shown which reached a root mean square deviation from 100.8 L/min to 171.1 L/min for a nominal flow range of 0 to 1500 L/min. In addition, we train a k-nearest neighbour classifier to predict the nominal temperature of our validation dataset with 83 percent accuracy. The work was performed at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, serving as Sweden's national metrology institute for liquid flow and acoustics. © 2021 The Authors

  • 38.
    Tawackolian, Karsten
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Hogendoorn, Jankees
    KROHNE Altometer, The Netherlands.
    Lederer, Thomas
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Investigation of a ten-path ultrasonic flow meter for accurate feedwater measurements2014Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 25, nr 7, s. 75304-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow instruments used in thermal power plants cannot be calibrated directly for the actual process conditions, since no traceable calibration facility with known uncertainty is available. Asystematic investigation of the relevant influence parameters is therefore needed. It was found in earlier investigations that the dominant influences on the measurement uncertainty are the flowvelocity profile and the temperature. In the present work, we report on our experimental study of the temperature and Reynolds number dependence of a new ten-path ultrasonic flow meterprototype. An improved measuring program is developed that allows for a systematic characterization. Special emphasis was placed on producing and validating well defined velocity profiles on aprecision calibration flow rig. It was also for the first time intended and validated to generate fully developed Reynolds-similar velocity profiles for different temperatures so that the two main influence parameters, namely temperature and Reynolds number, can be clearly characterized separately. Since such ideal measurement conditions are not found in practical applications, the approach is also tested for a disturbed flow condition. A well defined disturbance is generated with a new flow disturber.

  • 39.
    Warnecke, H.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kroner, C.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ogheard, F.
    Centre Technique des Industries Aérauliques et Thermiques, France.
    Kondrup, J. B.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Christoffersen, N.
    FORCE Technology, Denmark.
    Benková, M.
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Büker, Oliver
    Haack, S.
    Teknologisk Institut, Denmark.
    Huovinen, M.
    VTT Oy, Finland.
    Ünsal, B.
    TUBITAK THE SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF TURKEY, Turkey.
    New metrological capabilities for measurements of dynamic liquid flows2022Inngår i: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 59, nr 2, artikkel-id 025007Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The capability to calibrate flow and volume devices dynamically has gained increasing interest over the years. Within the scope of the EMPIR project 17IND13 'Metrology for real-world domestic water metering', several test rigs were developed with which dynamic flow profiles can be generated and measured that reflect characteristics of real-world drinking water consumption. The dynamic component of the test rigs is realized based on different technologies such as valves, cavitation nozzles or piston provers. For validation purposes, an intercomparison of the test rigs was carried out in the scope of an EURAMET pilot study no. 1506. Between September 2020 and February 2021, a transfer standard specially developed for the intercomparison was calibrated at eight laboratories. The measurement error was determined for three dynamic flow profiles representative of drinking water consumption in Europe. In addition to determining the measurement errors and the degree of equivalence, five additional key parameters were derived to characterize the test rig properties: (1) repeatability of the profile measurements, (2) mean value of the residuals, (3) deviation between measured total mass and total mass resulting from the given profile and (4) duration of the flow change for an increasing change (5) and duration of the flow change for a decreasing change. These key parameters comprehensively describe the quality with which the dynamic flow profiles were generated and measured on the test rigs and can be used for evaluations in future intercomparisons of this kind. A main outcome of the intercomparison is that there is no technology to be preferred in terms of technical implementation. All test rigs agree well with each other, taking into account their expanded measurement uncertainties. 

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