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  • 1.
    Baker, Greg
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Utstrand, John
    COWI AS, Denmark.
    Winberg, David
    Sweco AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Poulsen, Annemarie
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Probabilistic Fire Risk Analysis in the Nordic Region2016Inngår i: SFPE 11th Conference On Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods / [ed] P. Tofilo, 2016, s. 137-148Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Collection of Façade Fire Tests Including Timber Structures2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes three case studies that each involved an analysis of a fire test of an external wall that included a timber structure or part of a timber structure. These external walls all had wooden façade panels, were ventilated behind the façade panels and had glass wool or stone wool insulation. The three case studies aim to assess the contribution of structural timber to the fire development and the fire spread. In addition, the potential of façade systems with combustible materials to limit the fire spread through and along the external wall was assessed. The fire tests were performed for commercial purposes and their results were made available for this study. Not all details of the façade systems details are included in this report.

    The analysis discussed in this report indicates that the timber structures did not contribute to the fire development and the fire spread in two of the three tests. The structural members in the external wall remained unaffected during the test. Visual inspection of the third test showed locally some superficial coloring and charring. However, the temperature measurements of the remaining test did not indicate any contribution of the structural timber to the fire development and fire spread. The energy contribution corresponding to the local and superficial coloring and charring is considered negligible.

    Two of the three tests analyzed in this study were performed in accordance with the Swedish façade fire testing standard SP Fire 105. Both tests were assessed by the accredited testing institute to meet the requirements set by the Swedish Building regulations that: (1) the fire spread inside the external wall shall be limited; (2) the risk for fire spread along the façade surface shall be limited and; (3) the risk for injuries as a consequence of falling parts from the external wall shall be limited.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 3.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings – structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Structural collapse as a result of fire is rare, but it can, especially in case of high rise buildings, lead to high property loss. For buildings with a risk of high financial damages, such as tall buildings, there may be a need to show that the building can withstand a complete natural fire without structural collapse, by e.g. using simulation and calculation methods. Such methods and guidance on how to use these are available for structures made of concrete and steel. Hereby, the structure is assessed against design fire exposures which are expected in a potential fire of the specific building or building design. However, such methods and guidance on how to use them is lacking for tall timber buildings. The risk of collapse is dependent on the fire exposure and properties of the structure. When timber is the structural material, the structure can have an influence on the fire exposure as timber can contribute to the fire as fuel. Therefore, successful structural design methods should include the contribution of timber to the fuel of the fire.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Methods2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out, because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber. If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire, it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression. Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work. The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 6.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Analysis and Computer Simulations2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with

    visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is

    such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a

    combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental

    impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the

    fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the

    contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out,

    because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas

    (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber.

    If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire,

    it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression.

    Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess

    of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT

    structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates

    pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using

    parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of

    gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off

    is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work.

    The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of

    the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum

    board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the

    timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

  • 7.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Practical method to determine the contribution of structural timber to the rate of heat release and fire temperature of post-flashover compartment fires2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a method to quantify the contribution of exposed timber to a fire was identified as one of the main gaps of knowledge concerning the challenges of building high-rise timber buildings, in a recent gap analysis performed by the NFPA. Recent experimental studies successfully quantified the contribution of large surfaces of exposed timber, in terms of rate of heat release. However, a method to predict these quantities has not been found in the literature.

    This report proposes a model that includes the contribution of exposed or protected timber to post-flashover fires in compartments with a floor area up to 100m2. The model consists of a one-zone model and a wood combustion model. Using the one-zone model, the temperatures in the room are estimated from the heat release rate. Using the wood combustion model, the heat release rate coming from exposed or protected timber is estimated. The influence of delamination of lamellas or fall-off of claddings can be estimated with some restrictions regarding accuracy.

    Comparative studies showed that predictions of the model correspond well with previous full scale compartment fire tests.

    Key words:

    Compartment fire, Timber, CLT, natural fire, charring rate, heat release rate, delamination, cladding failure

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 8.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Wind effect on internal and external compartment fire exposure2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of buildings regulations regarding the allowable height of mass timber structures in North America have been proposed. The proposed changes are to a significant extent based on real scale fire experiments of compartments that have been performed in laboratories in which the influence of wind is negligible. It has, however, been questioned whether the proposed regulations are relevant for realistic scenarios with external wind loads acting on the building during a compartment fire.

    The study discussed in this report involves a review of previous literature, analysis of available test results and single zone modeling to study potential effects of external wind on the internal and external exposure of fires in compartments with exposed CLT.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 9.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 5 – Experimental Study of Delamination of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Fire2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is such a material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the fire at locations where it is not protected against the fire. In that case, the CLT contributes to the fuel load of the fire and has an influence on the fire dynamics. Recent compartment fire tests have shown that bond line failures within cross-laminated timber caused by fire can result in sustained fires that do not extinguish naturally. Due to weakening of the bond line, glued lamellas of the exposed layer of the CLT can delaminate, which can result in a sudden exposure of cold timber to the high temperatures of a fire. This delamination results, therefore, in an increased combustion of exposed timber, and was previously shown to be the cause of continuous fully developed fires and fires that re-intensify after a period of decay. The study presented in this report aimed to (1) determine whether delamination in compartment fires can be avoided by using robust adhesives and (2) to assess the capability of a small scale test method to identify robust adhesives that do not lead to delamination of CLT in fires. The study involved a replication of fire conditions recorded in a recent compartment fire test performed earlier for this research project on Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings. These fire conditions were replicated in an intermediate scale furnace test with an exposed CLT specimen. The fire temperatures, oxygen concentration, incident radiant heat flux, CLT temperatures, charring rate and times of delamination resulting from the intermediate scale tests were similar to those of the compartment test, if the same CLT product was used in both specimens. It was shown that some CLT specimens made with other adhesives do not delaminate in the same conditions. The capability of a small scale Bunsen burner test to identify non-delaminating and delaminating adhesives was assessed. A comparative study showed that there is a good correspondence between results of the intermediate scale furnace test and the small scale Bunsen burner test.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hopkin, Danny
    OFR Consultants, UK.
    Emberley, Richard
    California Polytechnic State University, USA.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Timber Structures2021Inngår i: International Handbook of Structural Fire Engineering / [ed] LaMalva, Kevin; Hopkin, Danny, Cham: Springer International Publishing , 2021, s. 235-322Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter examines structural fire engineering considerations that are specific to timber, which is a relatively emerging construction material for large engineered buildings. First, thermal and mechanical properties of timber at elevated temperatures are discussed. Second, failure modes specific to timber structures (e.g., adhesive debonding) are examined. Lastly, pertinent analysis techniques for structural fire engineering applications involving timber structures are presented. The renaissance of timber as a construction material, allied to its application in less common building forms, has led researchers to map many challenges that should be considered and addressed when seeking to demonstrate that an adequate level of structural fire safety has been achieved when adopting timber. In parallel, new research studies have emerged which fundamentally seek to understand the timber pyrolysis process and its translation to the enclosure fire context. These challenges and the recent prevalence of timber-associated fire research shape the content of this chapter.

