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  • 1.
    Baker, Greg
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Utstrand, John
    COWI AS, Denmark.
    Winberg, David
    Sweco AB, Sweden.
    Jönsson, Axel
    Brandskyddslaget AB, Sweden.
    Steen-Hansen, Anne
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Poulsen, Annemarie
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research AS, Norge.
    Probabilistic Fire Risk Analysis in the Nordic Region2016In: SFPE 11th Conference On Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods / [ed] P. Tofilo, 2016, p. 137-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Engineering methods for structural fire design of wood buildings: Structural integrity during a full natural fire2018Report (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Phase 2: Task 4 – Engineering Analysis and Computer Simulations2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of tall buildings with

    visible structural members comprised of mass timber. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is

    such a mass timber material and is increasingly used for tall buildings because of a

    combination of advantages regarding its structural performance, low environmental

    impact and more. As timber is a combustible material, CLT can become involved in the

    fire if it is not protected against the fire. Previous tests have shown that the

    contribution of the timber possibly leads to sustained fires that do not burn out,

    because of failure of the base layer of gypsum boards, debonding of CLT lamellas

    (delamination) or due to an excess of unprotected timber.

    If it cannot be assumed that the fire brigade or sprinkler activation will suppress a fire,

    it can be needed to design for burn-out without successful fire suppression.

    Engineering methods to limit the impact of gypsum failure, delamination and an excess

    of exposed timber are needed. Additionally, a method for structural design for CLT

    structures considering natural fires is needed. This report proposes and evaluates

    pragmatic design methods using parametric design fires. The methods using

    parametric design fires can only be valid if delamination and failure of the base layer of

    gypsum boards are avoided. Therefore, an additional method to predict gypsum fall-off

    is presented. A method to avoid delamination is presented in other work.

    The parametric fire design methods proposed, resulted in conservative predictions of

    the damage of exposed CLT and conservative predictions of the occurrence of gypsum

    board fall-off. Parametric design fires can be used for structural predictions of the

    timber building exposed to fire using recently developed methods.

  • 4.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad.
    Practical method to determine the contribution of structural timber to the rate of heat release and fire temperature of post-flashover compartment fires2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The lack of a method to quantify the contribution of exposed timber to a fire was identified as one of the main gaps of knowledge concerning the challenges of building high-rise timber buildings, in a recent gap analysis performed by the NFPA. Recent experimental studies successfully quantified the contribution of large surfaces of exposed timber, in terms of rate of heat release. However, a method to predict these quantities has not been found in the literature.

    This report proposes a model that includes the contribution of exposed or protected timber to post-flashover fires in compartments with a floor area up to 100m2. The model consists of a one-zone model and a wood combustion model. Using the one-zone model, the temperatures in the room are estimated from the heat release rate. Using the wood combustion model, the heat release rate coming from exposed or protected timber is estimated. The influence of delamination of lamellas or fall-off of claddings can be estimated with some restrictions regarding accuracy.

    Comparative studies showed that predictions of the model correspond well with previous full scale compartment fire tests.

    Key words:

    Compartment fire, Timber, CLT, natural fire, charring rate, heat release rate, delamination, cladding failure

  • 5.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Anderson, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wind effect on internal and external compartment fire exposure2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes of buildings regulations regarding the allowable height of mass timber structures in North America have been proposed. The proposed changes are to a significant extent based on real scale fire experiments of compartments that have been performed in laboratories in which the influence of wind is negligible. It has, however, been questioned whether the proposed regulations are relevant for realistic scenarios with external wind loads acting on the building during a compartment fire.

    The study discussed in this report involves a review of previous literature, analysis of available test results and single zone modeling to study potential effects of external wind on the internal and external exposure of fires in compartments with exposed CLT.

  • 6.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Safety of CLT Buildings with Exposed Wooden Surfaces2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of tall buildings made of CLT have been built in recent years. Current architectural trends involve having visible timber surfaces in these tall CLT structures. This results in new fire safety challenges, especially because fire service interference is increasingly difficult for increasingly tall buildings.

