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  • 1.
    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis
    et al.
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Werhahn, Olav
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Ebert, Volker
    Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Metrological quantification of CO in biogas using laser absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography2018Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, nr 9, artikkel-id 095010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas has a vital role in the future market of renewable energy. When upgraded to biomethane, it can be injected into natural gas grids if the level of certain impurities complies with the specifications in EN16723. For some of these impurities, suitable measurement methods are lacking which hampers the quality control of biomethane to be injected into natural gas networks. Here, we report the evaluation of three detection methods suitable for carbon monoxide (CO) in biogas and biomethane applications for which EN16723 specifies an upper limit of 0.1% (1000 µmol/mol). Two of these methods are based on laser absorption spectroscopy (LAS) and one on gas chromatography (GC). Both LAS spectrometers are employing direct absorption spectroscopy and operating at 4.6µm, probing a single CO absorption line in the fundamental CO band: One – called dTDLAS (direct tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy)- is based on a new Interband Cascade Laser specially designed for biogas and biomethane applications, while the other is based on Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (QCLAS). The GC is equipped with two packed columns (Hayesep Q and Molecular Sieve 5A) and a thermal conductivity detector. Carbon monoxide amount fraction results in biogas matrices derived using these three measurement methods are compared to amount fraction values of different, gravimetrically prepared reference gas standards of CO in biogas. These were used to validate the measurement capabilities. The measured CO amount fraction results from LAS and GC covered 10 µmol/mol to 30000 µmol/mol (system measurement ranges, LAS: 3 µmol/mol - 1000 µmol/mol, GC: 500 µmol/mol - 30000 µmol/mol) and were in excellent agreement with the gravimetric values of the gas standards. At 400 µmol/mol, the guide to the expression of uncertainty in measurement (GUM) compliant relative standard uncertainties of our calibration-free dTDLAS and the gas-calibrated QCLAS systems are estimated to be 1.4 % vs 0.5 %, respectively. The relative standard uncertainty of the GC CO measurements at 5075 µmol/mol is 1.3 %. This work demonstrates that, by means of GC and LAS, relative standard uncertainties of 1.4 % and below can be reached for CO measurements in biogas and that cost-optimized calibration-free approaches not requiring frequent use of gas standards have become available.

  • 2.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Towards a European infrastructure for the characterisation of energy gases2011Inngår i: Joint IMEKO TC11-TC19-TC20 International Symposium Metrological Infrastructure, Environmental and Energy Measurement, 2011, , s. 23-26Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Aarhaug, Thor
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL, UK.
    Wagner, Lisa
    Linde GmbH, Germany.
    Blondeel, Clair
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Lescornez, Yann
    Air Liquide, France.
    Chramosta, Nathalie
    Air Liquide, France.
    Spitta, Christian
    ZBT, Germany.
    Basset, Etienne
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Nouvelot, Quentin
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Rizand, Mathilde
    Research Center ENGIE LAB CRIGEN, France.
    Strategies for the sampling of hydrogen at refuelling stations for purity assessment2021Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 46, nr 70, s. 34839-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen delivered at hydrogen refuelling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards which require specialized sampling device and personnel to operate it. Currently, different strategies are implemented in different parts of the world and these strategies have already been used to perform 100s of hydrogen fuel sampling in USA, EU and Japan. However, these strategies have never been compared on a large systematic study. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare the different strategies for sampling hydrogen at the nozzle and summarize the key aspects of all the existing hydrogen fuel sampling including discussion on material compatibility with the impurities that must be assessed. This review highlights the fact it is currently difficult to evaluate the impact or the difference these strategies would have on the hydrogen fuel quality assessment. Therefore, comparative sampling studies are required to evaluate the equivalence between the different sampling strategies. This is the first step to support the standardization of hydrogen fuel sampling and to identify future research and development area for hydrogen fuel sampling. © 2021 The Authors

  • 4.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Tillämpad mekanik.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Schröter, Karin
    EMPA Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Switzerland.
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide, France.
    Beurey, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Blondeel, Claire
    Air Liquide, France.
    Detection of contaminants in hydrogen fuel for fuel cell electrical vehicles with sensors—available technology, testing protocols and implementation challenges2022Inngår i: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe’s low-carbon energy policy favors a greater use of fuel cells and technologies based on hydrogen used as a fuel. Hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refueling station must be compliant with requirements stated in different standards. Currently, the quality control process is performed by offline analysis of the hydrogen fuel. It is, however, beneficial to continuously monitor at least some of the contaminants onsite using chemical sensors. For hydrogen quality control with regard to contaminants, high sensitivity, integration parameters, and low cost are the most important requirements. In this study, we have reviewed the existing sensor technologies to detect contaminants in hydrogen, then discussed the implementation of sensors at a hydrogen refueling stations, described the state-of-art in protocols to perform assessment of these sensor technologies, and, finally, identified the gaps and needs in these areas. It was clear that sensors are not yet commercially available for all gaseous contaminants mentioned in ISO14687:2019. The development of standardized testing protocols is required to go hand in hand with the development of chemical sensors for this application following a similar approach to the one undertaken for air sensors. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 5.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Bohlen, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    de Krom, Iris
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Heikens, Dita
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    van Wijk, Janneke
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Hydrogen purity analysis: Suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulphur compounds2020Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 10, nr 1, artikkel-id 120Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ISO 14687-2 standard sets requirements for the purity of the hydrogen that is delivered at refuelling stations. These specifications cover a wide range of impurities and include challenging measurements, mainly due to the very low levels of the required detection limits and the need for "total" measurements (total hydrocarbons, total sulphur compounds, halogenated compounds). Most of the compounds belonging to the species are organic. Thermal desorption often coupled with gas chromatography is a common speciation method used to determine the content of organic impurities. However, no existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal to trap all possible impurities; depending on the sorbents and the sampling volume, some compounds may irreversibly adsorb or may break through. It is therefore necessary to evaluate sorbents for the compounds targeted at the level required. In this study, the suitability of sorbent tubes for trapping organic impurities in hydrogen was investigated. Suitable sorbents were selected based on a literature review of suitable sorbent materials. Short-term stability studies for compounds among hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds and sulphurcompounds on the selected sorbents have then been performed for storage periods of two weeks since this is the period typically required to complete the collection, transport and analysis of hydrogen samples. The study clearly shows that the method is promising for total species, even through the results show that not all of the compounds belonging to the three total species to be analysed when performing hydrogen purity analysis can be quantified on one unique sorbent. A multibed sorbent consisting of Tenax TA (weak), Carboxen 1003 (medium), Carbograph 1 (strong) is shown to be a versatile sorbent suitable for the three "total species"; only a few compounds from each family would need to be analysed using other analytical methods. This method proposed here for total species will not only provide a sum of concentrations, but also an identification of which compound(s) is/are actually present in the hydrogen.