  • 11.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 13.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016Inngår i: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, s. 623-628Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Tiso, M
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Parametric fire design – zero-strengthlayers and charring rates2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of fire safety engineering performance based design methods are increasingly used to demonstrate that building designs are safe. However, performance based design is not commonly used for the design of timber structures, as there are not many relevant assessment methods available (Östman et al. 2010). For assessment whether the design of a building meets certain criteria, a design fire scenario is needed. Design fires often describe the temperature throughout a fire and are often based on dimensions, ventilation conditions and the fuel load of the compartment. Parametric fires are such design fires, used for structural calculations corresponding to post-flashover fires in compartments, based on the compartment’s dimensions, ventilation openings, lining materials, and the fuel load. Eurocode 1 (EN1991-1- 2:2004) includes parametric fires. Annex A of Eurocode 5 (EN1995-1-2:2004) offers calculation methods to determine charring rates of timber under parametric fire exposure, which depend mostly on the compartment’s ventilation opening sizes. However, Annex A is not accepted for use in all European countries, as the provided charring rates are questioned. Additionally, there are some parameters missing for calculations of structures exposed to parametric fires, namely: (1) notional charring rates, which take into account an increased char depth at the corners of small crosssections and (2) zero-strength-layers, which take into account a strength reduction of uncharred but damaged wood in the structural member. This paper presents an experimental study performed to determine one-dimensional, notional charring rates and zero-strength-layers corresponding to a range of parametric fire curves.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 15.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Förslag för brandskydd i flervånings trähus2018Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger förslag på lösningar för brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som ges är inte fullständiga och andra åtgärder kan vara aktuella för att få till ett bättre brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som presenteras baseras på arbetet i forskningsprojektet

    Brandskydd i höga trähus, som finansierats av Brandforsk (Brandforsk projekt 301-152) och Svenskt Trä och denna rapport är till stora delar en översättning av RISE report 2018:43 "Mitigation of fires in multi-storey timber buildings – statistical analysis and guidelines for design" av Daniel Brandon, Alar Just, Petra Andersson och Birgit Östman.

    Brandnormer inriktas i första hand på personsäkerhet, men i höga och stora byggnader blir egendomsskyddet allt viktigare. De förslag som ges här baseras främst på analys av stora skador i USA. De viktigaste punkterna är att begränsa

    1. Direkt brand- och rökspridning mellan brandceller via:

    a. dörrar, väggar och bjälklag

    b. anslutningar mellan byggnadselement

    c. genomföringar i väggar och bjälklag

    d. installationer i väggar och bjälklag

    2. Brand- och rökspridning genom hålrum:

    a. i brandcellsavskiljande byggnadselement

    b. i fasader och yttertak

    3. Utvändig brand- och rökspridning:

    a. längs fasadens yta

    b. genom fönster

    c. genom ventilationsöppningar (t ex vid takfot)

    d. på vindar

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Hakkarainen, Tuula
    VTT, Finland.
    Performance based design for mass timber structures in fire– A Design Example2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent fires in tall buildings occurring in for example London, Dubai, Sao Paulo and Tehran evidence the risk of high consequences of fires in tall buildings and difficulties for fire service interference in case of large fire spread. In order to reduce the risk of deadly and large damage fires in especially tall buildings it is of importance to limit fire spread and avoid collapse .

    It was previously indicated that prescriptive fire safety regulations are mostly based on experience rather than on scientific facts. Therefore, the application of regulations for less conventional buildings, such as tall timber buildings, is questionable. In contrast with prescriptive requirements, performance based requirements, such as a requirement for a building to withstand a full fire without effective fire service interference, require accounting for the design and the function of the building. Multiple performance based methods for the fire safety design are available for buildings with conventional structural materials, i.e. steel and concrete. For buildings with timber as a structural material performance based structural design is rarely applied due to lack of methods available.

    The number of tall buildings with timber as their main structural material is increasing globally, which involves new fire safety challenges. In contrast with more conventional structural materials for tall buildings, timber can fuel the fire and influence its duration and severity. A number of previous experimental studies have shown that enough contribution of exposed timber to the fuel of a fire can result in continuous fully developed fires. Additionally, events that lead to increased combustion, such as sudden exposure of initially protected timber or bond line failure in glued timber members, can lead to fire regrowth after a period of decay. Without effective sprinkler or fire service interference, these fires would eventually lead to collapse, which can lead to potentially unacceptable consequences in very tall buildings.

