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  • 1.
    Ahlers, Franz Josef
    et al.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kuchera, Jan
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Poirier, Wilfried
    Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Jeanneret, Blaise
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut, Czech Republic.
    Strapinski, Alexandre F.
    MIKES Mittatekniikan Keskus, Finland.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander Ya
    NPL Management, United Kingdom.
    Vrabcek, Peter
    Slovensky Metrologicky Ustav, Slovakia.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Hwang, Changyong
    Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, South Korea.
    Yakimova, Rositza T.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, Sergey E.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    The EMRP project GraphOhm- Towards quantum resistance metrology based on graphene2014In: CPEM 2014, 2014, , p. 548 - 549p. 548-549, article id 6898502Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new joint research project (JRP) integrating metrology institutes and universities from nine countries is aimed at realization of a new generation of standards for quantum resistance metrology. The project exploits graphene's properties to simplify operation of standards without compromising the unprecedented precision delivered by semiconductor quantum Hall devices. Higher operating temperatures (above 4.2 K, and up to 8 K) and together with lower magnetic fields (below 5 T, and potentially down to 2 T) will lead to a significantly improved and cost-saving dissemination of intrinsically referenced resistance standards to all end-users relying on electrical measurements.

  • 2.
    Andersson, Bengt-Olof
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Calibration of Gain Ratios on nV-Meters with the Reference Step Method2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Reference Step Method for calibrators can be modified for calibration also of the gain ratios on a meter. The method has earlier been evaluated in the range 100 mV-1000 V on DMM HP 3458A1 and shows that an accuracy of typically < ± 0.2 μ V/V could be obtained. We have investigated the performance of the method when calibrating ratios in the range 1 mV-100 mV on two common nV-meters. In our comparisons with the Josephson Voltage Standard the differences are within ± ± 12μ V/V at the ratio 10m V:1mV and within ± ± 1.3μ V/V at 100mV:10mV.

  • 3.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Disordered Fermi liquid in epitaxial graphene from quantum transport measurements2011In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 107, no 16, p. 166602-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Comparison between GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016, article id 7540514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report the first precision QHR measurements at SP using a graphene chip. We compare the results of a resistance calibration using GaAs based chips with the results using a graphene chip. The results agree within a few parts in 109 for calibrations of 100 Ω and 10 kΩ resistors. Consistency checks indicate that the uncertainty is lower with the graphene chip, and the noise level is slightly lower. The measurements with the graphene chip were performed exclusively at 4.2 K, which simplifies the calibration procedure considerably compared with GaAs chips.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    He, Hans
    Chalmers University of Techology, Sweden.
    Comparing GaAs and graphene QHR standards for resistance realisation at SP2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements 2016 (CPEM 2016), 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Poster
  • 6.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    An active filter for Delta-Sigma modulated Josephson waveforms2014In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, p. 518-519Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present an active low pass filter constructed for Delta-Sigma modulated Josephson waveforms. The filter has a fifth order Butterworth characteristic with high input impedance and stable passband performance, including dc. We present results from frequency response, input impedance characteristics, passband ac-dc measurements and spectra of a Delta-Sigma modulated sine wave from a programmable Josephson voltage standard.

  • 7.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    An Active Filter for Delta-Sigma-Modulated Josephson Waveforms2015In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 64, no 6, p. 1559-1563Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the design and electrical characteristics of an active low-pass filter. It will be used in a reference waveform source based on a programmable Josephson voltage standard with multilevel delta-sigma modulation to generate accurate and spectrally pure arbitrary waveforms. The filter has a fifth-order Butterworth characteristic with high input impedance, low distortion, high stopband attenuation, and stable passband performance, including dc.

  • 8.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realisation of Absolute Phase and Ac Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a method for realising absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance and ac resistance (change of resistance at ac compared to dc), We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, thereby realising absolute current shunt impedance. This method simplifies the procedure of current shunt calibration, since the same impedance ratio setup which is used to compare a shunt to a reference shunt, is used to realise the impedance of the starting reference shunt.