  • 6.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Suitability of different containers for the sampling and storage of biogas and biomethane for the determination of the trace-level impurities - A review2016Inngår i: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 902, s. 22-32Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The traceable and accurate measurement of biogas impurities is essential in order to robustly assess compliance with the specifications for biomethane being developed by CEN/TC408. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determinate the content of impurities is the sampling and the transfer of the sample to the laboratory. Key issues are the suitability of the sample container and minimising the losses of impurities during the sampling and analysis process. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art in biogas sampling with the focus on trace impurities. Most of the vessel suitability studies reviewed focused on raw biogas. Many parameters need to be studied when assessing the suitability of vessels for sampling and storage, among them, permeation through the walls, leaks through the valves or physical leaks, sorption losses and adsorption effects to the vessel walls, chemical reactions and the expected initial concentration level. The majority of these studies looked at siloxanes, for which sampling bags, canisters, impingers and sorbents have been reported to be fit-for-purpose in most cases, albeit with some limitations. We conclude that the optimum method requires a combination of different vessels to cover the wide range of impurities commonly found in biogas, which have a wide range of boiling points, polarities, water solubilities, and reactivities. The effects from all the parts of the sampling line must be considered and precautions must be undertaken to minimize these effects. More practical suitability tests, preferably using traceable reference gas mixtures, are needed to understand the influence of the containers and the sampling line on sample properties and to reduce the uncertainty of the measurement.

  • 7.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Comparison of different models to calculate the viscosity of biogas and biomethane in order to accurately measure flow rates for conformity assessment2021Inngår i: Scientific Reports, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 11, nr 1, artikkel-id 1660Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presents an optimised method to correct flow rates measured with a LFE flowmeter pre-set on methane while used for gas mixtures of unknown composition at the time of the measurement. The method requires the correction of the flow rate using a factor based on the viscosity of the gas mixtures once the composition is accurately known. The method has several different possible applications inclusive for the sampling of biogas and biomethane onto sorbent tubes for conformity assessment for the determination of siloxanes, terpenes and VOC in general. Five models for the calculation of the viscosity of the gas mixtures were compared and the models were used for ten binary mixtures and four multi-component mixtures. The results of the evaluation of the different models showed that the correction method using the viscosity of the mixtures calculated with the model of Reichenberg and Carr showed the smallest biases for binary mixtures. For multi-component mixtures, the best results were obtained when using the models of Lucas and Carr. 

  • 8.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Development and evaluation of a novel analyser for ISO14687 hydrogen purity analysis2020Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 31, nr 7, artikkel-id 075010Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Standards ISO14687 and EN17124 set stringent limits for numerous gaseous impurities and particulates that may damage the fuel cell system in a hydrogen vehicle, as it is highly sensitive to the presence of even very low levels of impurities. However, performing the whole set of analyses is both technically challenging and time-consuming for any laboratory and will require a combination of several analytical techniques or instruments. In this study, we discussed the selection of analytical techniques for hydrogen purity testing in order to optimize the CAPEX (capital expenditure) and OPEX (operational expenditure), while ensuring the quality of the results and the compliance of the analytical methods with ISO21087. Among the individual impurities to be analysed in ISO14687, spectroscopy techniques are suitable for ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, formic acid, oxygen and water. Spectroscopy techniques are even suitable for some impurities belonging to the three total species such as hydrogen sulphide, hydrogen chloride and methane. However, helium and argon, which are monoatomic, do not exhibit response in the infrared region. Therefore, any spectroscopic analysis method must be completed by another method in order to simultaneously analyse all individual gaseous impurities from ISO14687. In this study, we constructed and demonstrated the feasibility of an instrument composed of a gas chromatograph having three columns (two packed columns and a PLOT (Porous Layer Open Tubular) column and two detectors (FID and TCD) coupled in parallel to two OFCEAS instruments using reference gas mixtures. Finally, we also proposed an extended configuration that will allow performing the whole set of analyses for gaseous species from ISO14687