     

    Recently, a number of research projects involving large scale compartment fire testing studied the development of fires in (1) compartments with a fully encapsulated CLT structure and (2) compartments with exposed CLT surfaces. The studies have shown that sufficient gypsum board protection can avoid the involvement of CLT in a fire. However, fall-off of the base layer of gypsum boards during can result in continuous fires that do not extinguish without fire surface interference, as during fall-off large areas of initially protected timber surfaces start to contribute as fuel to the fire.

     

    If CLT is exposed to a fire, fire induced delamination of CLT (also lamella fall-off or char fall-off) could occur due to weakening of bond lines within the CLT. During fire induced delamination the exposed lamella falls from the CLT and a new relatively cold timber surface becomes exposed to potentially high temperatures, which effectively makes additional fuel suddenly available to a fire.

     

    Very recent studies involved the development of CLT products that are not subject to delamination. The studies indicate that the use of (a) sufficient fire protection, (b) CLT products with thermally resistant adhesives and (c) a limit regarding the surface area of CLT that can be exposed, result in fires that decay and eventually self-extinguish.

    This paper reviews the studies and includes a summary of conclusions.

  • 7.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Andersson, Petra
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Mitigation of fire damages in multi-storey timber buildings: Statistical analysis and guidelines for design2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of multi-storey timber buildings has increased during the last twenty years. Recent well-known fires in London, Dubai and Brazil, although not in timber buildings, have increased concerns regarding large fire spread and high damage fires. As timber is a combustible material, concerns have been expressed regarding property safety and it has been questioned whether fire damage is more significant in buildings with timber as the main structural material than in other types of buildings. This report includes a statistical study of data of fires in multi-storey timber buildings in New Zealand and an analysis of high damage fires that occurred in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA. The data from New Zealand showed no significant difference between share of fires that had flame damage out of the compartment of origin in (a) multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992 and (b) other types of multi-storey buildings that were constructed in or later than 1992. Fires in multi-storey timber buildings that were constructed before 1992 spread more frequently to neighbouring compartments than fires in other multi-storey timber buildings constructed before 1992. Data of high damage fires occurring in multi-storey timber buildings in the USA indicated that outdoor fire spread is the most common cause for large fire spread. Additionally, the data indicates that high water damage is most often caused by fire service interference and is significantly less often related to sprinkler activation.

    Based on the analysis of fire spread of high damage fires in the USA, guidelines are given in the report to limit (1) outdoor fire spread, (2) fire spread through cavities, and (3) fire spread directly from a fire compartment to a neighbouring fire compartment. A number of these guidelines were evaluated using a fire test of a two-storey timber structure.

  • 8.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Jansson McNamee, Robert
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Behaviour of cavity barriers in modular houses: A revised test methodology2016In: Interflam 2016: Conference Proceedings, 2016, p. 623-628Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Östman, Birgit
    Linne University, Sweden.
    Förslag för brandskydd i flervånings trähus2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport ger förslag på lösningar för brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som ges är inte fullständiga och andra åtgärder kan vara aktuella för att få till ett bättre brandskydd i höga trähus. De förslag som presenteras baseras på arbetet i forskningsprojektet

    Brandskydd i höga trähus, som finansierats av Brandforsk (Brandforsk projekt 301-152) och Svenskt Trä och denna rapport är till stora delar en översättning av RISE report 2018:43 "Mitigation of fires in multi-storey timber buildings – statistical analysis and guidelines for design" av Daniel Brandon, Alar Just, Petra Andersson och Birgit Östman.