  • 9.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Realization of Absolute Phase and AC Resistance of Current Shunts by Ratio Measurements2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 2041-2046Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a simplified method for realizing absolute phase and ac resistance for current shunts using only impedance ratio measurements. The method is based on three geometrically identical current shunts with different resistances, but with the same inductance, capacitance, and ac-dc resistance change of resistance at ac compared to dc). We demonstrate how the inductance, capacitance, and ac resistance can be calculated from the complex impedance ratio measurements, therefore realizing absolute current shunt impedance. The method gives competitive uncertainties of around 200 μΩ/Ω for amplitude and 400 μrad for phase at 1 MHz in the 1-Ω range.

  • 10.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Gunnarsson, Ove
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    A precision current source using Δ-Σ modulation.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2341-2346Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Josephson waveform generation using multilevel Δ-Σ Modulation2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 172-173p. 172-173, article id 6250856Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a novel method of generating an ac voltage using a programmable Josephson voltage standard. The ac voltage is generated by Δ-Σ (Delta-Sigma) modulation of multiple Josephson levels. Compared with an ac voltage generated by stepwise approximation, the Δ-Σ method reduces the low frequency harmonics of the generated signal. We demonstrate this method by generating a 90 Hz sine wave and measuring the spectrum with a digitizer.

  • 12.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    An electrical power reference system Up to 1 MHz2016In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2016), 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a reference system for calibration of electrical power at frequencies up to 1 MHz. The system consists of several components and we have developed methods of calibrating the components in order to ensure traceability to the SI units. The reference system is designed for steady state sinusoidal signals and gives a preliminary uncertainty of 50 μW/VA at frequencies up to 1 kHz, and 10 mW/VA at 1 MHz.

  • 13.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determining voltage dependence of the phase response in voltage dividers2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 282-283p. 282-283, article id 6250912Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have developed methods to characterise voltage dependence of the phase response in voltage dividers. The voltage dependence is a combination of two parts, a linear dependence and a power dependence due to voltage and temperature dependence in capacitors respectively. The standard uncertainty of the phase at 240 V and 100 kHz is estimated to be 20 μrad.

  • 14.
    Callegaro, Luca
    et al.
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    D'Elia, Vincenzo
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Marzano, Martina
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Tran, Ngoc
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Ortolano, Massimo
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Kučera, Jan
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Pierz, Klaus
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bauer, Stephan
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kruskopf, Mattias
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Yin, Yeyef
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Pimsut, Yaowaret
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Schopfer, Felicien
    LNE Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Thévenot, Oliver
    LNE Laboratoire National de métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Jeanneret, Blaise
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Overney, Frederec
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Material and Surface Design.
    Manninen, Antti
    VTT Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy, Finland.
    Nissilä, Jaani
    VTT Teknologian Tutkimuskeskus VTT Oy, Finland.
    Michon, Adrien
    CNRS Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, France.
    Sawatdiaree, Sivinee
    NIMT National Institute of Metrology, Thailand.
    Chae, Dong Hun
    KRISS Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Republic of Korea.
    The EMPIR Project GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard2020In: 2020 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM), 2020, p. 1-2Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    GIQS: Graphene Impedance Quantum Standard is a Joint Research Project of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR). The project objective is to combine novel digital impedance measurement bridges with graphene-based ac quantum Hall resistance standards in a simplified cryogenic environment, to achieve simple, user-friendly quantum impedance standards suitable for primary realisation of impedance units in national metrology institutes, calibration centers, and the industry.

  • 15.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Hagen, Thomas
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Palafox, Luis
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Behr, Ralf
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    A comparison of the Josephson impedance bridges of PTB and SP2016In: CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest, 2016, article id 7540584Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Josephson impedance comparison bridges have been developed at PTB and SP. The bridges are based on programmable Josephson voltage standards. We report the first ever comparison of Josephson impedance bridges performed with 1:1 and 1:10 capacitance ratio measurements up to 2 kHz.