  • 17.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Klippel, Michael
    Frangi, Andrea
    Glueline Integrity in Fire2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Mass timber is an increasingly popular material for large and tall buildings. Such buildings typically have higher consequence classes than buildings of traditional timber construction and have higher fire resistance requirements. Architectural demands pushing towards having large surface areas of visible and exposed wood lead to additional fire safety challenges. Previous research has shown that some mass timber products can exhibit glue line integrity failure when exposed to fire, while other mass timber products are not prone to this phenomenon. In practice, it is important to know whether glue line integrity failure occurs, to be able to suitably perform fire resistance calculations (for example using the upcoming version of Eurocode 5) and to be able to predict the fire exposure and duration of fires in real buildings (needed for a performance-based approach). The research presented in this report studies the suitability of a furnace test for determining whether products exhibit glue line integrity failure or not. The study includes the determination of a conservative test duration, by comparisons with conditions of a statistically severe compartment fire. Furthermore, a round robin study with twelve fire tests in furnaces of different labs at different scales, fired with different fuel types has been performed. For all tests, the specimens were made of a mass timber material that does not exhibit glue line integrity failure. The average mass loss rate per unit of exposed area and the average charring rate were determined and assessment criteria were evaluated. Comparisons of the round robin study results have been made, against those of a specific CLT product that has been shown to maintain glue line integrity in numerous furnace and compartment fire tests and a recommendation of a pass/fail criterion is given for a future classification standard.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 18.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Landel, Pierre
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Ziethén, Rune
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Samhällsbyggnad, Bygg och fastighet.
    Allbrektsson, Joakim
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    High-Fire-Resistance Glulam Connections for Tall Timber Buildings2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tall timber buildings generally require fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, 120 minutes or more. The vast majority of fire tested structural timber connections, however, did not reach a fire resistance that was relevant for these buildings. Commonly timber connections between glued laminated timber members comprise of exposed steel fasteners, such as bolts, screws, nails and dowels. However, it has previously been concluded that connections with exposed steel fasteners, generally do not achieve fire resistance ratings of 30 minutes and are, therefore, inadequate to be implemented in tall timber buildings without fire encapsulation. The research project presented in this report consists of four connection fire tests that are designed to achieve structural fire resistance ratings of 90 minutes, using different design strategies. This goal was achieved for all tested column-beam connections. A single test of a moment resisting connection did not lead to a fire resistance rating of 90 minutes, due to timber failure at the smallest cross-section after 86 minutes. The low temperature of the steel fasteners and the limited rotation of the connection, however, suggest that the connection would have been capable of achieving a 90 minutes fire resistance rating if larger beam cross-sections would be used.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 19.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Qvist, Siri
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    van Straalen, IJsbrand
    TNO, Netherlands.
    Wattez, Yvonne
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    Steenbakkers, Pascal
    ARUP, Netherlands.
    Literatuurstudie - Brandveiligheid en Bouwen met Hout2022Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [nl]

    In opdracht van het Nederlands Normalisatie Instituut (NEN) en in overleg met werkgroep 351 007 00 07 ´Brandveiligheid en bouwen met hout, heeft RISE met medewerking van Arup en TNO een literatuurstudie uitgevoerd. Deze literatuurstudie is stap 1 van meerdere te nemen stappen om antwoord te kunnen geven op motie nr. 28325-220 d.d. 20 april 2021 van de Tweede Kamer waarin wordt geconstateerd dat het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving nog niet is toegerust op de toenemende toepassing van nieuw of hernieuwd bouwmateriaal, zoals hout, voor nieuwe hoogbouw. Het doel van deze literatuurstudie is specifieke punten te identificeren die aandacht behoeven in de regelgeving om te zorgen voor brandveilige gebouwen waarin veel hout is toegepast. Het onderzoek geeft op basis van literatuur inzicht in nut, achtergronden, noodzaak en relevantie van gebruik van bestaande regelgeving, beoordelingsmethoden en de uitgangspunten daarin. De vervolgstappen op dit rapport omvatten in de literatuurstudie geïdentificeerde punten die aandacht behoeven, waaronder mogelijke aanpassing van de Nederlandse bouwregelgeving en bestaande normen, zoals NEN 6068, NEN 6069 en de Eurocodes 1995-1-2, 1991-1-2 en de in de Eurocode 1995-1-2 aangeduide bepalingsmethode, NEN-EN 13381-7. Uit deze literatuurstudie blijkt onder andere dat: • de huidige brandveiligheidseisen uit het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving niet zonder meer adequaat zijn voor alle massieve houtconstructies, omdat de huidige prestatie-eisen geen directe relatie kennen met de eventueel verhoogde permanente vuurbelasting; • wanneer de huidige prestatie-eisen uit het Bouwbesluit en BBL worden toegepast voor gebouwen met de nieuwe houten bouwsystemen dan levert dit voor die gebouwen een mogelijke onderschatting van het bereikte veiligheidsniveau, en wordt er mogelijk aan de functionele eisen van het Bouwbesluit en BBL onvoldoende voldaan; • de huidige prestatie-eisen uit het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Brandveiligheid Leefomgeving en bijbehorende bepalingsmethodes (NEN-normen) zijn niet altijd voldoende toegesneden op het beoordelen van nieuwe typen houten bouwsystemen, zoals ‘engineered wood’-producten waaronder CLT (Cross Laminated Timber) en NLT (Nailed laminated timber) en LVL (Laminated veneer lumber). Dit is gerelateerd aan de grotere hoeveelheid brandstof in constructies met deze materialen, waardoor de vuurlast, de brandrisico’s en gevolgen voor de omgeving mogelijk zijn verhoogd. Nader moet worden onderzocht welk deel van de constructie, rekening houdend met repressieve inzet, een bijdrage levert aan de vuurbelasting, intensiteit en de duur van de brand; • het blussen van een brand en de aanvullende brandrisico’s vergen extra inzet, middelen en aandacht van de brandweer voor wat betreft het blussen en volledig doven van smeulende resten in het gebouw (en dus ook in de bouwconstructie); Op basis van de resultaten van het literatuuronderzoek komt de werkgroep tot de conclusie dat de toename van de vuurlast bij houtbouw de brandveiligheid in potentie negatief beïnvloedt. De werkgroep heeft de indruk dat voor gebouwen met een beperkt brandrisico en een beperkte hoeveelheid brandbare bouwmaterialen en hout, en ook met een laag gevolg-risico, de invloed beperkt is en de huidige eisen en bepalingsmethoden mogelijk gehandhaafd kunnen blijven. Voor de overige situaties zullen aanvullende maatregelen of aangepaste bepalingsmethoden moeten worden ontwikkeld, om aanvullende brandrisico’s te beheersen, en/of zullen de eisen en de bepalingsmethodes moeten worden herzien. Om op dit moment aantoonbaar aan de functionele eisen van het Bouwbesluit / Besluit Bouwwerken Leefomgeving te voldoen is een nadere studie op basis van een integrale aanpak, en gebruikmakend van fire safety engineering, nodig. Zowel de op fire safety engineering gebaseerde aanpak als een mogelijke aanscherping van de prestatie-eisen moeten nader worden uitgewerkt.

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  • 20.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Eurocode 5 design in comparison with fire resistance tests of unprotected timber beams2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (SFPE 2016), 2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
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  • 21.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Ex-posed Wooden Surfaces: Summary Report2020Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale compartment fire tests, constructed of CLT slabs and glulam beam and column in accordance with current US product standards, were performed. The compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber equal to up to two times the area of the floor plan. The 4 hours long tests showed that compartments with such quantities of exposed wood can exhibit continuous decay to hot-spots and embers after flashover. The tests indicate that the presence of two exposed wall surfaces in one corner should be avoided to ensure this.