    Brandnormer inriktas i första hand på personsäkerhet, men i höga och stora byggnader blir egendomsskyddet allt viktigare. De förslag som ges här baseras främst på analys av stora skador i USA. De viktigaste punkterna är att begränsa

    1. Direkt brand- och rökspridning mellan brandceller via:

    a. dörrar, väggar och bjälklag

    b. anslutningar mellan byggnadselement

    c. genomföringar i väggar och bjälklag

    d. installationer i väggar och bjälklag

    2. Brand- och rökspridning genom hålrum:

    a. i brandcellsavskiljande byggnadselement

    b. i fasader och yttertak

    3. Utvändig brand- och rökspridning:

    a. längs fasadens yta

    b. genom fönster

    c. genom ventilationsöppningar (t ex vid takfot)

    d. på vindar

  • 10.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kagiya, Koji
    Building Research Institute, Japan.
    Hakkarainen, Tuula
    VTT, Finland.
    Performance based design for mass timber structures in fire– A Design Example2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent fires in tall buildings occurring in for example London, Dubai, Sao Paulo and Tehran evidence the risk of high consequences of fires in tall buildings and difficulties for fire service interference in case of large fire spread. In order to reduce the risk of deadly and large damage fires in especially tall buildings it is of importance to limit fire spread and avoid collapse .

    It was previously indicated that prescriptive fire safety regulations are mostly based on experience rather than on scientific facts. Therefore, the application of regulations for less conventional buildings, such as tall timber buildings, is questionable. In contrast with prescriptive requirements, performance based requirements, such as a requirement for a building to withstand a full fire without effective fire service interference, require accounting for the design and the function of the building. Multiple performance based methods for the fire safety design are available for buildings with conventional structural materials, i.e. steel and concrete. For buildings with timber as a structural material performance based structural design is rarely applied due to lack of methods available.

    The number of tall buildings with timber as their main structural material is increasing globally, which involves new fire safety challenges. In contrast with more conventional structural materials for tall buildings, timber can fuel the fire and influence its duration and severity. A number of previous experimental studies have shown that enough contribution of exposed timber to the fuel of a fire can result in continuous fully developed fires. Additionally, events that lead to increased combustion, such as sudden exposure of initially protected timber or bond line failure in glued timber members, can lead to fire regrowth after a period of decay. Without effective sprinkler or fire service interference, these fires would eventually lead to collapse, which can lead to potentially unacceptable consequences in very tall buildings.

  • 11.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Eurocode 5 design in comparison with fire resistance tests of unprotected timber beams2016In: Proceedings of the 11th Conference on Performance-Based Codes and Fire Safety Design Methods (SFPE 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Winberg, David
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research, Brandmotstånd.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Nordic standardisation of fire safety engineering methods for innovative building solutions2015In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2015, , p. 119-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Brandon, Daniel
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Östman, Birgit
    Fire Protection Research Foundation report: "Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings - Phase 2: Task 1 - Literature Review"2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent architectural trends include the design and construction of increasingly tall buildings with structural components comprised of engineered wood referred to by names including; cross laminated timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL), or glued laminated timber (Glulam). These buildings are cited for their advantages in sustainability resulting from the use of wood as a renewable construction material. Previous research has shown that timber elements contribute to the fuel load in buildings and can increase the initial fire growth rate – potentially overwhelming fire protection system and creating more severe conditions for occupants, emergency responders, and nearby properties.

    The overarching goal of this project Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings Phase 2 is to quantify the contribution of CLT building elements (wall and/or floor-ceiling assemblies) in compartment fires and provide data to allow comparison of the performance of CLT systems against other building systems commonly used in tall buildings.

  • 14.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Fire Stops in Buildings2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a statistical study performed by the London fire brigade in the Real Fires Database it was found that out of 30 086 fires occurring between 2009 and 2011, fire spread beyond the floor of origin through gaps or voids occurred in 92 cases. This illustrates that the phenomenon is relatively rare. However, it can lead to severe property damage. Fires can spread invisibly within cavities of the structure, which has led to problems concerning the extinguishment of the fire. Cavity barriers function is to stop the fire spread through cavities. However, these cavity barriers have not always been effective.

    This report is the result of a study that aimed to:

    1. Develop a robust testing method for cavity barriers for cavities with combustible materials within walls, floors and other elements in buildings.

    2. Provide guidelines for the materials, installation, positioning, detailing and location of the cavity barriers.

    Additionally, a preliminary study is performed to assess some extinguishing strategies.

    Based on a study of characteristics of cavity fires, current standard fire tests for cavity barriers were revised for the use in cavities with combustible materials. From tests following the revised methodology, guidelines regarding the dimensions, installation and fire stopping design are provided.