  • 16.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    A low frequency Josephson impedance bridge2016In: CPEM 2016 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, Conference Digest, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a low frequency Josephson impedance bridge and the measurement methods. The bridge is useable below 400 Hz and is based on two programmable Josephson voltage standards. Measurements of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:10 capacitance ratio have been performed and compared with ratio measurements of an inductive voltage divider bridge. © 2016 IEEE.

  • 17.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determination of transition error corrections for low frequency stepwise-approximated Josephson sine waves.2011In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 60, no 7, p. 2399-2403Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Low frequency characterization of a planar multijunction thermal converter using a programmable Josephson voltage standard2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 62-63p. 62-63, article id 6250661Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe high accuracy low-frequency ac-dc transfer determinations performed with a programmable Josephson voltage standard. The ac-dc difference characteristic of a planar multijunction thermal converter is determined indirectly by comparison via a high input impedance thermal transfer standard at 0.8 V in the frequency range 10 Hz to 110 Hz. 

  • 19.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Progress towards an impedance bridge using two programmable Josephson voltage standards2014In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. , 2014, p. 224-225Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the work towards a setup of a low frequency 'Josephson impedance bridge' based on programmable Josephson voltage standards. Tests of ac voltage synthesis and dc voltage measurements of the two programmable Josephson standards have been performed including a direct Josephson dc voltage comparison.

  • 20.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Shetty, Naveen
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NPL, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Accurate graphene quantum Hall arrays for the new International System of Units2022In: Nature Communications, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 13, no 1, article id 6933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Graphene quantum Hall effect (QHE) resistance standards have the potential to provide superior realizations of three key units in the new International System of Units (SI): the ohm, the ampere, and the kilogram (Kibble Balance). However, these prospects require different resistance values than practically achievable in single graphene devices (~12.9 kΩ), and they need bias currents two orders of magnitude higher than typical breakdown currents IC ~ 100 μA. Here we present experiments on quantization accuracy of a 236-element quantum Hall array (QHA), demonstrating RK/236 ≈ 109 Ω with 0.2 part-per-billion (nΩ/Ω) accuracy with IC ≥ 5 mA (~1 nΩ/Ω accuracy for IC = 8.5 mA), using epitaxial graphene on silicon carbide (epigraphene). The array accuracy, comparable to the most precise universality tests of QHE, together with the scalability and reliability of this approach, pave the road for wider use of graphene in the new SI and beyond. © 2022, The Author(s).

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    fulltext
  • 21.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Kim, Kyung
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Park, Yung Woo
    Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Stable and Tunable Charge Carrier Control of Graphene for Quantum Resistance Metrology2018In: 2018 Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements (CPEM 2018), 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we demonstrate a stable and tunable method to alter the carrier concentration of epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide. This technique relies on chemical doping by an acceptor molecule. Through careful tuning one can produce chemically doped graphene quantum resistance devices which show long-term stability in ambient conditions and have performance comparable to that of GaAs quantum resistance standards. This development paves the way for controlled device fabrication of graphene quantum hall resistance standards, which can be reliably tailored to operate below 5 T and above 4 K out-of-the-box, without further adjustments from the end-user.