  • 9.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Culleton, Lucy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Nwaboh, Javis
    PTB Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium BV, Netherlands.
    Need for a protocol for performance evaluation of the gas analyzers used in biomethane conformity assessment2024Inngår i: Accreditation and Quality Assurance, ISSN 0949-1775, E-ISSN 1432-0517, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 69-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biomethane may contain trace components that can have adverse effects on gas vehicles performances and on the pipelines when injected in the gas grid. Biomethane quality assurance against specifications is therefore crucial for the integrity of the end-users’ appliances. Analytical methods used to assess biomethane conformity assessment must be validated properly and possibly, new methods specifically for biomethane should be developed. This paper provides an overview of the biomethane quality assurance infrastructure and the challenges faced with focus on sampling, analysis methods, reference gas mixtures, and performance evaluation. Currently, requirements for analytical method validation and fit-for-purpose assessments do not exist for biomethane. The industry is in urgent need of a protocol to evaluate the fit-for-purpose of methods in a harmonized manner. Reference gas mixtures to check the accuracy of the instrument and to determine the traceability of the measurement are also urgently required. 

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 10.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Methods for sampling biogas and biomethane on adsorbent tubes after collection in gas bags2019Inngår i: Applied Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3417, Vol. 9, nr 6, artikkel-id 1171Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and numerous excellent opportunities for use; for example, as vehicle fuel after upgrading (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical for ensuring that the gas can be used technically and safely. An essential part of any procedure aimed at determining the quality is the sampling and transfer to the laboratory. Sampling bags and sorbent tubes are widely used for collecting biogas. In this study, we have combined these two methods, i.e., sampling in a gas bag before subsequent sampling onto tubes in order to demonstrate that this alternative can help eliminate the disadvantages associated with the two methods whilst combining their advantages; with expected longer storage stability as well as easier sampling and transport. The results of the study show that two parameters need to be taken into account when transferring gas from a bag on to an adsorbent; the water content of the gas and the flow rate used during transfer of the gas on to the adsorbent. © 2019 by the authors.

  • 11.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Adrien, Herve
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    El Masri, Ahmad
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Lestremau, Francois
    INERIS Parc Alata, France.
    Robinson, Tim
    Waverton Analytics Ltd, UK.
    Analytical methods for the determination of oil carryover from CNG/biomethane refueling stations recovered in a solvent2020Inngår i: RSC Advances, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 10, nr 20, s. 11907-11917Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle gas is often compressed to about 200 bar at the refueling station prior to charging to the vehicle's tank. If a high amount of oil is carried over to the gas, it may cause damage to the vehicles; it is therefore necessary to accurately measure oil carryover. In this paper, three analytical methods for accurate quantification of the oil content are presented whereby two methods are based on gas chromatography and one on FTIR. To better evaluate the level of complexity of the matrix, 10 different compressor oils in use at different refueling stations were initially collected and analysed with GC and FTIR to identify their analytical traces. The GC traces could be divided into three different profiles: oils exhibiting some well resolved peaks, oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks with some dominant peaks on top of the hump and oils exhibiting globally unresolved peaks. After selection of three oils; one oil from each type, the three methods were evaluated with regards to the detection and quantification limits, the working range, precision, trueness and robustness. The evaluation of the three measurement methods demonstrated that any of these three methods presented were suitable for the quantification of compressor oil for samples. The FTIR method and the GC/MS method both resulted in measurement uncertainties close to 20% rel. while the GC/FID method resulted in a higher measurement uncertainty (U = 30% rel.).

  • 12.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Sampling methods for renewable gases and related gases: challenges and current limitations2022Inngår i: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650, Vol. 414, s. 6285-6294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Renewable gases, hydrogen and biomethane can be used for the same applications as natural gas: to heat homes, power vehicles and generate electricity. They have the potential to contribute to the decarbonisation of the gas grid. Hydrogen blending with existing natural gas pipelines is also proposed as a means to increase the performance of renewable energy systems. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) and carbon capture and utilisation (CCU) technologies can be an answer to the global challenge of significantly reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Due to production methods, these gases typically contain species in trace amounts that can negatively impact the equipment they come into contact with or pipelines when injected into the gas grid. It is therefore necessary to ensure proper (and stable) gas quality that meets the requirements set out in the relevant standards. The gas quality standards require the collection and transport of a representative gas sample from the point of use to the analytical laboratory; i.e., no compounds may be added to or removed from the gas during sampling and transport. To obtain a representative sample, many challenges must be overcome. The biggest challenge is material compatibility and managing adsorption risks in the sampling systems (sampling line and sampling vessels). However, other challenges arise from the need for flow measurement with non-pure gases or from the nature of the matrix. Currently, there are no conclusive results of short-term stability measurements carried out under gas purity conditions (suitable pressure, matrix, appropriate concentrations, simultaneous presence of several species). © 2022, The Author(s).