  • 15.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Mäger, K. N.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Pukk, R.
    Estonian Academy of Security Sciences, Estonia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Kahl, Fredrik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    CLT compartment fire test2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New high-rise timber buildings are planned to be built in the near future all around the world. The fire protection concepts are not always considering natural fire scenarios. As timber is a combustible material, it can contribute to the fire within and outside of the fire compartment. For buildings with cross-laminated timber (CLT) elements the possible fall-off of lamellas should be considered because of the risk for second flashover, which can lead to a continuous fire. However, in case fire service interference or sprinkler activation is absent or inefficient, it may be necessary to design a building so that it leads to a decaying fire. Additionally, it is important to limit fire spread to neighbouring compartments. This paper discusses a compartment test of a two-story building made of CLT performed in Estonia to study delamination behaviour and consequences in compartments with realistic ventilation conditions. State-of-the art solutions to limit fire spread from the first floor into the second floor were applied. This involved robust design of connections, penetrations through the compartment boundary and the façade. The paper provides a description and analysis of the test.

  • 16.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Execution of timber structures and fire safety2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 5555-5562Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire safety is one of the six essential performance requirements to consider when building timber structures. Fire safety has to be proven for the whole building process and the end use of the building. On the building site during the execution there might be an increased risk for fire spread because of large amounts of unprotected timber and relatively open structures. Work processes dealing with high temperatures, smoking, vandalism or other reasons can lead to ignition of timber and end up with serious damages. Fire safety on the building site should be handled from the very beginning to the final stage of execution. During the execution the designed solutions have to be checked and followed. This paper gives the background and principles that should be considered in a new Nordic standard for execution of timber structures in terms of fire safety.

  • 17.
    Just, Alar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Östman, Birgit
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i byggnadskonstruktioner: Resultat från SBUF projekt 129932016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt

    bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem

    med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla

    typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum

    för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom

    praktiskt byggande.

    Syftet med projektet är att utveckla en lämplig metodik för att verifiera funktionen hos olika

    typer av brandstopp i byggnader, att dokumentera funktionen hos några typer av brandstopp

    enligt relevant metodik samt att ge underlag för riktlinjer om hur brandstopp ska utformas och

    användas. Resultaten ska även kunna användas för att bedöma befintliga detaljlösningar.

    Arbetet har inriktats främst på brandstopp för hålrum i modulhus. Olika typer av brandstopp för

    sådana hålrum har studerats bland annat genom provningar i modellskala. Befintlig

    provningsteknik har vidareutvecklats och en reviderad metodik har föreslagits.

    Som ett första resultat för praktisk användning har riktlinjer tagits fram för hur brandstopp ska

    utformas och användas i modulkonstruktioner. De främsta målgrupperna är bygg- och

    byggmaterialindustrin samt brandkonsulter

  • 18.
    Lange, David
    et al.
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Fire Technology.
    Hidalgo, Juan
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    A Comparison of the Conditions in a Fire Resistance Furnace When Testing Combustible and Non-combustible Construction2020In: Fire technology, ISSN 0015-2684, E-ISSN 1572-8099Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on two experiments conducted in a fire resistance furnace to study the differences in the boundary conditions, the fire dynamics and the fuel required to run the furnace when a combustible timber specimen as opposed to a non-combustible concrete specimen is tested. In both experiments measurements were taken in the furnace to evaluate the difference in the environments of the furnace and the response of the elements being tested. These include non-control plate thermometers distributed throughout the furnace; O2, CO2 and CO gas measurements taken at different distances from the specimen surface and in the furnace exhaust; instrumentation of one of the bricks comprising the furnace lining with thermocouples at different depths from the exposed surface; and mass loss of the combustible timber specimen. Thermal exposure of elements in a furnace is discussed, as well as the impact of the different materials on the similarity of thermal exposure. This is done through analysis and discussion of the different measurements taken and the apparent influence of the specimen being tested on the boundary condition of the heat diffusion equation. We conclude that; (1) the fire dynamics in a furnace are dependent on the specimen being tested; (2) that the test with the combustible specimen requires less fuel flow to the burners such that the control plate thermometers follow the ISO 834 temperature–time curve compared to the non-combustible specimen, however that this is not only a result of the combustibility of the specimen but is also a consequence of the different thermal inertia of the two materials; (3) that the boundary condition for heat transfer to a test object in furnace tests is dependent on the properties of the specimen being tested; and (4) that the timber when placed on the furnace experiences smouldering combustion after the char layer has formed. A fire resistance test of combustible construction of a given period represents a significantly less onerous test in terms of energy absorbed or fuel made available than one of a non-combustible construction, implying that the existing fire resistance framework may not be appropriate for timber structures and that an alternative approach may be required.