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  • 22.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Just, Alar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Tian
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    van Mierlo, Rudolf
    DGMR, Netherlands.
    Shettihalli Anandreddy, Vikas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Robijn-Meijers, Patries
    DGMR, Netherlands.
    Limiting flame spread rates in large compartments with visible timber ceilings2023Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of tall buildings combining both a visible mass timber structure and large open floor plans is growing rapidly introducing new fire safety challenges. One risk is that of very rapid flame spread in the ceiling, originating from a severe but localized fire, resulting in fires where the majority of large compartments burn simultaneously. Such phenomena have been observed in both tests and accidents, but knowledge of effective mitigation without the use of sprinklers is scarce. In Europe, this problem is commonly addressed in construction by complying to prescriptive rules of reaction-to-fire classification of linings. The reaction-to-fire classification, primarily based on the single burning item (SBI) test of EN13832, characterizes the material’s contribution to a fire in the very initial phase of the fire. Treatments can be used to improve the reaction-to-fire class of mass timber, which will reduce the risk of substantial fire development. Fires can, however, develop and grow large even without the contribution of lining materials. For this reason, and in light of the recent findings of research of large open floor plan compartments, it is of interest to assess the effectiveness of treatments to reduce the risk of rapid flame spread. Therefore, eight tests in 18.0 × 2.3 × 2.2 m3 compartments were performed. Six had exposed timber surface with a clear coating or impregnation in the ceiling, complying with a reaction-to-fire class B and two served as untreated timber and non-combustible reference tests. The fire source, representing a fire in moveable fuel, was severe enough (3 - 3.7 MW) for flame impingement on the ceiling. The rate of at which wood ignited from the heat in the ceiling, the temperature development at different heights, as well as external flaming were assessed and were used as indicators of performance. Additional indicators were the estimated tenability and ceiling char depths throughout the compartment. The untreated timber and the non-combustible ceiling represented the two extremes for most indicators with the class-B treated timber surfaces falling in between. Close to the fire source, the test indicators for treated timber surfaces performed similar to those of the untreated timber surface while the non-combustible ceiling performed significantly better. With increasing distance from the fire source, indicators from treated timber tests more resembled the non-combustible ceiling. This behavior was noticed for all types of indicators. With increasing distance from the fire source, the fire exposure is naturally less severe and thus, more similar to the small burner exposure used in SBI-testing which the treatments were developed against. Both final charring depth and temperature developments for ignition and tenability were clearly improved by the treatment, but the SBI test results (FIGRA and THR600s) did not correlate well to the compartment test indicators (Figure 92 andFigure 93). Nevertheless, using treatments assessed by SBI is a common strategy to mitigate fire spread in newly constructed mass timber buildings and practitioners should be aware that while the treatments have significant effects on the flame spread they are not to be treated as incombustible. We propose that addressing the ceiling spread problem requires an additional indicative test with more severe exposure than the SBI test setup. The impregnated timber experienced loss of integrity due to substantial shrinkage of the timber during the severe exposure. Such phenomena were not captured in the SBI testing. Comparisons of performance of the impregnated specimens indicates that it can be beneficial for the performance to implement more impregnation than needed for reaction-to-fire class B. Whether this holds for all treatments cannot be concluded.

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  • 23.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Post-Fire Rehabilitation of CLT2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Engineered mass timber materials such as CLT have been increasingly implemented as a structural material for tall or larger buildings in recent years. Most studies have been conducted on the structural performance of timber exposed to fire, but the number of studies focusing on post-fire rehabilitation of mass timber have been limited. As increasingly large timber buildings are being realized, for insurance purposes it becomes increasingly important to ensure that a building can be repaired after a fire. This report presents a case study of the repair of a section of a CLT ceiling after a significant fire. The specimen is obtained from a recent compartment fire test and is positioned and oriented in a way that is representative for on site rehabilitation. The repair was done in six steps: 1. Mapping the thickness of the charred or damaged layer 2. Design and planning 3. Removal of the char layer 4. Planing of the surface including corners 5. Gluing procedure of replacing lamella 6. Finish the surface to meet architectural requirement A new method for determining the grade of damage, the method for planing the specimen, the adhesive type, the glue pressing methods were designed for the rehabilitation exercise. In addition, the layup of the CLT is changed to prioritise flexural stiffness and bending capacity over shear capacity, as they generally govern the structural capacity of CLT floors. After the six-step repair was done, the specimen was cut in half to perform two similar structural bending tests. The results indicate that the flexural stiffness which is generally governing the load bearing capacity of floors, is fully restored by the rehabilitation work. The results also indicate that bending capacity, which can be governing for relatively short floor spans, is restored and possibly increased by the rehabilitation work. The shear capacity which is only critical for short floor spans in combination with very high loads is, however, reduced, as the experimental shear capacity is 18% lower than the characteristic shear capacity.

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  • 24.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Hallberg, Emil
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Fire Safe implementation of visible mass timber in tall buildings – compartment fire testing2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Five real scale fire tests of compartments constructed of cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glued laminated timber, compliant with product standards specified in current US model building code, were performed. Four of the tested compartments were designed to result in a representative and severe fire scenario in a residential fire compartment, using a probabilistic approach. The other tested compartment had additional openings and a greater opening factor, which was aimed to be representative of buildings designed for business occupancy. The interior of the compartments had surface areas of exposed mass timber that varied from approximately the area of the floor plan to approximately two times the area of the floor plan. The tests included measurements to study the internal compartment exposure, the temperature development at gypsum protected surfaces, the temperature development in the structural timber, oxygen concentrations at locations of interest and exposure to exterior surfaces of the wall and façade above the openings. The fire in the compartment with a greater opening factor had two layers of fire-rated gypsum board protection on the back wall and all other surfaces of CLT and glued laminated timber exposed. Despite having the highest peak combustion rate, this compartment fire had the least severe internal and external fire exposure. The fire decayed relatively quickly after flashover and continued to decay until the test was stopped at 4 hours after ignition. This fire resulted in less structural damage than the fires in compartments with fewer and smaller openings. The compartments with fewer and smaller openings had similar temperatures for approximately the first 10 minutes after flashover. The compartment with only the ceiling (including the glued laminated timber beam) exposed started to decay after 22 minutes of post-flashover fire and continued to decay until the end of the test at 4 hours after ignition. The other three tests had, in addition to the ceiling, significant areas of exposed wall and column surfaces. To accommodate for the extended fire duration that was expected in these configurations an extra layer of gypsum board protection was applied to the protected surfaces. The additional exposed surface areas of walls led to an increase of the fully developed fire duration by 6 - 9 minutes. One of the compartments included corners where two exposed walls intersect. Significantly increased damage was observed in the lower part of these wall corners, and an overall higher radiative exposure in the test with such corners. After more than three hours of decay, surface flaming developed on the walls in that test. The fires in the tests without such corners exhibited continual decay for the full 4-hour test duration. Post-test analysis showed that the structural damage was lower in exposed ceilings than at the bottom of the exposed walls for all tests. After the tests, remaining smoldering and hot spots were reduced using relatively small amounts of water mist. Overnight measurements to study the thermal wave going through the loadbearing structure indicated no post-test reduction of structural capacity.