  • 13.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Francini, Lorena
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Arques, Laurent
    AP2E, France.
    Comparison of optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy and gas chromatography for the measurement of the main components and impurities in biogas, landfill gas, biomethane and carbon dioxide streams2023Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 34, nr 9, artikkel-id 095011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we evaluated the performances of a custom-built optical feedback cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy (OFCEAS) instrument for the determination of the composition of energy gases, focusing on methane and carbon dioxide as main components, and carbon monoxide as impurities, in comparison with the well-established, validated, and traceable gas chromatographic method. A total of 115 real sample gases collected in biogas plants or landfills were analyzed using with both techniques over a period of 12 months. The comparison of the techniques showed that the virtual model which allows the measurement, needs to be optimized using real samples of varied compositions. The OFCEAS measurement technique was found to be capable of measuring both the main components and a trace component in different matrices; to within a 2% measurement uncertainty (higher than the gas chromatograph/thermal conductivity detector (GC/TCD) method). The OFCEAS method exhibits a very fast response, does not require daily calibration, and can be implemented online. The agreements between the OFCEAS technique and the GC/TCD method show that the drift of the OFCEAS instruments remains acceptable in the long term as long as no change is made to the virtual model. Matrix effects were observed, and those need to be taken into consideration when analyzing different types of samples. © 2023 The Author(s). Published by IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 14.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Karlsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Hakonen, Aron
    Ohlson, Lars
    Fordonsgas Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Variations of fuel composition during storage at Liquefied Natural Gas refuelling stations2018Inngår i: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 49, s. 317-323Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and Liquefied Biogas (LBG) utilization within the heavy duty transport sector is today a sustainable alternative to the use of oil. However, in spite of the high degree of insulation in the storage tank walls, it is impossible to fully avoid any net heat input from the surroundings. Due to some degree of vaporization this results in variation in gas composition during storage at refuelling stations, potentially leading to engine failures. Within this study, a vaporizer/sampler has been built and tested at a station delivering liquefied biomethane (LBG) and occasionally; such in this case, LNG to heavy and medium duty trucks. The vaporizer/sampler has then been used to study the variation of the LNG composition in the storage tank during a two weeks period. The results clearly underline a correlation between the gas phase and the liquid phase as the concentration changes follow the same trend in both phases. Two opposite effects are assumed to influence the concentration of methane, ethane and propane in the liquid and in the gas phase. On one hand, because of the probable presence of not fully mixed layers in the storage tank and due to vehicles being refuelled, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in methane at the expense of ethane and propane. On the other hand, due to boil-off effect towards the end of the storage period, both liquid and gas phases are enriched in ethane and propane at the expense of methane.

  • 15.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL, UK.
    Hookham, Mathew
    NPL, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL, UK.
    Modugno, Pierpaolo
    NPL, UK.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL, UK.
    An inter-laboratory comparison between 13 international laboratories for eight components relevant for hydrogen fuel quality assessment2024Inngår i: Measurement, ISSN 0263-2241, E-ISSN 1873-412X, Vol. 230, artikkel-id 114553Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The quality of the hydrogen delivered by refuelling stations is critical for end-users and society. The purity of the hydrogen dispensed at hydrogen refuelling points should comply with the technical specifications included in the ISO 14687:2019 and EN 17124:2022 standards. Once laboratories have set up methods, they need to verify their performances, for example through participation in interlaboratory comparisons. Due to the challenge associated with the production of stable reference materials and transport of these which are produced in hydrogen at high pressure (>10 bar), interlaboratory comparisons have been organized in different steps, with increasing extent. This study describes an inter-laboratory comparison exercise for hydrogen fuel involving a large number of participants (13 laboratories), completed in less than a year and included eight key contaminants of hydrogen fuel at level close to the ISO14687 threshold. These compounds were selected based on their high probability of occurrence or because they have been found in hydrogen fuel samples. For the results of the intercomparison, it appeared that fully complying with ISO 21087:2019 is still challenging for many participants and highlighted the importance of organising these types of exercises. Many laboratories performed corrective actions based on their results, which in turn significantly improved their performances. © 2024 The Author(s)

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  • 16.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Podien, Doris
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Smajovic, Nijaz
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Optimization of an Analytical Method for the Measurement of Oil Carryover from a Compressor in Compressed Natural Gas Refueling Stations2015Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 29, nr 4, s. 2416-2421Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were to determine the best method for extracting oil absorbed on coalescing filters at compressed natural gas (CNG) refueling stations and to compare the mass spectrometer (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID) for the quantification of the oil recovered in the extracts. Dichloromethane and heptane as solvents gave slightly higher recovery yields than pentane. The preferred extraction method with regard to time and solvent consumption consisted of an ultrasonic extraction, followed by removal of the remaining solvent under a stream of nitrogen. The FID and MS were found to be equally suitable for quantifying oil carryover, if the sample only contained the target oil when the instruments of analysis have been properly calibrated. If the sample is contaminated by compounds other than the target oil, MS and FID will provide different valuable information: MS may give information on the structure of the contaminants, while FID will give a more reliable quantification without proper calibration. The work discusses issues with the reusability of the filters and how to handle the memory effects.

  • 17.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Bäfver, Linda
    Analysis of unregulated emissions from an off-road diesel engine during realistic work operations2011Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 45, nr 30, s. 5394-5398Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    van der Veen, Adriaan M.H.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, The Netherands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut.
    Downey, Michael L.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Kühnemuth, Daniel
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Li, Jianrong
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, The Netherands.
    Ent, Hugo
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, The Netherands.
    Culleton, Lucy P.
    National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Traceable reference gas mixtures for sulfur-free natural gas odorants2014Inngår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 13, nr 1, s. 6695-6702Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The first reference gas mixtures of sulfur-free natural gas odorants that are traceable to the International System of Units (SI) have been produced and their compositions validated. These mixtures, which contain methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate at amount fractions between 1.1 and 2.1 μmol mol-1, can be used to underpin measurements of sulfur-free odorants, which are increasingly being used to odorize natural gas in transmission networks as they have less harmful properties than traditional sulfur-containing odorants. The reference gas mixtures produced have been shown to be stable in passivated aluminum cylinders for at least 8 months and have been validated (to within 6% or less) by interlaboratory measurements at three National Measurement Institutes. The stability of methyl acrylate and ethyl acrylate in gas sampling bags has been investigated, and the challenges of analyzing 2-ethyl-3- methylpyrazine, which is used as a stabilizer in sulfur-free odorants, are also briefly discussed.