  • 22.
    He, Hans
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kim, Kyung
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Fletcher, Nick
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Rozhko, Sergiy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Yakimova, Rositsa
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Park, Yung
    Seoul National University, South Korea; University of Pennsylvania, US.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; University of London, UK.
    Polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene for quantum resistance metrology2019In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 56, no 4, article id 045004Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the aspirations of quantum metrology is to deliver primary standards directly to end-users thereby significantly shortening the traceability chains and enabling more accurate products. Epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (epigraphene) is known to be a viable candidate for a primary realisation of a quantum Hall resistance standard, surpassing conventional semiconductor two-dimensional electron gases, such as those based on GaAs, in terms of performance at higher temperatures and lower magnetic fields. The bottleneck in the realisation of a turn-key quantum resistance standard requiring minimum user intervention has so far been the need to fine-tune the carrier density in this material to fit the constraints imposed by a simple cryo-magnetic system. Previously demonstrated methods, such as via photo-chemistry or corona discharge, require application prior to every cool-down as well as specialist knowledge and equipment. To this end we perform metrological evaluation of epigraphene with carrier density tuned by a recently reported permanent molecular doping technique. Measurements at two National Metrology Institutes confirm accurate resistance quantisation below 5n-1. Furthermore, samples show no significant drift in carrier concentration and performance on multiple thermal cycles over three years. This development paves the way for dissemination of primary resistance standards based on epigraphene

  • 23.
    Kohlmann, Johannes
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Behr, Ralf
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kieler, Oliver F.O.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    de Aguilar Rois, J. Diaz
    Centro Espanol de Metrologia, Spain.
    Sira, Martin
    Cesky Metrologicky Institut Brno, Czech Republic.
    Sosso, Andrea
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Trinchera, Bruno
    INRIM Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Italy.
    Gran, Jarle
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Malmbekk, Helge
    Justervesenet, Norway.
    Jeanneret, Blaise
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Overney, Frederic
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Switzerland.
    Nissilä, Jaani
    MIKES Mittatekniikan Keskus, Finland.
    Lehtonen, Tapio A.
    MIKES Mittatekniikan Keskus, Finland.
    Ireland, Jane
    NPL Management Limited, United Kingdom.
    Williams, Jonathan M.
    NPL Management Limited, United Kingdom.
    Lapuh, Rado
    Slovenski Institut Za Kakovost in Meroslovje, Slovenia.
    Voljc, Bostjan
    Slovenski Institut Za Kakovost in Meroslovje, Slovenia.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Öztürk, Tezgül Coskun
    TUBITAK, Turkey.
    Houtzager, Ernest
    VSL B.V., The Netherlands.
    Van Den Brom, H. E.
    VSL B.V., The Netherlands.
    Øhlckers, Per Alfred
    Buskerud and Vestfold University College, Norway.
    A quantum standard for sampled electrical measurements-Main goals and first results of the EMRP project Q-WAVE2014In: 29th Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2014, 2014, , p. 522-523p. 522-523, article id 6898489Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Josephson voltage standards are well established for use at dc and low-frequency ac voltages. The increasing demand i) to provide traceability for arbitrary waveforms, ii) to extend the range of use to higher frequencies, and iii) to improve the accuracy is being addressed in the project Q-WAVE, which is jointly funded by the European Union and the participating countries within the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP). Here, sampling measurements and procedures using binary-divided 1 V and 10 V arrays are investigated. In addition, a quantum-based analogue-to-digital converter for direct measurements of arbitrary waveforms is under development. It will contain several Josephson arrays in series biased by a pulse drive based on opto-electronics, in order to increase the output voltage.

  • 24.
    Lartsev, Arseniy
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Yager, Tom
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tzalenchuk, Alexander
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom; University of London, United Kingdom.
    Janssen, TJBM
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Yakimova, Rositza
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lara-Avila, Samuel
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Tuning carrier density across Dirac point in epitaxial graphene on SiC by corona discharge2014In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 6, article id 063106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate reversible carrier density control across the Dirac point (Δ n∼ 1013cm-2) in epitaxial graphene on SiC (SiC/G) via high electrostatic potential gating with ions produced by corona discharge. The method is attractive for applications where graphene with a fixed carrier density is needed, such as quantum metrology, and more generally as a simple method of gating 2DEGs formed at semiconductor interfaces and in topological insulators.