  • 19.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Determination of the effective material properties for the thermal simulations2016In: Proceedings of the International Network on Timber Engineering Research 2016 (INTER 2016), 2016, p. 397-400Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Mäger, Katrin Nele
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Just, Alar
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Schmid, Joachim
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michel
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Procedure for implementing new materials to the component additive method2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, p. 149-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of light timber frame wall and floor assemblies in fire depends on their composition. The assemblies' ability to form fire-separations between building compartments (separating function) can be assessed by full-scale fire testing or calculation methods. Calculations are the low cost and more flexible alternative.The component additive method is a commonly used calculation method for fire design of timber structures. The method considers the insulation ability of the material layers present in the assembly. The component additive method described in this article is developed to be flexible to implement different materials and products of different dimensions. However, the amount of different materials currently included in this method is rather limited and there is no generally accepted procedure to implement new materials.This paper presents a common agreement of the procedure to implement new materials which comprises of: (1) the design and execution of model-scale fire tests; (2) determination of the modified thermal properties needed for simulations; (3) thermal simulations of assemblies in fire conditions; (4) development of design equations and; (5) verification by one or more full-scale fire test(s). The abovementioned steps have been clearly presented in this paper and supported by examples.

  • 21.
    Ong, Chee Beng
    et al.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Chang, Wen Shao
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Ansell, Martin P.
    University of Bath, UK.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Walker, Pete
    University of Bath, UK.
    Bench-scale fire tests of Dark Red Meranti and Spruce finger joints in tension2018In: Construction and Building Materials, ISSN 0950-0618, E-ISSN 1879-0526, Vol. 168, p. 257-265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the secondary failure of Malaysian Dark Red Meranti (Shorea spp.) and Spruce (Picea abies) finger joints in a glulam beam in a fire test using a bench-scale test set-up. Secondary failure is the occurrence of failure of the bond lines due to fire and the falling off of the outermost tension layers, exposing the uncharred inner layers to a sudden increase of fire intensity. The lack of published work and the difficulties in describing the behaviour of the finger joints after the secondary failure in a full-scale fire test has identified the need for a simple bench-scale method, incorporating the conditions of the standard fire test. This paper focusses on the performance of the finger joints which together with other defects such as knots and splits are generally the weakest component in the glulam beam. The finger joints were bonded with structural adhesives, specifically phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF) and polyurethane (PUR). They were tested in tension to imitate the failure of finger joints on the tension side of a standard fire test of a glulam beam. Constant heat flux was introduced to the finger-jointed specimens to replicate the secondary failure of a glulam beam in the standard fire test. The results of this study indicate a relationship between the charring rate and density of the specimens, with higher density Dark Red Meranti showing lower charring rate compared to the lower density Spruce specimens. Factors such as constant heat flux as opposed to the time-increasing heat flux exposure and specimen size influenced the charring rate of the specimens. The char rate was measured at the early stages of the fire test, which is known to have higher values since the build-up of the charred layers was not sufficiently substantial to protect the inner unburnt wood. Overall, the bench-scale fire test set-up was able to differentiate the fire performance of the adhesives, with PRF showing better fire performance compared to the specimens finger-jointed with PUR adhesive. In addition, tensile tests at ambient temperature showed no significant difference in tensile strength between finger joints bonded with different adhesives for the same wood species. The tensile strengths of the finger joints bonded with different adhesives were influenced by the temperature profile through the joint. The proposed bench-scale fire test was used to compare the quality of the adhesives in a fire situation, specifically with respect to secondary failure. The PRF was selected as the reference adhesive.