  • 19.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Culleton, Lucy
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brewer, Paul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Krom, Iris
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium B.V., The Netherlands.
    Lestremau, Francoise
    INERIS Institut national de l'environnement industriel et des risques, France.
    Beranek, Jan
    ČMI Česky metrologicky institut, Czech Republic.
    Suitability of vessels and adsorbents for the short-term storage of biogas/biomethane for the determination of impurities – Siloxanes, sulfur compounds, halogenated hydrocarbons, BTEX2017Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 105, s. 127-135Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a renewable energy source with many different production pathways and various excellent opportunities to use, for example as vehicle fuel (biomethane). Reliable analytical methodologies for assessing the quality of the gas are critical to ensure that the gas can technically and safely be used. An essential part of any procedure aiming to determine the quality is the sampling and the transfer to the laboratory. One of the greatest challenges is then to ensure that the composition of the sample collected does not change between the time of sampling and the analysis. The choice of the sampling vessel to be used must be made only after fully assessing its short-term stability. In this paper, the results from short-term stability studies in different vessels (cylinders, bags and sorbents) are presented for siloxanes, BTEX, halogenated hydrocarbons and sulfur compounds. Storage of dry gas at high pressure (> 6 MPa) appears to be a good alternative however it is currently challenging to find an optimal treatment of the cylinders for all species to be assessed in biogas/biomethane. At lower pressure, adsorption effects on the inner surface of the cylinders have been observed. The use of bags and sorbent tubes also shows limitation. No existing sorbent tubes are sufficiently universal as to trap all possible impurities and high boiling compounds may adsorbed on the inner surface of the bags walls. Moreover, the presence of water when storing biogas most certainly impacts the storage stability of compounds in most vessels. Using at least two sampling methods for a given compound and comparing results will allow taking into account the eventual effects of water vapour, and adsorption on the inner surface of the vessels.

  • 20.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    et al.
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Auprêtre, Fabien
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    Moore, Niamh
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Fischer, Andreas
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden (2017-2019), Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Murugan, Arul
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Bartlett, Sam
    National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Doucet, Guillaume
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Laridant, Francoise
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Gernot, Eric
    AREVA H2Gen, France.
    Fernández, Teresa
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Gómez, Concepcion
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Carré, Martine
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    De Reals, Guy
    Paris-Saclay Research Center, France.
    Haloua, Frederique
    Laboratoire National de métrologie et d’Essais, France.
    Hydrogen fuel quality from two main production processes: Steam methane reforming and proton exchange membrane water electrolysis2019Inngår i: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 444, artikkel-id 227170Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The absence of contaminants in the hydrogen delivered at the hydrogen refuelling station is critical to ensure the length life of FCEV. Hydrogen quality has to be ensured according to the two international standards ISO 14687–2:2012 and ISO/DIS 19880-8. Amount fraction of contaminants from the two hydrogen production processes steam methane reforming and PEM water electrolyser is not clearly documented. Twenty five different hydrogen samples were taken and analysed for all contaminants listed in ISO 14687-2. The first results of hydrogen quality from production processes: PEM water electrolysis with TSA and SMR with PSA are presented. The results on more than 16 different plants or occasions demonstrated that in all cases the 13 compounds listed in ISO 14687 were below the threshold of the international standards. Several contaminated hydrogen samples demonstrated the needs for validated and standardised sampling system and procedure. The results validated the probability of contaminants presence proposed in ISO/DIS 19880-8. It will support the implementation of ISO/DIS 19880-8 and the development of hydrogen quality control monitoring plan. It is recommended to extend the study to other production method (i.e. alkaline electrolysis), the HRS supply chain (i.e. compressor) to support the technology growth.

  • 21.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    de Huu, Marc
    METAS, Switzerland.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Aarhaug, Thor Anders
    SINTEF, Norway.
    Viitakangas, Jaana
    VTT, Finland.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    METROLOGY FOR HYDROGEN VEHICLE 2: ACHIEVEMENTS AND PROGRESSES2022Inngår i: Proceedings of WHEC 2022 - 23rd World Hydrogen Energy Conference: Bridging Continents by H2, International Association for Hydrogen Energy, IAHE , 2022, s. 1223-1225Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen fuel cells are an alternative power supply for electric drive trains and could represent 32 % of fuel demand by 2050. To deploy fuel cell electrical vehicles, there is current regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, OIML recommendations) that requires accurate measurements. The European funded project MetroHyVe has provided solutions and improvements in the four measurements challenges (flow metering, quality control, quality assurance and sampling). New challenges arised due to increase of hydrogen economy, therefore a new European project MetroHyVe 2 started in 2020 and its objectives will provide perspectives for the hydrogen economy to solve all regulatory barriers (ISO 14687, ISO 19880-8, ISO 19880-1, ISO 21087, OIML R139-1) and new measurement challenges (flow metering, quality control, sampling and fuel cell stack testing). The presentation will provide a comprehensive overview of the project achievements. The achievements around primary standard for flow metering (light and heavy duty), worldwide inter-laboratory comparison for hydrogen fuel quality, hydrogen sampling intercomparison and fuel cell stack testing recommendations will be highlighted.

