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  • 1.
    Ahlers, F.
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kuchera, J.
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Poirier, W.
    Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Jeanneret, B.
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Strapinski, A.
    MIKES Mittatekniikan Keskus, Finland.
    Tzalenchuk, A.
    NPL Management, UK.
    Vrabcek, P.
    Slovensky Metrologicky Ustav, Slovakia.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Hwang, C.
    Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Yakimova, R.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, S.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The EMRP project GraphOhm- Towards quantum resistance metrology based on graphene2014In: CPEM 2014, 2014, , p. 548 - 549p. 548-549Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new joint research project (JRP) integrating metrology institutes and universities from nine countries is aimed at realization of a new generation of standards for quantum resistance metrology. The project exploits graphene's properties to simplify operation of standards without compromising the unprecedented precision delivered by semiconductor quantum Hall devices. Higher operating temperatures (above 4.2 K, and up to 8 K) and together with lower magnetic fields (below 5 T, and potentially down to 2 T) will lead to a significantly improved and cost-saving dissemination of intrinsically referenced resistance standards to all end-users relying on electrical measurements.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Bengt-Olof
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Calibration of Gain Ratios on nV-Meters with the Reference Step Method2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reference Step Method for calibrators can be modified for calibration also of the gain ratios on a meter. The method has earlier been evaluated in the range 100 mV-1000 V on DMM HP 3458A1 and shows that an accuracy of typically < ± 0.2 μ V/V could be obtained. We have investigated the performance of the method when calibrating ratios in the range 1 mV-100 mV on two common nV-meters. In our comparisons with the Josephson Voltage Standard the differences are within ± ± 12μ V/V at the ratio 10m V:1mV and within ± ± 1.3μ V/V at 100mV:10mV.

  • 3.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Disordered Fermi liquid in epitaxial graphene from quantum transport measurements2011In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 107, no 16, p. 166602-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A quantum standard for sampled electrical measurements-Main goals and first results of the EMRP project Q-WAVE2014In: 29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2014, 2014, , p. 522-523p. 522-523Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Josephson voltage standards are well established for use at dc and low-frequency ac voltages. The increasing demand i) to provide traceability for arbitrary waveforms, ii) to extend the range of use to higher frequencies, and iii) to improve the accuracy is being addressed in the project Q-WAVE, which is jointly funded by the European Union and the participating countries within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). Here, sampling measurements and procedures using binary-divided 1 V and 10 V arrays are investigated. In addition, a quantum-based analogue-to-digital converter for direct measurements of arbitrary waveforms is under development. It will contain several Josephson arrays in series biased by a pulse drive based on opto-electronics, in order to increase the output voltage.

  • 5.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, article id 7540514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

  • 6.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    He, Hans
    Chalmers University of Techology, Sweden.
    Comparing GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2016 (CPEM 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realization of Absolute Phase and AC Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 2041-2046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simplified method for realizing absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance, and ac-dc resistance change of resistance at ac compared to dc). We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance, and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, therefore realizing absolute current shunt impedance. The method gives competitive uncertainties of around 200 μΩ/Ω for amplitude and 400 μrad for phase at 1 MHz in the 1-Ω range.

  • 8.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realisation of Absolute Phase and Ac Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for realising absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance and ac resistance (change of resistance at ac compared to dc), We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, thereby realising absolute current shunt impedance. This method simplifies the procedure of current shunt calibration, since the same impedance ratio setup which is used to compare a shunt to a reference shunt, is used to realise the impedance of the starting reference shunt.

  • 9.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A precision current source using Δ-Σ modulation.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2341-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Josephson waveform generation using multilevel Δ-Σ Modulation2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 172-173Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determining voltage dependence of the phase response in voltage dividers2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 282-283Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Eklund, G.
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, K. -E
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A low frequency Josephson impedance bridge2016In: CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a low frequency Josephson impedance bridge and the measurement methods. The bridge is useable below 400 Hz and is based on two programmable Josephson voltage standards. Measurements of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:10 capacitance ratio have been performed and compared with ratio measurements of an inductive voltage divider bridge. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 13.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hagen, Thomas
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Palafox, Luis
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Behr, Ralf
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    A comparison of the Josephson impedance bridges of PTB and SP2016In: CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest, 2016, article id 7540584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Josephson impedance comparison bridges have been developed at PTB and SP. The bridges are based on programmable Josephson voltage standards. We report the first ever comparison of Josephson impedance bridges performed with 1:1 and 1:10 capacitance ratio measurements up to 2 kHz.

  • 14.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determination of transition error corrections for low frequency stepwise-approximated Josephson sine waves.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2399-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Low frequency characterization of a planar multijunction thermal converter using a programmable Josephson voltage standard2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 62-63Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Kim, Kyung
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Park, Yung Woo
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stable and Tunable Charge Carrier Control of Graphene for Quantum Resistance Metrology2018In: 2018 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate a stable and tunable method to alter the carrier concentration of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide. This technique relies on chemical doping by an acceptor molecule. Through careful tuning one can produce chemically doped graphene quantum resistance devices which show long-term stability in ambient conditions and have performance comparable to that of GaAs quantum resistance standards. This development paves the way for controlled device fabrication of graphene quantum hall resistance standards, which can be reliably tailored to operate below 5 T and above 4 K out-of-the-box, without further adjustments from the end-user.