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  • 25.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Su, Joseph
    NRC, Canada.
    Mass timber structures post-fire: A gap analysis2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    With mass timber structural systems being increasingly used in tall and large buildings, the Fire Protection Research Foundation (FPRF) initiated a series of research projects to help address fire safety challenges of tall mass timber buildings. Previously completed projects include a review of mass timber building fire performance, identification and prioritization of research needs, and experimental and modelling works to quantify the contribution of cross laminated timber (CLT) building elements to compartment fires. These projects focused on fire safety and protection of occupants, fire fighters, and property during a fire. A topic that has not been well addressed is the repair of mass timber after a fire event. Tall mass timber buildings are expected to resist significant structural failure or collapse during and after a fire. However, technical information and guidance on how to repair and recertify a mass timber structure after a fire are lacking. Therefore, the Fire Protection Research Foundation initiated this research program is to develop guidance on repair and recertification of mass timber structures after a fire. The objective of this phase of the project was to develop a research plan for future research projects to help bridge the gap in knowledge needed to enable repair and recertification of a mass timber structure after a fire.

  • 26.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Säkerhetsforskning.
    Predictive method for fires in CLT and glulam structures – A priori modelling versus real scale compartment fire tests & an improved method2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive modelling of the fire duration, fire temperatures, heat release rates and the structural capacity during building fires can be used to show compliance with performance-based building code requirements. The predictive models presented in this report focusses on the post flashover fire including the decay phase and extinction of flaming combustion for mass timber structures. A priori predictions of five recent compartment fire tests have been set against experimental results and compared. After the tests, the model has been updated, mostly for increased ease of use and increased accuracy for the decay phase. The model consists of a single-zone model which uses an energy equilibrium approach to obtain gas temperatures and surface temperatures of compartment boundaries. The energy contribution of charring mass timber is included using through-depth temperature calculations of the structure and experimental relationships to determine the combustion rate. The through-depth temperatures of mass timber members also serve to provide information for structural calculations using temperature dependent reduced material properties. However, the structural calculations are out of the scope of the current report. The radiation conditions (and total thermal exposure to walls ceilings and floors) predicted by the updated model were accurately described the of recent full-scale experiments within the variations between and within the tests. The comparisons with experiments showed that the total heat is, however, underestimated in some cases and surface temperatures were underestimated in the decay phase. Local effects caused by a radiative feedback loop between surfaces that show significant char oxidation, which occurred in a part of the test, is not included in the model.

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  • 27.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Vermina Lundström, Frida
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Mikkola, Esko
    SAFITS - Statistical Analysis of Fires in Timber Structures2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to changes of regulations and product development among other things, the number of multi-storey buildings of timber frame or heavy timber construction has increased consistently in the last two decades. The use of a combustible materials in the structure and the relatively short history with such buildings, has led to insurance related questions regarding risks of property loss. Studies of damages in real fire incidents, where a fair comparison between the fire performance of modern multi-storey timber buildings is made, were lacking. In this study damage data of fire incidents from the USA, Canada, Sweden, New Zealand were found and analyzed. Using different methods the extent of fire damage or the financial damage was compared for fires in multistorey buildings of timber construction types and fires in multistorey buildings of other construction types. For each database a qualitative assessment of the reliability and the fairness of the comparison was made. Also, a comparison, for which only a limited number of fire incidents was available, was made between damages caused in sprinklered fires and damages caused in non-sprinklered fires. In addition to the comparative study also qualitative analysis of 33 high damage fire incidents in multistorey timber buildings was made. The goal of this assessment was to identify the most important details to prevent high damage fires.

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  • 28.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Winberg, David
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Nordic standardisation of fire safety engineering methods for innovative building solutions2015Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , s. 119-122Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    England, Paul
    et al.
    EFT Consulting, Australia.
    Barber, David
    Arup, Australia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Dagenais, Christian
    FPInnovations, Canada.
    De Sanctis, Gianluca
    Basler and Hofmann, Switzerland.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Pau, Dennis
    University of Canterbury, New Zealand.
    Wade, Colleen
    Fire Research Group, New Zealand.
    Performance-based design and risk assessment: Chapter 112022Inngår i: Fire Safe Use of Wood in Buildings : Global Design Guide / [ed] Andrew Buchanan & Birgit Östman, CRC Press, 2022, s. 369-392Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter provides an overview of the application of performance-based approaches to the fire safety design of timber buildings. Performancebased design methods are relevant for the design of tall timber buildings and other timber buildings that vary from accepted prescriptive solutions. Performance-based design approaches are commonly categorised as deterministic or probabilistic methods and should be applied in accordance with the applicable regulations, building codes and standards. This chapter provides references to detailed information that should be consulted when undertaking performance-based designs.