  • 25.
    Mašláň, S.
    et al.
    Czech metrology institute, Czech Republic.
    He, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Seitz, S.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Heins, T. P.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy2022In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022Pages 227 - 232, International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) , 2022, p. 227-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports an interlaboratory comparison of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. The comparisons cover an impedance range from 50 ΌΩ to 100 mΩ across the full complex plane in a frequency range 0.01 Hz up to 5 kHz. A first comparison covered calibration of low impedance standards by reference digital sampling impedance setups in 4-terminal and 4 terminal-pair connections. A second comparison used commercial 4-terminal EIS meters to measure the low impedance standards characterised in the first comparison. 

  • 26.
    Mašláň, S
    et al.
    Czech metrology institute, Czech Republic.
    He, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Seitz, Steffen
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Heins, Tom P
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Interlaboratory comparison of battery impedance analyzers calibration2023In: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 218, article id 113176Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports a results of series of interlaboratory comparisons of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. Two comparisons are presented. The first, bilateral comparison has focused on low impedance standards calibration in a full complex plane using digital sampling setups. The second comparison has focused on calibration and use of commercial 4-terminal battery EIS meters. Both comparisons have covered the impedance range from 50μ℧ to 100m℧ across the full complex plane in a frequency range from 0.01Hz up to 5kHz. Finally, the paper summarizes practices identified as critical for achieving measurement compatibility among various labs. © 2023 The Authors

  • 27.
    Mašláň, Stanisalav
    et al.
    Czech metrology institute, Czech Republic.
    He, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Seitz, Steffen
    PTB, Germany.
    Heins, Tom P
    PTB, Germany.
    Interlaboratory Comparison of Low Impedance for Impedance Spectroscopy2022In: 25th IMEKO TC-4 International Symposium on Measurement of Electrical Quantities, IMEKO TC-4 2022 and 23rd International Workshop on ADC and DAC Modelling and Testing, IWADC 2022, International Measurement Confederation (IMEKO) , 2022, p. 227-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper reports an interlaboratory comparison of low impedance measurements at frequencies relevant for electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of commercial lithium-ion cells. The comparisons cover an impedance range from 50 μΩ to 100 mΩ across the full complex plane in a frequency range 0.01 Hz up to 5 kHz. A first comparison covered calibration of low impedance standards by reference digital sampling impedance setups in 4-terminal and 4 terminal-pair connections. A second comparison used commercial 4-terminal EIS meters to measure the low impedance standards characterised in the first comparison.

  • 28.
    Mašláň, Stanislav
    et al.
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Šíra, Martin
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Skalická, Tereza
    Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Four Terminal Pair Digital Sampling Impedance Bridge up to 1 MHz2019In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662, Vol. 68, no 6, p. 1860-1869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a new four terminal pair digital sampling impedance bridge designed for frequency range up to 1MHz and small impedances, such as shunts. The bridge is capable of comparing impedance standards of arbitrary ratios in a full complex plane from approximately 100 kΩ down to 50mΩ, limited by maximum achievable current 3 A. To keep low uncertainties a new multiplexer was designed and a very simple and fully automated linearity correction method based on the pair of calculable resistors was developed and validated. The paper describes the design and details of the bridge topology, basic uncertainty budget and first results of the validation. The expanded uncertainty of impedance module is about 50 μΩ/Ω at 1MHz for impedance ratios up to 1:16 and voltage drops above 10mV and the expanded uncertainty of a phase angle was about 360 μrad/MHz. Expanded uncertainty for frequency 100 kHz about 10 μΩ/Ω was reached. Typical expanded uncertainty for low impedance ratios below 1:1.1 is only 35 μΩ/Ω. Set of measurement of impedance standards of known values and a small international comparison of ac-dc and phase angle errors of current shunts were carried out to validate the bridge capabilities in wide range of impedances. The validation measurements showed the deviations of the bridge are below 35 μΩ/Ω and below 350 μrad at 1 MHz.