  • 22.
    Beurey, Claire
    et al.
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Gozlan, Bruno
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Carré, Martine
    Air Liquide Paris Innovation Campus, France .
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Morris, Abigail
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Moore, Niamh
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi, biomaterial och textil.
    Meuzelaar, Heleen
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Rojo, Andres
    Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Review and Survey of Methods for Analysis of Impurities in Hydrogen for Fuel Cell Vehicles According to ISO 14687:20192021Inngår i: Frontiers in Energy Research, E-ISSN 2296-598X, Vol. 8, artikkel-id 615149Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Gaseous hydrogen for fuel cell electric vehicles must meet quality standards such as ISO 14687:2019 which contains maximal control thresholds for several impurities which could damage the fuel cells or the infrastructure. A review of analytical techniques for impurities analysis has already been carried out by Murugan et al. in 2014. Similarly, this document intends to review the sampling of hydrogen and the available analytical methods, together with a survey of laboratories performing the analysis of hydrogen about the techniques being used. Most impurities are addressed, however some of them are challenging, especially the halogenated compounds since only some halogenated compounds are covered, not all of them. The analysis of impurities following ISO 14687:2019 remains expensive and complex, enhancing the need for further research in this area. Novel and promising analyzers have been developed which need to be validated according to ISO 21087:2019 requirements.  © 2021 Beurey, Gozlan, Carré, Bacquart, Morris, Moore, Arrhenius, Meuzelaar, Persijn, Rojo and Murugan.

  • 23.
    Blomqvist, Per
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Hertzberg, Tommy
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, material (BRm).
    Tuovinen, Heimo
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, forskning (BRf ).
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Detailed determination of smoke gas contents using a small-scale controlled equivalence ratio tube furnace method2007Inngår i: Fire and Materials, Vol. 31, nr 8, s. 495-521Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    van der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Culleton, Lucy P.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Ziel, Paul R.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, The Netherlands.
    Sampling of gaseous sulfur-containing compounds at low concentrations with a review of best-practice methods for biogas and natural gas applications2015Inngår i: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 64, s. 42-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The accurate quantification of low-concentration sulfur-containing compounds is essential for the biogas and natural gas industries. We review literature data for the stability of these compounds in standard gas mixtures when sampled in cylinders with different passivations, sample bags, sorbent tubes, solid-phase microextraction and glass sampling bulbs, and we present new data obtained at our three National Measurement Institutes. We show that losses of sulfur-containing compounds are minimized when using passivated sampling cylinders, and the most suitable sorbent material for sampling these compounds is Tenax TA. We also discuss methods for transferring gas from sample vessels to analyzers and give recommendations for the selection of regulators (and other pressure-reducing devices) and transfer lines. Further, we propose approaches that could be taken to reduce or correct for losses in order to provide more accurate measurements of sulfur-containing compounds.

  • 25.
    Culleton, Lucy
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Di Meane, Elena
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Ward, Michael
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Ferracci, Valerio
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Persijn, Stefan
    VSL, Netherlands.
    Holmqvist, Albin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Kontroll och kalibrering.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Material och produktion, Kemi och Tillämpad mekanik.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brewer, Paul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Characterization of Fourier Transform Infrared, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy, and Optical Feedback Cavity-Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy Instruments for the Analysis of Ammonia in Biogas and Biomethane2022Inngår i: Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0003-2700, E-ISSN 1520-6882, Vol. 94, nr 44, s. 15207-15214Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel traceable analytical methods and reference gas standards were developed for the detection of trace-level ammonia in biogas and biomethane. This work focused on an ammonia amount fraction at an upper limit level of 10 mg m-3(corresponding to approximately 14 μmol mol-1) specified in EN 16723-1:2016. The application of spectroscopic analytical methods, such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, cavity ring-down spectroscopy, and optical feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, was investigated. These techniques all exhibited the necessary ammonia sensitivity at the required 14 μmol mol-1amount fraction. A 29-month stability study of reference gas mixtures of 10 μmol mol-1ammonia in methane and synthetic biogas is also reported. 

  • 26.
    Földváry, Veronika
    et al.
    Slovak University of Technology, Slovakia.
    Bekö, Gabriel
    DTU Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
    Langer, Sarka
    IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden; Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Petráš, Dusan
    Slovak University of Technology, Slovakia.
    Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia2017Inngår i: Building and Environment, ISSN 0360-1323, E-ISSN 1873-684X, Vol. 122, s. 363-372Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Buildings are responsible for a substantial portion of the global energy consumption. Most of the multifamily residential buildings built in the 20th century in Central and Eastern Europe do not satisfy the current requirements on energy efficiency. Nationwide measures taken to improve the energy efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally ventilated multifamily residential buildings were examined. One building in each pair was newly renovated, the other was in its original condition. Temperature, relative humidity (RH) and the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) were measured in 94 apartments (57%) during one week in the winter. A questionnaire related to perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and airing habits was filled by the occupants. In a companion experiment, the IAQ was investigated in 20 apartments (50%) of a single residential building before and after its renovation. In this experiment, concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2 and RH. Energy renovation was associated with lower occupant satisfaction with IAQ. Energy retrofitting efforts should be complemented with improved ventilation in order to avoid adverse effects on IAQ.

  • 27.
    Hakonen, Aron
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden. Sensor Visions AB, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Anders
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Lindman, Lena
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Büker, Oliver
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Particles in fuel-grade Liquefied Natural Gas2018Inngår i: Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, ISSN 1875-5100, E-ISSN 2212-3865, Vol. 55, s. 350-353Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The utilization of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the heavy-duty transport sector is a convenient and cost-effective step towards a sustainable future. However, there are questions regarding LNG fuel quality and destructive particles for engines. Basically nothing is known about particles in the commercial LNG being fueled today. The gravimetric and SEM-EDX results here demonstrates that there are precarious metal and silicon dioxide particles in fuel-grade LNG that can clog and erode engine parts. Considering these results further research in the direction of this study, including standardized method development, is highly motivated.