  • 30.
    Fink, Gerhard
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Jockwer, Robert
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Šušteršič, Iztok
    Innorenew CoE, Slovenia.
    Stepinac, Mislav
    University of Zagreb, Croatia.
    Palma, Pedro
    Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Bedon, Chiara
    University of Trieste, Italy.
    Casagrande, Daniele
    National Research Council of Italy, Italy.
    Franke, Steffen
    Bern University of Applied Sciences, Switzerland.
    D’Arenzo, Giuseppe
    University of Kassel, Germany.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Viau, Christian
    Carleton University, Canada.
    HOLISTIC DESIGN OF TALLER TIMBER BUILDINGS - COST ACTION HELEN (CA20139)2023Inngår i: World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE 2023), 2023, s. 1001-1008Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    With the worldwide construction sector being responsible for one third of carbon dioxide emissions, as well as forty percent of the world’s energy use and waste production, a shift to sustainable and renewable construction techniques is crucial. Engineered timber, a champion of sustainable construction materials, has evolved to a stage that enables the construction of not only family housing but also taller buildings so far commonly built from concrete or steel. Designing taller timber buildings made is more demanding than their concrete and steel counterparts. Whereas different design aspects (architectural, structural, fire safety, acoustics, etc.) of concrete buildings can work almost independently, the design of taller timber buildings should be performed with intensive collaboration among the design teams. It is therefore crucial to address taller multi-storey timber buildings from a collaborative and interdisciplinary perspective, considering static, dynamic, fire, acoustic, human health, and other aspects in parallel and not in isolation. Only through interdisciplinary analysis and interaction can a set of holistic design guidelines be developed that will enable the safe construction of taller timber buildings, as well as respect human wellbeing demands. In this paper, the COST Action CA20139 will be presented and the main aims will be discussed.

  • 31.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Fire Stops in Buildings2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a statistical study performed by the London fire brigade in the Real Fires Database it was found that out of 30 086 fires occurring between 2009 and 2011, fire spread beyond the floor of origin through gaps or voids occurred in 92 cases. This illustrates that the phenomenon is relatively rare. However, it can lead to severe property damage. Fires can spread invisibly within cavities of the structure, which has led to problems concerning the extinguishment of the fire. Cavity barriers function is to stop the fire spread through cavities. However, these cavity barriers have not always been effective.

    This report is the result of a study that aimed to:

    1. Develop a robust testing method for cavity barriers for cavities with combustible materials within walls, floors and other elements in buildings.

    2. Provide guidelines for the materials, installation, positioning, detailing and location of the cavity barriers.

    Additionally, a preliminary study is performed to assess some extinguishing strategies.

    Based on a study of characteristics of cavity fires, current standard fire tests for cavity barriers were revised for the use in cavities with combustible materials. From tests following the revised methodology, guidelines regarding the dimensions, installation and fire stopping design are provided.

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  • 32.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    SMART HOUSING SMÅLAND : Optimizing the fire protection of massive timber structures2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A research project to optimize gypsum protection of CLT or other mass timber materials was performed by RISE. The project included 5 intermediate scale furnace fire tests of CLT protected with a fire rated gypsum board. The pattern of the gypsum screws was varied in the tests to allow for a comparative study. The comparisons indicated that fall-off of gypsum boards can be delayed significantly by changing positions of screws and the spacing between them.

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  • 33.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Mäger, K. N.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Pukk, R.
    Estonian Academy of Security Sciences, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    CLT compartment fire test2018Inngår i: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-rise timber buildings are planned to be built in the near future all around the world. The fire protection concepts are not always considering natural fire scenarios. As timber is a combustible material, it can contribute to the fire within and outside of the fire compartment. For buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements the possible fall-off of lamellas should be considered because of the risk for second flashover, which can lead to a continuous fire. However, in case fire service interference or sprinkler activation is absent or inefficient, it may be necessary to design a building so that it leads to a decaying fire. Additionally, it is important to limit fire spread to neighbouring compartments. This paper discusses a compartment test of a two-story building made of CLT performed in Estonia to study delamination behaviour and consequences in compartments with realistic ventilation conditions. State-of-the art solutions to limit fire spread from the first floor into the second floor were applied. This involved robust design of connections, penetrations through the compartment boundary and the façade. The paper provides a description and analysis of the test.

  • 34.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Execution of timber structures and fire safety2016Inngår i: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, s. 5555-5562Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety is one of the six essential performance requirements to consider when building timber structures. Fire safety has to be proven for the whole building process and the end use of the building. On the building site during the execution there might be an increased risk for fire spread because of large amounts of unprotected timber and relatively open structures. Work processes dealing with high temperatures, smoking, vandalism or other reasons can lead to ignition of timber and end up with serious damages. Fire safety on the building site should be handled from the very beginning to the final stage of execution. During the execution the designed solutions have to be checked and followed. This paper gives the background and principles that should be considered in a new Nordic standard for execution of timber structures in terms of fire safety.

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  • 35.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 36.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020Inngår i: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 1621-1654Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 37.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Determination of the effective material properties for the thermal simulations2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2016 (INTER 2016), 2016, s. 397-400Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2019Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 149-160Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 39.
    Ong, Chee Beng
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Chang, Wen Shao
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Ansell, Martin P.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Walker, Pete
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bench-scale fire tests of Dark Red Meranti and Spruce finger joints in tension2018Inngår i: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 168, s. 257-265Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the secondary failure of Malaysian Dark Red Meranti (Shorea spp.) and Spruce (Picea abies) finger joints in a glulam beam in a fire test using a bench-scale test set-up. Secondary failure is the occurrence of failure of the bond lines due to fire and the falling off of the outermost tension layers, exposing the uncharred inner layers to a sudden increase of fire intensity. The lack of published work and the difficulties in describing the behaviour of the finger joints after the secondary failure in a full-scale fire test has identified the need for a simple bench-scale method, incorporating the conditions of the standard fire test. This paper focusses on the performance of the finger joints which together with other defects such as knots and splits are generally the weakest component in the glulam beam. The finger joints were bonded with structural adhesives, specifically phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and polyurethane (PUR). They were tested in tension to imitate the failure of finger joints on the tension side of a standard fire test of a glulam beam. Constant heat flux was introduced to the finger-jointed specimens to replicate the secondary failure of a glulam beam in the standard fire test. The results of this study indicate a relationship between the charring rate and density of the specimens, with higher density Dark Red Meranti showing lower charring rate compared to the lower density Spruce specimens. Factors such as constant heat flux as opposed to the time-increasing heat flux exposure and specimen size influenced the charring rate of the specimens. The char rate was measured at the early stages of the fire test, which is known to have higher values since the build-up of the charred layers was not sufficiently substantial to protect the inner unburnt wood. Overall, the bench-scale fire test set-up was able to differentiate the fire performance of the adhesives, with PRF showing better fire performance compared to the specimens finger-jointed with PUR adhesive. In addition, tensile tests at ambient temperature showed no significant difference in tensile strength between finger joints bonded with different adhesives for the same wood species. The tensile strengths of the finger joints bonded with different adhesives were influenced by the temperature profile through the joint. The proposed bench-scale fire test was used to compare the quality of the adhesives in a fire situation, specifically with respect to secondary failure. The PRF was selected as the reference adhesive.