  • 29.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    A Method for Realisation of Inductance and Quality Factor to 1 MHz2018In: CPEM 2018 - Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method for realisation of inductance and quality factor to high frequencies by determining the frequency response of gain-and phase-error of an inductance meter using two coils made of a single copper wire. As a starting point a traceable calibration of inductance at 1 kHz is used

  • 30.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Tarasso, Valter
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Determination of phase angle errors of current shunts for wideband power measurement2012In: Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements, CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 284-285p. 284-285, article id 6250913Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new phase comparator for current shunts with frequency range to 1 MHz has been developed and a new method to determine the absolute phase angle error of current shunts is described. Preliminary expanded uncertainty of the absolute phase angle error for a reference shunt with resistance 1,5 Ω is ±200 μrad at 1 MHz. Based on the reference shunt the phase comparator is used to determine the phase angle errors of a shunt set. At 5 A, 100 kHz the new determination agrees within the expanded uncertainty ±100 μrad with our earlier realization.

  • 31.
    Schurr, J.
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kalmbach, C. -C
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ahlers, F. J.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Hohls, F.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Kruskopf, M.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Müller, A.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Pierz, K.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Haug, R. J.
    Leibniz Universität Hannover, Germany.
    Magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor of epitaxial graphene-based quantum Hall effect devices2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 15, article id 155443Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the properties of the magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor of epitaxial graphene Hall bars with different electrode configurations to gain insight into the underlying physical mechanisms. The dependence of magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor on the magnetic field shows how the screening ability of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) changes at the transition from the nonquantized to the quantized state. Both magnetocapacitance and dissipation factor exhibit a characteristic and correlated voltage dependence, which is attributed to the alternating contraction and expansion of the nonscreening 2DEG regions due to the alternating local electric field. Two regimes with seemingly different voltage dependencies are explained as the limiting cases of weak and strong electric fields of the same general voltage dependence. Electric fields in the plane of the 2DEG are found to cause about three orders of magnitude more ac dissipation than perpendicular electric fields. This strong directionality is attributed to the fact that the electrons are mobile in the plane of the 2DEG but are confined in the third dimension. In the quantized state, not only the screening edge of the 2DEG but also compressible puddles embedded in the bulk cause ac dissipation, as follows from the measured frequency dependence. Finally, characteristic parameters like the width of the screening edge, the threshold voltage, and the charging time of the compressible puddles are determined. .

  • 32.
    Shetty, Naveen
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Eklund, Gunnar
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Avila, Samuel Lara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; NPL, UK.
    Kubatkin, Sergey
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Cedergren, Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    He, Hans
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology. Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Long-term stability of molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards: single elements and large arrays (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω)2023In: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 60, no 5, article id 055009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work we investigate the long-term stability of epitaxial graphene (epigraphene) quantum Hall resistance standards, including single devices and an array device composed of 236 elements providing (R K/236 ≈ 109 Ω) , with R K the von Klitzing constant. All devices utilize the established technique of chemical doping via molecular dopants to achieve homogenous doping and control over carrier density. However, optimal storage conditions and the long-term stability of molecular dopants for metrological applications have not been widely studied. In this work we aim to identify simple storage techniques that use readily available and cost-effective materials which provide long-term stability for devices without the need for advanced laboratory equipment. The devices are stored in glass bottles with four different environments: ambient, oxygen absorber, silica gel desiccant, and oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture. We have tracked the carrier densities, mobilities, and quantization accuracies of eight different epigraphene quantum Hall chips for over two years. We observe the highest stability (i.e. lowest change in carrier density) for samples stored in oxygen absorber/desiccant mixture, with a relative change in carrier density below 0.01% per day and no discernable degradation of quantization accuracy at the part-per-billion level. This storage technique yields a comparable stability to the currently established best storage method of inert nitrogen atmosphere, but it is much easier to realize in practice. It is possible to further optimize the mixture of oxygen absorber/desiccant for even greater stability performance in the future. We foresee that this technique can allow for simple and stable long-term storage of polymer-encapsulated molecular doped epigraphene quantum Hall standards, removing another barrier for their wide-spread use in practical metrology. 