  • 28.
    Haloua, Frederique
    et al.
    LNE Laboratoire national de métrologie et d'essais, France.
    Bacquart, Thomas
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    Delobelle, Benoit
    MAHYTEC, France.
    Ent, Hugo
    VSL Van Swinden Laboratorium, The Netherlands.
    Metrology for hydrogen energy applications: a project to address normative requirements2018Inngår i: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 29, nr 3, artikkel-id Special Section on the 18th International Congress of Metrology (CIM 2017)Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydrogen represents a clean and storable energy solution that could meet worldwide energy demands and reduce greenhouse gases emission. The joint research project (JRP) ‘Metrology for sustainable hydrogen energy applications’ addresses standardisation needs through pre- and co-normative metrology research in the fast emerging sector of hydrogen fuel that meet the requirements of the European Directive 2014/94/EU by supplementing the revision of two ISO standards that are currently too generic to enable a sustainable implementation of hydrogen. The hydrogen purity dispensed at refueling points should comply with the technical specifications of ISO 14687-2 for fuel cell electric vehicles. The rapid progress of fuel cell technology now requires revising this standard towards less constraining limits for the 13 gaseous impurities. In parallel, optimized validated analytical methods are proposed to reduce the number of analyses. The study aims also at developing and validating traceable methods to assess accurately the hydrogen mass absorbed and stored in metal hydride tanks; this is a research axis for the revision of the ISO 16111 standard to develop this safe storage technique for hydrogen. The probability of hydrogen impurity presence affecting fuel cells and analytical techniques for traceable measurements of hydrogen impurities will be assessed and new data of maximum concentrations of impurities based on degradation studies will be proposed. Novel validated methods for measuring the hydrogen mass absorbed in hydrides tanks AB, AB2 and AB5 types referenced to ISO 16111 will be determined, as the methods currently available do not provide accurate results. The outputs here will have a direct impact on the standardisation works for ISO 16111 and ISO 14687-2 revisions in the relevant working groups of ISO/TC 197 ‘Hydrogen technologies’.

  • 29.
    Langer, Sarka
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Moldanová, Jana
    Ljungström, Evert
    Ekberg, Lars
    Ultrafine Particles Produced by Ozone/Limonene Reactions in Indoor Air under Low/Closed Ventilation Conditions2008Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, nr 18, s. 4149-4159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Murugan, A.
    et al.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    de Huu, M.
    METAS Federal Institute of Metrology, Sweden.
    Bacquart, T.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    van Wijk, J.
    VSI, The Netherlands.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Biovetenskap och material, Kemi och material.
    te Ronde, I.
    NEN, The Netherlands.
    Hemfrey, D.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, United Kingdom.
    Measurement challenges for hydrogen vehicles2019Inngår i: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, E-ISSN 1879-3487, Vol. 44, nr 35, s. 19326-19333Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Uptake of hydrogen vehicles is an ideal solution for countries that face challenging targets for carbon dioxide reduction. The advantage of hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles is that they behave in a very similar way to petrol engines yet they do not emit any carbon containing products during operation. The hydrogen industry currently faces the dilemma that they must meet certain measurement requirements (set by European legislation) but cannot do so due to a lack of available methods and standards. This paper outlines the four biggest measurement challenges that are faced by the hydrogen industry including flow metering, quality assurance, quality control and sampling.

  • 31.
    Nilsson Påledal, Sören
    et al.
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Moestedt, Jan
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Engelbrektsson, Johan
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor.
    Stensen, Katarina
    Tekniska verken i Linköping AB, Sweden.
    Characterisation and treatment of VOCs in process water from upgrading facilities for compressed biogas (CBG)2016Inngår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 145, s. 424-430Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compression and upgrading of biogas to vehicle fuel generates process water, which to varying degrees contains volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originating from the biogas. The compostion of this process water has not yet been studied and scientifically published and there is currently an uncertainty regarding content of VOCs and how the process water should be managed to minimise the impact on health and the environment. The aim of the study was to give an overview about general levels of VOCs in the process water. Characterisation of process water from amine and water scrubbers at plants digesting waste, sewage sludge or agricultural residues showed that both the average concentration and composition of particular VOCs varied depending on the substrate used at the biogas plant, but the divergence was high and the differences for total concentrations from the different substrate groups were only significant for samples from plants using waste compared to residues from agriculture. The characterisation also showed that the content of VOCs varied greatly between different sampling points for same main substrate and between sampling occasions at the same sampling point, indicating that site-specific conditions are important for the results which also indicates that a number of analyses at different times are required in order to make an more exact characterisation with low uncertainty.Inhibition of VOCs in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process was studied in biomethane potential tests, but no inhibition was observed during addition of synthetic process water at concentrations of 11.6 mg and 238 mg VOC/L.