  • 40.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Technical note - Thermal exposure of wood in standard fire resistance tests2019Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, s. 179-185Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, standard fire resistance testing has been questioned for combustible products. A part of the comments address the thermal boundary conditions and the different thermal exposure of combustible products in comparison to incombustibles. These comments are evaluated in this technical note.To compare heat flux measurements of combustibles and incombustible products when tested in a furnace, furnace tests were performed. The furnace was controlled by plate thermometers to follow the EN 1363/ISO 834 standard temperature-time curve. It could be proven that (a) the heat flux measurements at the specimens surface behind the plate thermometer (PT) are not higher than in front of the PT. The reason for this is most likely that no flaming combustion is possible near the surface due to the low oxygen content typically for a furnace. It could be further shown (b) that the heat flux measurements when combustibles are tested follow the trend reported in literature for incombustibles. Further, (c) that the lower burner fuel used in furnaces is due to the contribution of the specimen (ca. 30% in the presented tests) and due to the lower thermal inertia (ca. 20% in the presented tests). Finally it can be concluded that the thermal exposure of combustibles and incombustibles is equivalent in furnaces simulating a ventilation controlled fire development for a pre-defined duration.

  • 41.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Comparison of test results and the Reduced Cross-Section Method using a zero-strength layer2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2014, , s. 51-53Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 42.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    The use of furnace tests to describe real fires of timber structures2018Inngår i: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2018Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire resistance is an important characteristic for all building structures regardless the building materials used. Methods for fire resistance testing were developed already before 1900 to measure the response of the structure in fire and compare different products. In the last decade, the increased popularity of timber buildings has led to a renewed interest in the performance of timber structures in fire and timber products were frequently tested in furnaces. Currently, some discussions question the validity of furnace test results for timber members which are carried out according to standards. Generally, it was stated that combustible and incombustible products are exposed to different thermal exposures when tested in furnaces or exposed in real fires. Additionally, some experts think that massive timber elements, e.g. cross-laminated timber (CLT), cannot be tested in furnaces as these products increase the fire load and, thus, statements in the framework of fire resistance testing are not possible. This paper investigates the validity of furnace resistance testing for combustible products and its limitations. It is shown that, firstly, the thermal exposure in fire resistance tests of incombustibles and combustibles is similar. Secondly, in addition to thermal exposure, the term fire exposure should be introduced where the oxygen concentration is described as the oxygen concentration significantly influences the behaviour of combustible material in fires. Thirdly, the furnace and compartment environment in flash-over fires is similar with respect to this fire exposure. Finally, it is not possible to directly use furnace test results to predict a compartment response in real fires including the cooling phase but recent investigations indicate that results from fire resistance tests can be used to predict burn-out when the mass loss of the timber specimen is measured.

  • 43.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Santomaso, Alessandro
    Commissario Terza Corsia, Italy.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Safety.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Timber under real fire conditions - the influence of oxygen content and gas velocity on the charring behavior2018Inngår i: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 9, nr 3, s. 222-236Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors on the charring behaviour of timber, the char layer and the charring depth in non-standard fires. Design/methodology/approach – This paper summarizes outcomes of tests, investigating the influences on the charring behavior of timber by varying the oxygen content and the gas velocity in the compartment. Results show that charring is depending on the fire compartment temperature, but results show further that at higher oxygen flow, char contraction was observed affecting the protective function of the char layer. Findings – In particular, in the cooling phase, char contraction should be considered which may have a significant impact on performance-based design using non-standard temperature fire curves where the complete fire history including the cooling phase has to be taken into account. Originality/value – Up to now, some research on non-standard fire exposed timber member has been performed, mainly based on standard fire resistance tests where boundary conditions as gas flow and oxygen content especially in the decay phase are not measured or documented. The approach presented in this paper is the first documented fire tests with timber documenting the data required.

  • 44.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    McNamee, Robert
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    External fire plumes from mass timber compartment fires—Comparison to test methods for regulatory compliance of façades2023Inngår i: Fire and Materials, ISSN 0308-0501, E-ISSN 1099-1018, Vol. 47, s. 433-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Post-flashover fires inherently lead to external fire plumes, constituting a hazard for rapid fire spread over façades. As multi-storey mass timber buildings with internal visible timber surfaces become more common, there are concerns that such buildings would produce larger external plumes and hazards (assuming all other parameters equal). The literature reveals only indications of this, and how the actual exposure relates to different test methods for assessment is unknown. Here we utilise a series of full-scale mass timber compartment tests to quantify the exposure to the external façade. An incombustible external façade is instrumented with gauges at positions corresponding to reference data from several different assessment methods. The results show that there is an increase in plume duration, height, and temperatures when increasing the areas of exposed timber, but that this increase is less for normal- to large-opening compartments, than was previously seen in small-opening compartments. Also, normal variations in external wind speed have a larger influence on plume heights than the effect of doubling exposed timber surfaces. Test methods used for regulatory compliance differ significantly not only in exposure but also in pass/fail criteria. The proposed European large exposure method and the BS8414 method exhibit exposures on par with the severe end of what could be expected from mass timber compartments, whereas methods like SP Fire 105 and Lepir II produce significantly less severe plumes. However, the safety level is always a combination of exposure and assessment criteria. This data can help justify assessment criteria from a performance perspective. © 2023 The Authors. 

  • 45.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Brandon, Daniel
    Temple, Alastair
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Hallberg, Emil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brandteknik.
    Exposure from mass timber compartment fires to facades2021Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Different countries world-wide have different legislation concerning the performance of facades exposed to fire and often significantly different ways to assess this performance. Although it is recognized that standard façade fire testing aims to distinguish façade systems that limit fire spread to an acceptable level from systems that do not, it has historically been considered important that the fire exposure of such tests is representative for real fires.