  • 33.
    Tarasso, Valter
    et al.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Rydler, Karl-Erik
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Elektricitet.
    Towards an electric power standard for frequencies up to 1 MHz2012In: CPEM Digest (Conference on Precision Electromagnetic Measurements) CPEM 2012, 2012, , p. 128-129p. 128-129, article id 6250694Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a power standard for measurement of electrical power of sinusoidal signals based on digitzers and a phase-controlled phantom power source. The voltage channel ranges up to 1000 V at 100 kHz, and 20 V at 1 MHz, the current channel ranges up to 100 A at 100 kHz and 1 A at 1 MHz. The phase can be set arbitrarily ±180 degrees. We present the design of the system, its components and preliminary performance and measurement uncertainties.

  • 34.
    Turhan, Enis
    et al.
    NMI TUBITAK National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Erkan, Ömer
    NMI TUBITAK National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Hayirli, Cem
    NMI TUBITAK National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Istrate, Daniela
    LME, France.
    Németh, Tibor
    Government Office of the Capital City Budapest, .
    Power, Oliver
    NSAI, Ireland.
    Ribeiro, Luis
    IPQ, Portugal.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Measurement Technology.
    Corminboeuf, David
    METAS, Switzerland.
    EURAMET.EM-S44 comparison for ultra-low DC current sources2023In: Metrologia, Vol. 60, no 1A, article id 01002Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Comparison for ultra-low DC current sources between LNE (France), BFKH (Hungary), NSAI NML (Ireland), IPQ (Portugal), RISE (Sweden), METAS (Switzerland) and TÜBİTAK UME (Turkey). To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database https://www.bipm.org/kcdb/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCEM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  • 35.
    Zucca, M.
    et al.
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca, Italy.
    Bottauscio, O.
    Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca, Italy.
    Harmon, S.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Guilizzoni, R.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Schilling, F.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Schmidt, M.
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ankarson, Peter
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, AstaZero.
    Bergsten, Tobias
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Safety and Transport, Measurement Science and Technology.
    Tammi, K.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Sainio, P.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Romero, J. B.
    Research Centre for Energy Resources, Spain.
    Puyal, E. L.
    Research Centre for Energy Resources, Spain.
    Pichon, L.
    Laboratoire Génie électrique et électronique de Paris, France.
    Freschi, F.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Cirimele, V.
    Politecnico di Torino, Italy.
    Bauer, P.
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Dong, J.
    Delft University of Technology, The Netherlands.
    Maffucci, A.
    Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Italy.
    Ventre, S.
    Università degli studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Italy.
    Femia, N.
    Università degli studi di salerno, Italy.
    Capua, G. Di
    Università degli studi di salerno, Italy.
    Kuster, N.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Sweden.
    Liorni, I.
    Schmid & Partner Engineering AG, Sweden.
    Metrology for Inductive Charging of Electric Vehicles (MICEV)2019In: 2019 AEIT International Conference of Electrical and Electronic Technologies for Automotive (AEIT AUTOMOTIVE), 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European Union funded project MICEV aims at improving the traceability of electrical and magnetic measurement at charging stations and to better assess the safety of this technology with respect to human exposure. The paper describes some limits of the instrumentation used for electrical measurements in the charging stations, and briefly presents two new calibration facilities for magnetic field meters and electric power meters. Modeling approaches for the efficiency and human exposure assessment are proposed. In the latter case, electromagnetic computational codes have been combined with dosimetric computational codes making use of highly detailed human anatomical phantoms in order to establish human exposure modeling real charging stations. Detailed results are presented for light vehicles where, according to our calculations, the concern towards human exposure is limited. Currently, the project has reached half way point (about 18 months) and will end in August 2020.

1 - 35 of 35
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