  • 32.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Fire Research.
    Bremer, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Produktsäkerhet.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Lindström, Kent
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Fuel vapour composition and flammability properties of E852008Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 33.
    Persson, Henry
    et al.
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Brandteknik, skydd (BRs ).
    Bremer, Peter
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Elektronik, Produktsäkerhet.
    Rosell, Lars
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Lindström, Kent
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Mätteknik, Volym, flöde, temperatur o densitet.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Sammansättning och antändningsegenskaper hos bränsleångor i tankar innehållande E852007Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 34.
    Shannigrahi, Ardhendu S.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Jan B.C.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Langer, Sarka
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut. University of Gothenburg, Sweden; IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Sweden.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Sveriges tekniska forskningsinstitut, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut / Organisk kemi (Kmo).
    Hagström, Magnus
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janhäll, Sara
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Sweden.
    Hallquist, Mattias
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Pathak, Ravi Kant
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    N-Alkanoic monocarboxylic acid concentrations in urban and rural aerosols: Seasonal dependence and major sources2014Inngår i: Atmospheric research, ISSN 0169-8095, E-ISSN 1873-2895, Vol. 143, nr Jun, s. 228-237Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We report new data on the abundance and distribution of n-monocarboxylic acids (n-MCAs) in fine- and coarse-mode aerosols in rural and urban areas of Sweden, and determine their possible sources. Overall, C6-C16 n-MCAs accounted for ~0.5-1.2% of the total PM10 (particulate matter ≤10μm) mass. In general, the C12-C16 fraction was the most abundant (>75%), with the exception of wintertime samples from a rural site, where C6-C11 acids accounted for 65% of the total C6-C16 n-MCA mass. Positive matrix factorization analysis revealed four major sources of n-MCAs: traffic emissions, wood combustion, microbial activity, and a fourth factor that was dominated by semi-volatile n-MCAs. Traffic emissions were important in the urban environment in both seasons and at the rural site during winters, and were a major source of C9-C11 acids. Wood combustion was a significant source at urban sites during the winter and also to some extent at the rural site in both seasons. This is consistent with the use of wood for domestic heating but may also be related to meat cooking. Thus, during the winter, traffic, wood combustion and microbial activity were all important sources in the urban environment, while traffic was the dominant source at the rural site. During the summer, there was considerable day-to-day variation in n-MCA concentrations but microbial activity was the dominant source. The semi-volatile low molecular weight C6-C8 acids accounted for a small (~5-10%) fraction of the total mass of n-MCAs. This factor is unlikely to be linked to a single source and its influence instead reflects the partitioning of these compounds between the gas and particle phases. This would explain their greater contribution during the winter.

  • 35.
    Van Der Veen, A. M. H.
    et al.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Zalewska, E. T.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Van Osselen, D. R. V.
    Van Swinden Laboratorium, Netherlands.
    Fernández, T. E.
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Gómez, C.
    CEM Centro Español de Metrología, Spain.
    Beránek, J.
    CMI Czech Metrology Institute, Czech Republic.
    Oudwater, R. J.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Sobrinho, D. C.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Brum, M. C.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Augusto, C. R.
    INMETRO Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização e Qualidade Industrial, Brazil.
    Fükö, J.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Büki, T.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Nagyné Szilági, Z.
    BFKH Government Office of the Capital City Budapest , Hungary.
    Brewer, P. J.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Downey, M. L.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Brown, R. J. C.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Valkova, M.
    SMU Slovak Institute of Metrolog, Slovakia.
    Durisova, Z.
    SMU Slovak Institute of Metrolog, Slovakia.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Magnusson, Bertil
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Säkerhet och transport, Mätteknik.
    Yaghooby, Haleh
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Tarhan, T.
    UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Engin, E.
    UME National Metrology Institute, Turkey.
    Konopelko, L. A.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Popova, T. A.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Pir, M. N.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    Efremova, O. V.
    VNIIM D.I. Mendeleyev Institute for Metrology, Russia.
    International comparison CCQM-K112 biogas2020Inngår i: Metrologia, ISSN 0026-1394, E-ISSN 1681-7575, Vol. 57, nr 1 A, artikkel-id 08011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    At the highest metrological level, biogas standards are commonly prepared gravimetrically as PSMs (primary standard mixtures). This international key comparison addresses the composition of biogas, to support calibration and measurement services for this renewable energy gas. The mixtures contain nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen and oxygen and represent the composition of biogas from landfills. The results in this Track C key comparison on the composition of biogas are generally good. Some of the datasets, especially that of oxygen, showed substantial extra dispersion, that could not be explained by the stated uncertainties. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCQM, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA). 

  • 36.
    Van Der Veen, Adriaan M. H.
    et al.
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Brown, Andrew S.
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Li, Jianrong
    VSL Dutch Metrology Institute, Netherlands.
    Murugan, Arul
    NPL National Physical Laboratory, UK.
    Heinonen, Martti
    MIKES Centre for Metrology and Accreditation, Finland.
    Haloua, Frédérique
    LNE Laboratoire National de Métrologie et d'Essais, France.
    Arrhenius, Karine
    RISE., SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Kemi Material och Ytor, Kemi.
    Measurement requirements for biogas specifications2015Inngår i: 17th International Congress of Metrology, 2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased use of biogas and biomethane urgently requires that these non-conventional energy gases can be transmitted through natural gas grids and refuelling stations. The European Standardization Organisation CEN is developing specifications for green gas which supplement the specifications for natural gas. The specifications for green gas address a range of parameters not commonly covered in natural gas, such as the contents of impurities (e.g., siloxanes, ammonia, halogenated hydrocarbons, and hydrogen chloride), dust content and particles. In a collaboration between 12 European metrology institutes and 3 university groups, robust and reliable methods are developed to support these draft specifications and to enable conformity assessment. The project also deals with issues related to density, calorific value, moisture content, and the sampling of biogas. This paper gives an overview of the state-ofthe-art in green gas testing, as well as an outlook what methods need be developed.

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