    In this study five real scale compartment fire tests, constructed of Cross Laminated Timber and Glued laminated timber were performed with instrumentation on a façade extension above the ventilation openings, providing a means to compare façade performance tests against the exposure generated by realistic compartment fires. The fuel load and openings of four of these tests were determined from a statistical analysis to represent severe fire exposure within a realistic range. Of these tests the surface areas of exposed Cross Laminated Timber and Glued Laminated Timber were varied, allowing an assessment of the influence having internal areas of exposed timber surfaces on the façade fire exposure.

    For these tests, an increase of roughly 40 m2 exposed surface area (from ~54 to ~94 m2 or from 113 % to 196 % of the floor area) resulted in a temperature increase of roughly 100 to 130 °C at the façade at all heights up to 3.5 m above the opening. Additionally, an increased fire plume height of 0 to 1 m was observed. The most significant effect of increased exposed areas was a prolonged duration of the flashover phase.

    The British BS 8414 standard façade fire tests and the recently proposed European façade fire test have been identified to be the most representative for the tested residential fire scenarios in terms of façade fire exposure. Temperature measurements of the North American methods (NFPA 285 and CAN/ULC-S134) are towards the end of the tests also close to the those of the compartment tests. The Swedish SP Fire 105 test imposes the lowest exposure for a relatively short duration to the façade. It should, however, be noted that a lower exposure in the standard test method does not with necessity mean lower threshold for regulatory compliance as the test criteria also differ between different countries.

    One of the tests were characteristic of open plan office buildings and it was shown that the fire exposure is both shorter and lower compared to typical residential compartment tests. All standard tests that were used for comparison here exhibited both longer and higher exposure than the office building compartment test.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Report Exposure to facades
  • 46.
    Sjöström, Johan
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Sokoti, Hasan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Li, Ying Zhen
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Pyrolysis and thermal properties of wood and high-density polyethylene2024Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Sample tests were conducted to obtain thermal and kinematic parameters for wood and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) that were used in a series of intermediate scale tunnel fire tests with and without water-based fire suppressions systems. The thermal properties were measured using Transient Plane Source (TPS) and Transient Line Source (TLS). The pyrolysis kinetics parameters were tested based on Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). Different methods were used to obtain pyrolysis kinetics parameters. Different oxygen concentrations exposed to samples were tested and the results showed its significant influence in the charring process.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 47.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Bioekonomi, Biobaserade material.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Samhällsbyggnad, Byggteknik.
    Liblik, Johanna
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Small-scale test method for the fire behaviour of woodadhesive bonds in CLT2018Inngår i: Book of abstracts of the final conference COST FP1404”Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”, 2018Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing use of cross laminated timber (CLT) in the building sector. CLT is a wood panel product made from layers of solid lumber boards. Each layer of boards is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers and glued on the wide faces of each board. It has been recognised that different adhesive systems have different behaviour in fire; especially that delamination behaviour of CLT can be avoided by choosing a suitable adhesive system. The best method for evaluation of the delamination is a full‐scale fire test, but considering the high costs of such tests, it is of the utmost importance to develop small‐scale methods for evaluating the adhesive bond properties in fire. The intention is that such small‐scale methods should provide the same results as full‐scale tests. A new, smaller scale method for classifying adhesives with respect to  fire properties would also simplify  the planning of  full scale  tests. Previous  tested small‐scale method for evaluation of finger joints is presented in (1).  In this study, a small‐scale fire test methodology for evaluation of CLT adhesive bond performance in  fire  is  introduced  (2).  The  aim  was  to  demonstrate  an  easy  tool  to  distinguish  between  fire resistant adhesive bonds and non‐fire‐resistant bonds, especially with respect to delamination. The cone heater of a cone calorimeter was used to carry out the tests. Cone calorimeter in accordance with ISO 5660 is one of the most widely used bench‐scale instrument in fire research. This small‐scale  device  has  several  advantages  over  larger‐scale  tests  thanks  to  its  fast,  simple  and  cost‐efficient manner to investigate basic material properties.  

  • 48.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar S.
    NTNU, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-02 - Exposed wall and ceiling2023Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 141, artikkel-id 103986Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is becoming increasingly popular due to its many advantages. However, it has been shown that exposed CLT can have a significant effect on fire dynamics and spread rates. Further studies are therefore needed to better understand the impact of CLT to fire safety. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) representing a modern office building have been performed, #FRIC-01 and #FRIC-02. This paper presents the second experiment, #FRIC-02, with exposed CLT on the back wall and the ceiling. The fire developed fast and spread across the room in less than 3.5 min from ignition of the wood crib on the floor and in 1.5 min after the ignition of the ceiling. Large external flames were observed, despite the compartment being well-ventilated. The 5-layer CLT, which comprised a 40 mm thick exposed outer layer and was face-bonded using a common European polyurethane adhesive, exhibited glue-line integrity failure and led to a second flashover after a significant period of decay. Subsequent layers of 20 mm also delaminated before the fire was manually extinguished after 3 h. Compared to #FRIC-01, the fire spread rate was faster, and temperatures, charring rates, heat release rates and external flames were higher. 

  • 49.
    Sæter Bøe, Andreas
    et al.
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Friquin, Kathinka Leikanger
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway; SINTEF, Norway.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Brand och Säkerhet. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Ertesvåg, Ivar
    NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway.
    Fire spread in a large compartment with exposed cross-laminated timber and open ventilation conditions: #FRIC-01 – Exposed ceiling2023Inngår i: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 140, artikkel-id 103869Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Exposing cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures in buildings is increasingly popular in modern buildings. However, large timber surfaces, window facades, and different geometries can change the fire dynamics in a compartment. The effect of those parameters, therefore, needs to be studied. Two large-scale CLT compartment fire experiments (95 m2) have consequently been performed. The experiments were designed to represent a modern office building with an open-plan space and large window openings. In this experiment, #FRIC-01, the ceiling was exposed. The wood crib fire developed slowly and travelled approximately 1.5 m before the ceiling ignited at 32.5 min. Thereafter the fire spread rapidly across the ceiling and wood crib before it shortly after retracted. Three such cycles of rapid spread followed by a retraction occurred within 13 min, whereby the wood crib fire grew larger for each cycle. After the flames extended through the compartment for the fourth time, the fire remained fully developed. After a short period of intense burning, the CLT self-extinguished while the wood crib fire was still burning. The compartment withstood full burnout, and no reignition occurred despite some delamination and using an adhesive that lacks a demonstrated resistance against glue-line integrity failure. © 2023 The Authors

  • 50.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 1 - Literature Review2016Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
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