  • 17.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kim, Kyung
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fletcher, Nick
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Rozhko, Sergiy
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Park, Yung
    Seoul National University, South Korea; University of Pennsylvania, US.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of London, UK.
    Polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene for quantum resistance metrology2019In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 56, no 4, article id 045004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aspirations of quantum metrology is to deliver primary standards directly to end-users thereby significantly shortening the traceability chains and enabling more accurate products. Epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (epigraphene) is known to be a viable candidate for a primary realisation of a quantum Hall resistance standard, surpassing conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases, such as those based on GaAs, in terms of performance at higher temperatures and lower magnetic fields. The bottleneck in the realisation of a turn-key quantum resistance standard requiring minimum user intervention has so far been the need to fine-tune the carrier density in this material to fit the constraints imposed by a simple cryo-magnetic system. Previously demonstrated methods, such as via photo-chemistry or corona discharge, require application prior to every cool-down as well as specialist knowledge and equipment. To this end we perform metrological evaluation of epigraphene with carrier density tuned by a recently reported permanent molecular doping technique. Measurements at two National Metrology Institutes confirm accurate resistance quantisation below 5n-1. Furthermore, samples show no significant drift in carrier concentration and performance on multiple thermal cycles over three years. This development paves the way for dissemination of primary resistance standards based on epigraphene

  • 18.
    Lartsev, Arseniy
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yager, Tom
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    National Physical Laboratory, UK; University of London, UK.
    Janssen, TJBM
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 6, p. 63106-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Δ n∼ 1013cm-2) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  • 19.
    Mašláň, Stanislav
    et al.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Šíra, Martin
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Skalická, Tereza
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Four Terminal Pair Digital Sampling Impedance Bridge up to 1 MHz2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1860-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new four terminal pair digital sampling impedance bridge designed for frequency range up to 1MHz and small impedances, such as shunts. The bridge is capable of comparing impedance standards of arbitrary ratios in a full complex plane from approximately 100 kΩ down to 50mΩ, limited by maximum achievable current 3 A. To keep low uncertainties a new multiplexer was designed and a very simple and fully automated linearity correction method based on the pair of calculable resistors was developed and validated. The paper describes the design and details of the bridge topology, basic uncertainty budget and first results of the validation. The expanded uncertainty of impedance module is about 50 μΩ/Ω at 1MHz for impedance ratios up to 1:16 and voltage drops above 10mV and the expanded uncertainty of a phase angle was about 360 μrad/MHz. Expanded uncertainty for frequency 100 kHz about 10 μΩ/Ω was reached. Typical expanded uncertainty for low impedance ratios below 1:1.1 is only 35 μΩ/Ω. Set of measurement of impedance standards of known values and a small international comparison of ac-dc and phase angle errors of current shunts were carried out to validate the bridge capabilities in wide range of impedances. The validation measurements showed the deviations of the bridge are below 35 μΩ/Ω and below 350 μrad at 1 MHz.

  • 20.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    A Method for Realisation of Inductance and Quality Factor to 1 MHz2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for realisation of inductance and quality factor to high frequencies by determining the frequency response of gain-and phase-error of an inductance meter using two coils made of a single copper wire. As a starting point a traceable calibration of inductance at 1 kHz is used

  • 21.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determination of phase angle errors of current shunts for wideband power measurement2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 284-285Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Schurr, J.
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kalmbach, C. -C
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ahlers, F. J.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Hohls, F.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kruskopf, M.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Müller, A.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Pierz, K.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Haug, R. J.
    Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.
    Magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor of epitaxial graphene-based quantum Hall effect devices2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 15, article id 155443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the properties of the magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor of epitaxial graphene Hall bars with different electrode configurations to gain insight into the underlying physical mechanisms. The dependence of magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor on the magnetic field shows how the screening ability of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) changes at the transition from the nonquantized to the quantized state. Both magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor exhibit a characteristic and correlated voltage dependence, which is attributed to the alternating contraction and expansion of the nonscreening 2DEG regions due to the alternating local electric field. Two regimes with seemingly different voltage dependencies are explained as the limiting cases of weak and strong electric fields of the same general voltage dependence. Electric fields in the plane of the 2DEG are found to cause about three orders of magnitude more ac dissipation than perpendicular electric fields. This strong directionality is attributed to the fact that the electrons are mobile in the plane of the 2DEG but are confined in the third dimension. In the quantized state, not only the screening edge of the 2DEG but also compressible puddles embedded in the bulk cause ac dissipation, as follows from the measured frequency dependence. Finally, characteristic parameters like the width of the screening edge, the threshold voltage, and the charging time of the compressible puddles are determined. .

  • 23.
    Tarasso, Valter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Towards an electric power standard for frequencies up to 1 MHz2012In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 128-129Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 23 of 23
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