  • 22.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Werther, Norman
    Technical University of Munich, Germany.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Technical note - Thermal exposure of wood in standard fire resistance tests2019In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 107, p. 179-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, standard fire resistance testing has been questioned for combustible products. A part of the comments address the thermal boundary conditions and the different thermal exposure of combustible products in comparison to incombustibles. These comments are evaluated in this technical note.To compare heat flux measurements of combustibles and incombustible products when tested in a furnace, furnace tests were performed. The furnace was controlled by plate thermometers to follow the EN 1363/ISO 834 standard temperature-time curve. It could be proven that (a) the heat flux measurements at the specimens surface behind the plate thermometer (PT) are not higher than in front of the PT. The reason for this is most likely that no flaming combustion is possible near the surface due to the low oxygen content typically for a furnace. It could be further shown (b) that the heat flux measurements when combustibles are tested follow the trend reported in literature for incombustibles. Further, (c) that the lower burner fuel used in furnaces is due to the contribution of the specimen (ca. 30% in the presented tests) and due to the lower thermal inertia (ca. 20% in the presented tests). Finally it can be concluded that the thermal exposure of combustibles and incombustibles is equivalent in furnaces simulating a ventilation controlled fire development for a pre-defined duration.

  • 23.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Klippel, Michael
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Trä.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Comparison of test results and the Reduced Cross-Section Method using a zero-strength layer2014In: Proceedings of the 1st European Workshop Fire Safety of Green Buildings, Shaker , 2014, , p. 51-53Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Lange, David
    University of Queensland, Australia.
    Sjöström, Johan
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Klippel, Michael
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zürich, Switzerland.
    The use of furnace tests to describe real fires of timber structures2018In: WCTE 2018 - World Conference on Timber Engineering, World Conference on Timber Engineering (WCTE) , 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fire resistance is an important characteristic for all building structures regardless the building materials used. Methods for fire resistance testing were developed already before 1900 to measure the response of the structure in fire and compare different products. In the last decade, the increased popularity of timber buildings has led to a renewed interest in the performance of timber structures in fire and timber products were frequently tested in furnaces. Currently, some discussions question the validity of furnace test results for timber members which are carried out according to standards. Generally, it was stated that combustible and incombustible products are exposed to different thermal exposures when tested in furnaces or exposed in real fires. Additionally, some experts think that massive timber elements, e.g. cross-laminated timber (CLT), cannot be tested in furnaces as these products increase the fire load and, thus, statements in the framework of fire resistance testing are not possible. This paper investigates the validity of furnace resistance testing for combustible products and its limitations. It is shown that, firstly, the thermal exposure in fire resistance tests of incombustibles and combustibles is similar. Secondly, in addition to thermal exposure, the term fire exposure should be introduced where the oxygen concentration is described as the oxygen concentration significantly influences the behaviour of combustible material in fires. Thirdly, the furnace and compartment environment in flash-over fires is similar with respect to this fire exposure. Finally, it is not possible to directly use furnace test results to predict a compartment response in real fires including the cooling phase but recent investigations indicate that results from fire resistance tests can be used to predict burn-out when the mass loss of the timber specimen is measured.

  • 25.
    Schmid, Joachim
    et al.
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Santomaso, Alessandro
    Commissario Terza Corsia, Italy.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety.
    Wickström, Ulf
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Frangi, Andrea
    ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
    Timber under real fire conditions - the influence of oxygen content and gas velocity on the charring behavior2018In: Journal of Structural Fire Engineering, ISSN 2040-2317, E-ISSN 2040-2325, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 222-236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this study is to investigate the influencing factors on the charring behaviour of timber, the char layer and the charring depth in non-standard fires. Design/methodology/approach – This paper summarizes outcomes of tests, investigating the influences on the charring behavior of timber by varying the oxygen content and the gas velocity in the compartment. Results show that charring is depending on the fire compartment temperature, but results show further that at higher oxygen flow, char contraction was observed affecting the protective function of the char layer. Findings – In particular, in the cooling phase, char contraction should be considered which may have a significant impact on performance-based design using non-standard temperature fire curves where the complete fire history including the cooling phase has to be taken into account. Originality/value – Up to now, some research on non-standard fire exposed timber member has been performed, mainly based on standard fire resistance tests where boundary conditions as gas flow and oxygen content especially in the decay phase are not measured or documented. The approach presented in this paper is the first documented fire tests with timber documenting the data required.

  • 26.
    Sterley, Magdalena
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Biobased Materials.
    Noren, Joakim
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Liblik, Johanna
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Brandon, Daniel
    Just, Alar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Safety. Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Small-scale test method for the fire behaviour of woodadhesive bonds in CLT2018In: Book of abstracts of the final conference COST FP1404”Fire Safe Use of Bio-Based Building Products”, 2018Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing use of cross laminated timber (CLT) in the building sector. CLT is a wood panel product made from layers of solid lumber boards. Each layer of boards is oriented perpendicular to adjacent layers and glued on the wide faces of each board. It has been recognised that different adhesive systems have different behaviour in fire; especially that delamination behaviour of CLT can be avoided by choosing a suitable adhesive system. The best method for evaluation of the delamination is a full‐scale fire test, but considering the high costs of such tests, it is of the utmost importance to develop small‐scale methods for evaluating the adhesive bond properties in fire. The intention is that such small‐scale methods should provide the same results as full‐scale tests. A new, smaller scale method for classifying adhesives with respect to  fire properties would also simplify  the planning of  full scale  tests. Previous  tested small‐scale method for evaluation of finger joints is presented in (1).  In this study, a small‐scale fire test methodology for evaluation of CLT adhesive bond performance in  fire  is  introduced  (2).  The  aim  was  to  demonstrate  an  easy  tool  to  distinguish  between  fire resistant adhesive bonds and non‐fire‐resistant bonds, especially with respect to delamination. The cone heater of a cone calorimeter was used to carry out the tests. Cone calorimeter in accordance with ISO 5660 is one of the most widely used bench‐scale instrument in fire research. This small‐scale  device  has  several  advantages  over  larger‐scale  tests  thanks  to  its  fast,  simple  and  cost‐efficient manner to investigate basic material properties.  

  • 27.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire Safety Challenges of Tall Wood Buildings – Phase 2: Task 1 - Literature Review2016Report (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Fire Safety Engineering – Opportunities and challenges for timber buildings2016In: WCTE 2016: World Conference on Timber Engineering, 2016, p. 3829-3838, article id 1066aConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 29.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    Linneaus University, Sweden.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Building Technology.
    Frantzich, Håkan
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Fire safety engineering in timber buildings2017In: Fire safety journal, ISSN 0379-7112, E-ISSN 1873-7226, Vol. 91, p. 11-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons that many building regulations strictly limit the use of timber as a building material. Fire safety is an important contribution to feeling safe, and an important criterion for the choice of building materials. Historically, the combustibility aspect of wood has been a disadvantage for using timber as a construction material. The main precondition for an increased use of timber in buildings is providing adequate fire safety. This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges to reach this goal by implementing Fire Safety Engineering and Performance Based Design principles.

  • 30.
    Östman, Birgit
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandon, Daniel
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Just, Alar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Hållbar Samhällsbyggnad, Träbyggande och boende.
    Brandstopp i modulbyggnader2016In: Bygg & teknik, no 6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Bristande brandteknisk funktion hos byggnadstekniska detaljlösningar är ofta en starkt bidragande orsak till brandspridning. Flera incidenter de senaste åren visar tydligt att byggsystem med hålrum kan ha stor inverkan på brandförloppet och medföra stora egendomsskador i alla typer av byggnader. Befintliga rekommendationer om att brandstopp måste installeras i hålrum för att hindra att dolda bränder uppstår och sprids mellan brandceller följs tyvärr ofta inte inom praktiskt byggande.brandprovning.

1 - 30 of 30
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